25,645 results match your criteria illicit


Prevalence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in Buprenorphine and Methadone-Maintained Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:641430. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Inserm, Neuro-Dol, Service de Pharmacologie médicale, Centres Addictovigilance et Pharmacovigilance, Centre Evaluation et Traitement de la Douleur, Service Psychiatrie-Addictologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Indeed, chronic pain is highly prevalent, affecting 23-68% of patients receiving opioid agonist treatments (OAT) worldwide. The majority of available estimates come from American studies, but data are still lacking in Europe. Read More

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Migraine prevalence in visual snow with prior illicit drug use (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder) versus without.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background/objective: To investigate migraine prevalence in persons with Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) presenting as visual snow syndrome (VSS).

Methods: Persons with visual snow as persisting symptom after illicit drug use (HPPD) were recruited via a Dutch consulting clinic for recreational drug use. A structured interview on (visual) perceptual symptomatology, details of drugs use, medical and headache history was taken. Read More

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Virtual Overdose Response for People Who Use Opioids Alone: Protocol for a Feasibility and Clinical Trial Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 12;10(5):e20183. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: A recent quarterly report released by Alberta Health reports that on average 2.5 Albertans die every day from accidental overdose deaths, and that between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, the province lost a total of 301 people. In Canada, between January 2016 and March 2020, a total of 16,364 people died due to opioid-related overdose. Read More

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Fentanyl, Heroin, and Cocaine Overdose Fatalities are Shifting to the Black Community: An Analysis of the State of Connecticut.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Background: Historically, Blacks and Hispanics have had lower opioid-involved overdose death rates in Connecticut (CT). We examined if a shift has taken place where rates of Black fatal overdoses have now surpassed Whites in the state.

Methods: Drug overdose fatality rates were calculated by number of deaths per year per 100,000 population from 2012 to 2019 in Connecticut. Read More

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Time-series Analysis of Fentanyl Concentration in the Unregulated Opioid Drug Supply in a Canadian Setting.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

North America has been contending with an unregulated street drug supply in which opioids are often adulterated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. The unpredictability of composition may result in an increased risk of overdose due to unexpected elevated concentrations of the high-potency drug. Using data from a community-based drug checking project, we evaluated trends in fentanyl concentration of illicit opioids in the context of an overdose epidemic. Read More

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The Association between Substance Use Disorders and Long-Term Outcome of Stroke: Results from a Population-Based Study of Stroke among 450,229 Urban Citizens.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, St Joseph's Health Care London, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Little is known regarding long-term stroke outcomes in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Based on anecdotal data, some individuals use illicit drugs, particularly opioids, in an attempt to reduce stroke mortality, disability, or recurrence. This study is aimed to assess the effect of SUD on stroke outcomes. Read More

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Substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-Results from a national survey.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Substance use can exacerbate cancer-related morbidity and mortality in adolescent/young adult (AYA) cancer survivors and place them at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess substance use, misuse, and substance use disorders [SUDs], as well as receipt of treatment for SUDs, among AYA cancer survivors.

Methods: The authors used data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2015-2018) to identify a nationally representative sample of AYAs aged 12 to 34 years. Read More

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False and Misleading Health-Related Claims in Food Supplements on Spanish Radio. An Analysis from a European Regulatory Framework.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 11:1-24. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Communication Sciences and Sociology, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: The excessive growth of the food supplements' industry highlights the need to focus attention on all aspects involved in their proper consumption; one that takes centre stage is advertising. The aim of this research is to analyse the presence of false and misleading claims in food supplements advertising. To this end, a relationship is established between the different types of health-related claims and the substances on which they are based, whether authorised or not by EFSA. Read More

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A factor analytic approach to understanding health risk behaviors and resilience among multi-racial/ethnic adolescents in New Mexico.

Ethn Health 2021 May 10:1-19. Epub 2021 May 10.

Psychology Department, University of New Mexico.

Objective: This study examined the factor validity of health risk behaviors and resilience indicators and their covariation across a large racially/ethnically diverse adolescent population.

Design: The study subsample (47% Hispanic, 31% White Non-Hispanic, 17% American Indian) was derived from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk Resilience Survey (YRRS; N-19,033). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the 6 health risk domains identified by the CDC as contributing most to adolescent morbidity/mortality: (1) cigarette use, (2) alcohol and other illicit drug use, (3) marijuana use, (4) sexual activity, (5) nutrition habits, and (6) physical activity. Read More

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Method development for the identification of methoxpropamine, 2-fluoro-deschloroketamine and deschloroketamine and their main metabolites in blood and hair and forensic application.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 May 4;323:110817. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Healthcare Surveillance and Bioethics, Section of Legal Medicine, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore F. Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

The constant increase of new psychoactive substances, often available on the illicit drug market as 'research chemicals', poses a concern for public health and a significant analytical and legislative challenge. Β-keto-arylcyclohexamines represent a class of dissociative anesthetics recently introduced on the market of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). There is still a lack of information about the pharmacological activity of many of such substances, usually depending on the potential chemical modifications introduced to circumvent the law. Read More

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"People need them or else they're going to take fentanyl and die": A qualitative study examining the 'problem' of prescription opioid diversion during an overdose epidemic.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113986. Epub 2021 May 3.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.

The practice of prescription opioid (PO) diversion remains highly controversial and has been characterized as a source of significant drug-related harm by physicians and public health officials. We critically analyze the "problem" of diversion through an examination of the perspectives of people who divert POs during an overdose epidemic to better understand the practice, including benefits and challenges, as well as how diversion is shaped by structural contexts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants recruited from ongoing cohort studies involving people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Read More

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Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young adulthood by age and college attendance.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health.

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Read More

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Socioeconomic factors associated with drug consumption in Mexico.

J Addict Dis 2021 May 8:1-9. Epub 2021 May 8.

Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Illicit drug consumption in Mexico has been growing constantly and has begun to be a public health problem. The aim of this study is to identify the principal characteristics and socioeconomic variables associated with consumption of illegal drugs in Mexico.

Methods: Using information from the 2016 national addictions survey in Mexico, we develop a logistic regression model to determine the variables associated with drug consumption, sometime in lifetime or recently, in the general population of Mexico. Read More

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New tyrosinases with putative action against contaminants of emerging concern.

Proteins 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Instituto de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18. Read More

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The rise of illicit fentanyls, stimulants and the fourth wave of the opioid overdose crisis.

Authors:
Daniel Ciccarone

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides an update on recently published literature on the rise of illicit fentanyls, risks for overdose, combinations with other substances, e.g. stimulants, consequences, and treatment. Read More

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Adverse reactions to illicit drugs (marijuana, opioids, cocaine) and alcohol.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southdale Allergy and Asthma Clinic, LLC, Minneapolis, MN USA. Electronic address:

Drug allergy has been a research topic within the allergy field for decades. However, many drug reactions presumed to be of allergic nature, are not and originate from different mechanisms. Drug-induced reactions can affect numerous organ systems, present with a variety of symptoms, and have more than one mechanism of action. Read More

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A Novel Dual Agonist of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptors and Neuropeptide Y2 Receptors Attenuates Fentanyl Taking and Seeking in Male Rats.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 6:108599. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

There has been a dramatic increase in illicit fentanyl use in the United States over the last decade. In 2018, more than 31,000 overdose deaths involved fentanyl or fentanyl analogues, highlighting an urgent need to identify effective treatments for fentanyl use disorder. An emerging literature shows that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists attenuate the reinforcing efficacy of drugs of abuse. Read More

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Sequential injection analysis coupled to on-line benchtop proton NMR: Method development and application to the determination of synthetic cathinones in seized drug samples.

Talanta 2021 Aug 12;231:122355. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Synthetic cathinones are a class of new psychoactive substances (NPS), an emerging group of analogues to traditional illicit drugs which are functionalized to circumvent legal regulations. The analytical investigation of NPS by traditional methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is challenging because newly emerging NPS may not yet appear in spectral libraries and because of the inability to determine certain positional isomers. Low-field or "benchtop" proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is an alternative that provides significant qualitative information but is particularly susceptible to matrix interferences. Read More

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Comparison of Treatments for Cocaine Use Disorder Among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218049. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: In the US and the United Kingdom, cocaine use is the second leading cause of illicit drug overdose death. Psychosocial treatments for cocaine use disorder are limited, and no pharmacotherapy is approved for use in the US or Europe.

Objective: To compare treatments for active cocaine use among adults. Read More

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Drinking and acquisition of unrecorded alcohol across educational groups in Sweden.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: It is estimated that 18.5% of total alcohol consumption in Sweden in 2018 was unrecorded. However, little is known about the socio-economic profile of consumers of unrecorded alcohol. Read More

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A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2 and a review of the literature.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 21;9:2050313X211010021. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as having an etiology that is not related to surgery, trauma, or mechanical ventilation. Precipitating causes of spontaneous pneumomediastinum include coughing, exercise, vomiting, infection, underlying lung diseases such as asthma, and illicit drugs. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, and dysphagia. Read More

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A Narrative Review of the Recent 'Ice' Epidemic: An Australian Perspective.

Authors:
Konrad Pisarski

Subst Abuse 2021 21;15:11782218211010502. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Tropical Health & Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Background: The use of methamphetamine or amphetamine stimulant drugs has been identified by authoritative public health bodies as a global health issue, with a worrying trend towards production and consumption of a higher purity crystalline form methamphetamine (ice) over the past decade. This trend has been well documented within Australia, resulting in a public perception of there being an 'ice' epidemic in regional/rural areas. Considering the illicit nature of ice, monitoring it is challenging and as such little information is available regarding the actual extent of methamphetamine use, harms and patterns in regional/remote Australia. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of 20 fentanyl analogues by modified QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS in health products and transdermal patches.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 27;201:114100. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Pollutant Analysis & Reuse Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi, 435002, PR China. Electronic address:

The spreading of narcotics especially illicit novel psychoactive substances is a continuing problem in recent years. In response to reduce the morbidity and crime related to fentanyl analogues, the accurate measurement of fentanyl analogues concentrations is significantly important in the analytical laboratories for customs checks and clinical application. In this work, ethyl acetate was selected as extraction solvent, 50 mg of PSA, 100 mg of C18, and 10 mg of GCB were optimized for purification. Read More

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Opioid epidemic spread from Northern and Eastern Europe to Mediterranean Area.

Clin Ter 2021 May;172(3):209-210

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Abstract: The addiction to illicit opioid and the misuse of prescription synthetic opioids pain relievers and fentanyl analogs generated an opioid epidemic in North America over the last two decades that affected public health with a constantly rising number of overdoses deaths. This health treat moved to Europe with a significant increase starting from 2015 involving mainly norther and eastern countries and finally also the Mediterranean area. The "lock down" isolation and economic recession caused by COVID-19 pandemic showed a resurgence in opioid use and harms. Read More

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The Illegal Experimental Tobacco Marketplace I: Effects of VapingProduct Bans.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Objectives: Banning vaping products may have unintended outcomes, such as increased demand for illegal products. This study experimentally examined the effects of a vaping ban and a flavored vaping ban on the probability of purchasing illicit vaping products, and factors affecting purchasing from a hypothetical illegal marketplace.

Methods: A crowdsourced sample of exclusive cigarette smokers, exclusive e-cigarette users, and frequent dual users (n=150) completed hypothetical purchasing trials in an Experimental Tobacco Marketplace under three conditions (no ban, vaping ban, flavored vaping ban). Read More

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Twitter Surveillance at the Intersection of the Triangulum.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California.

Introduction: A holistic public health surveillance approach can help capture the public's tobacco and marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors. Using publicly available data from Twitter, this is one of the first studies to describe key topics of discussions related to each intersection (e-cigarette, combustible tobacco, and marijuana) of the Triangulum framework.

Method: Twitter posts (n=999,447) containing marijuana, e-cigarette and combustible tobacco terms were collected from January 1, 2018, to December 23, 2019. Read More

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Mental Health Service Utilization among Adults with Head Injury with Loss of Consciousness: Implications for Social Work.

Health Soc Work 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with mental health service utilization among adults with head injury with loss of consciousness (LOC) using Andersen's model of health. This secondary data analysis used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data collected from 7,399 adults. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine odds associated with predisposing, enabling, and needs factors on head injury with LOC and mental health service utilization. Read More

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Travestis and transsexual women: who are at higher risk for sexually transmitted infections?

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 3;24:e210017. Epub 2021 May 3.

Faculdade de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Goiás - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.

Objective: To compare social characteristics, risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among travestis and transsexual women.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities in Goiás, Central Brazil. Trans women were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, prejudice, sexual behavior, illicit drugs, and previous testing for HIV and syphilis between April 2018 and August 2019. Read More

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Dopant for detection of methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine with ion mobility spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Institute of Health & Medical Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, Anhui, China.

Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive and illegal psychostimulant drug and is currently one of the most commonly abused illicit drugs in the world. The on-site rapid detection of trace amounts of MA and screening illicit drugs in clandestine laboratories is important for drug enforcement agencies and the forensic community in general. However, detecting methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine and cigarette smoke by ion mobility spectrometry faces difficulty due to the overlapped spectral peaks of methamphetamine and nicotine. Read More

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Illicit Drug Use and Associated Problems in the Nightlife Scene: A Potential Setting for Prevention.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

STAD, Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems, SE-113 64 Stockholm, Sweden.

Illicit drug use is prevalent in the nightlife scene, especially at electronic dance music (EDM) events. The aim of the present study was to investigate illicit drug use patterns and consequences of drug use among frequent visitors of EDM events. Young adults (18-34 years old) who had visited at least six EDM events in Sweden during the past year participated in a web-based survey on drug use patterns and its consequences. Read More

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