21,326 results match your criteria illegal drugs

Optimal design of sin taxes in the presence of nontaxable sin goods.

Health Econ 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Banco Central del Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Sin good consumption entails health damage, which is in general not fully perceived by individuals, what results in its overconsumption. One way to tackle this problem is to tax these unhealthy goods. However, not all the individual choices that affect health status can be easily observed and effectively taxed by the government. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Miniaturized analytical methods for determination of environmental contaminants of emerging concern - A review.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 2;1158:238108. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Laboratory of Aquatic Chemistry, School of Environmental Engineering, Polytechnioupolis, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100, Chania, Crete, Greece.

The determination of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in environmental samples has become a challenging and critical issue. The present work focuses on miniaturized analytical strategies reported in the literature for the determination of CECs. The first part of the review provides brief overview of CECs whose monitoring in environmental samples is of particular significance, namely personal care products, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, UV-filters, newly registered pesticides, illicit drugs, disinfection by-products, surfactants, high technology rare earth elements, and engineered nanomaterials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Illicit Drug Consumption by Wastewater Analysis Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler as a Monitoring Tool.

Front Chem 2021 30;9:596875. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

Illicit drug abuse is a worldwide social and health problem, and monitoring illicit drug use is of paramount importance in the context of public policies. It is already known that relevant epidemiologic information can be obtained from the analysis of urban residual waters. This approach, named wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), is based on the measurement of specific markers, resulting from human biotransformation of the target drugs, as indicators of the consumption of the compounds by the population served by the wastewater treatment installation under investigation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on the Psychology and Behavior of Patients on Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Wuhan, China: A Clinical Observational Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:653662. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Affiliated Wuhan Mental Health Center, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a national strategy adopted for the treatment of heroin dependency in China. The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resultant social isolation in Wuhan have also had a significant negative impact on local patients undertaking MMT. In this study, 76 patients on MMT from the Wuhan First Health Clinic were selected as the research objects to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as the withdrawal symptoms and craving and substance use. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Promethazine-induced delirium with perceptual abnormalities: are we thinking broadly when assessing patients?

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Psychiatry, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, Queensland, Australia.

There is limited information about promethazine-induced delirium with psychotic symptoms. The aim is to highlight the importance of taking a detailed history including medication use/abuse of both prescribed, illicit and over-the-counter preparations. This paper describes a patient who presented with delirium in the context of overuse of promethazine (Phenergan) which was initially missed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Difference in HIV testing behavior by injection status, among users of illicit drugs.

AIDS Care 2021 Apr 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Social Solutions and Services Research, The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains prevalent among the marginalized and drug using population in the United States. Testing for HIV is an important and cost-effective way to reduce HIV prevalence. Our objective was to determine if there is a difference in the number of HIV testing by injection status among users of illicit drugs and if a person's social network characteristics is a contributing factor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of Substance Use in University Students, Ethiopia.

Subst Abuse 2021 30;15:11782218211003558. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Although substance use is a known public health problem and a pressing issue in Ethiopia, its real extent and magnitude are not yet properly explored. The current study aimed to determine the extent and predictors of substance use among regular undergraduate students in the Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried among 794 undergraduate regular students at the Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, using a self-administered structured questionnaire filled by study participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The efficacy of machine learning algorithm for raw drug authentication in (Gaertn.) Colebr. employing a DNA barcode database.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Mar 15;27(3):605-617. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Forest Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala 680653 India.

Medicinal plants are a valuable resource for traditional as well as modern medicine. Consequently huge demand has exerted a heavy strain on the existing natural resources. Due to over exploitation and unscientific collection most of the commercially traded ayurvedic plants are in the phase of depletion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Developing and testing of an interactive internet-based intervention to reduce sexual harm of sexualised drug use ('chemsex') among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 13;21(1):713. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Sexualised drug use, known as 'chemsex' or 'chemfun,' is the practice of intentionally using illicit drugs before or during sexual activates to enhance sexual arousal and pleasure. International and local data have both suggested that chemsex is common among men who have sex with men (MSM). Chemsex is generally seen with the engagement of risky sexual activities and therefore poses a threat regarding the potentially increased spread of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A cluster of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) poisonings following insufflation of a white powder sold as cocaine.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Apr 13:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

NSW Poisons Information Centre, Sydney Children's Hospitals Network, Westmead, Australia.

Objective: Adulteration, substitution or contamination of illicit substances can have clinically significant implications when other illicit substances are included. Such circumstances can present as clusters of poisonings, including severe toxicity and death following exposure to unexpected illicit substances. We report a cluster of laboratory-confirmed lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in a powder that was sold as cocaine and used recreationally. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spotting isomer mixtures in forensic illicit drug casework with GC-VUV using automated coelution detection and spectral deconvolution.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Mar 29;1173:122675. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands; Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center (CLHC), Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands.

Analysis of isomeric mixtures is a significant analytical challenge. In the forensic field, for example, over 1000 new psychoactive substances (NPSs), comprising of many closely related and often isomeric varieties, entered the drugs-of-abuse market within the last decade. Unambiguous identification of the isomeric form requires advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as GC-Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (GC-VUV). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones cardiotoxicity: evidences actualities and perspectives.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health, University of Trieste. Italy.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) constitute a group of psychotropic substances, designed to mimic the effects of traditional substances like cannabis, cocaine, MDMA, khat, which is not regulated by the 1961 United Nations Convention on Narcotics or the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Illegal laboratories responsible for their production regularly develop new substances and place them on the market to replace the ones that have been banned; for this reason, during the last decade this class of substances has represented a great challenge for the public health and forensic toxicologists. The spectrum of side effects caused by the intake of these drugs of abuse is very wide since they act on different systems with various mechanisms of action. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of cannabis in pain management among people living with HIV who use drugs: A qualitative study.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction: People living with HIV who use drugs commonly experience chronic pain and often use illicit opioids to manage pain. Recent research suggests people living with HIV use cannabis for pain relief, including as an adjunct to opioids. This underscores the need to better understand how people living with HIV who use drugs use cannabis for pain management, particularly as cannabis markets are undergoing changes due to cannabis legalisation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Negative Consequences of the Widespread and Inappropriate Easy Access to Purchasing Prescription Medications on the Internet.

Jack E Fincham

Am Health Drug Benefits 2021 Mar;14(1):22-28

Professor, Osher Lifelong Learning Institute, University of Arizona, and Dean Emeritus, University of Kansas School of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ.

Background: The purchase of prescription medications via the Internet is a global phenomenon with significant economic, social, and health-related impacts. The growth of online purchasing of prescription medicines is significant and has been amplified by social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic, with many patients unable to obtain medicines as they normally would. By contrast, there are licensed, certified, legitimate retail pharmacies that provide significant and vital services to patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

"Hot" and "Cold" Cognition in Users of Club Drugs/Novel Psychoactive Substances.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:660575. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are popular "club/party" drugs that first attracted attention in the UK in 2009 and remained legal until the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act criminalized their distribution. Unlike "traditional" illicit drugs, very little is known about the influence of their analogs on neuropsychological functioning. We characterized the cognitive and emotional profile of NPS/polydrug users using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and EMOTICOM test battery in adult male (aged 20-49 years) recreational users without psychiatric comorbidities ( = 27; "psychonauts"), service users attending a UK specialist "Club Drug" Clinic for problematic use ( = 20) and healthy control volunteers without significant drug-taking histories ( = 35). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Socioeconomic stability is associated with lower injection frequency among people with distinct trajectories of injection drug use.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Apr 8;94:103205. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 900 St Denis Street, Montréal, Québec H2X 3H8, Canada; Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Université de Montréal, 2900, Édouard-Montpetit Boulevard, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about how socioeconomic circumstances relate to injection frequencies among people who inject drugs (PWID) with diverse trajectories of injection. We aimed to characterize trajectories of injection drug use in a community-based sample of PWID over 7.5 years and to investigate the extent to which two modifiable factors reflecting socioeconomic stability-stable housing and stable income-relate to injection frequencies across distinct trajectories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathways between COVID-19 public health responses and increasing overdose risks: A rapid review and conceptual framework.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Mar 20:103236. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: Emerging evidence indicates that illicit drug overdoses are increasing throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a paucity of evidence on the causative pathways for this trend, but expert opinions, commentaries, and some reviews offer theoretical underpinnings.

Methods: In this rapid review, we collate the available published evidence, expert opinions, commentaries, and reviews on the unintended pathways between COVID-19 public health responses and increasing illicit drug overdoses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevention of Illicit Drug use from the Users' Perspective.

Rev Colomb Psiquiatr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Sao Paulo at Ribeirao Preto College of Nursing, Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

This research described the perspective of illicit drug users regarding illicit drug use prevention initiatives. The study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. In the quantitative component of the study, 111 subjects from a psychosocial care centre (CAPS-AD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in drug use in European cities during early COVID-19 lockdowns - A snapshot from wastewater analysis.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 26;153:106540. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Environmental and Public Health Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to introduce severe restrictive measures to contain its spread. In particular, physical distancing and restriction of movement have had important consequences on human behaviour and potentially also on illicit drug use and supply. These changes can be associated with additional risks for users, in particular due to reduced access to prevention and harm reduction activities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid and accurate verification of drug identity, purity and quality by H-NMR using similarity calculations and differential NMR.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Mar 26;199:114040. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Grupo Metabolômica, Laboratório de Ciências Químicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, 28013-602, Brazil. Electronic address:

The illegal trade in counterfeit and fake drugs is a worldwide multi-billion dollar industry, not only generating enormous economic losses, but health problems for the general population, through direct toxicity, treatment failure and the increased generation of antibiotic resistance. Techniques for high-throughput testing of suspect medicines are needed to face the challenges of the problem. In this study we show that with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) drug compliance can be verified in a few minutes, providing data on drug identity, purity and quality without the necessity to develop a specific methodology and using a direct extraction with deuterated solvent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pholedrine is a marker of direct disposal of methamphetamine.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146839. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Health and Biomedical Innovation, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Consumption of methamphetamine has primarily been estimated in wastewater-based epidemiology by measuring the parent compound. However, this could lead to overestimation when methamphetamine is directly disposed into the sewer system. In this respect, it would be advantageous to measure a specific metabolite of methamphetamine instead. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intrapartum opioid analgesia and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born preterm.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Apr 5:100372. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Center for Women's Reproductive Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Background: There are concerns regarding neurobehavioral changes in infants exposed to parenteral opioids during labor, yet long-term neurodevelopment remains unstudied.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association between parenteral opioids for labor analgesia and perinatal outcomes and childhood neurodevelopment until two years of age among infants born preterm. We hypothesized that intrapartum exposure to parenteral opioids is associated with impaired neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prenatal Methamphetamine- impact on the mother and child - a review.

Addiction 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Newborn Care, the Royal Hospital for Women, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Methamphetamine (MA) is the second most commonly used illicit drug in the world, after cannabis. There are limited data on the outcomes of pregnant MA users but there is rapidly emerging evidence to suggest that they are more vulnerable, marginalized and impoverished compared with other drug-using mothers. MA use during pregnancy is associated with worse pregnancy outcomes and significantly higher rates of co-existing health and psychosocial problems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Determination of illicit drugs and psychoactive pharmaceuticals in wastewater from the area of Thessaloniki (Greece) using LC-MS/MS: estimation of drug consumption.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 7;193(5):249. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

This study presents the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiclass illicit drugs (cocainoids, opiates, amphetamines, and cannabinoids) and psychoactive pharmaceuticals (anxiolytics, hypnotics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antiparkinsonian), in municipal wastewater. The analytical method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The recoveries (%) for the majority of the analytes ranged between 70 and 120%, while the method showed good repeatability (2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Snapshot of narcotic drugs and psychoactive substances in Kuwait: analysis of illicit drugs use in Kuwait from 2015 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 7;21(1):671. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Narcotic and Psychotropic Laboratory, General Department of Criminal Evidence, Ministry of Interior, Al-Dhajeej, Block 1, Al-Farwaniya City, Kuwait.

Background: The misuse of illicit substances is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; thus, substance abuse is a global health concern. The Arabian Gulf region is considered a crossing point and a consumer of illicit drugs. However, a lack of laboratory-based research has limited the scientific assessment of drug misuse in the Arabian Gulf region. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among women living with HIV/AIDS in the interior of the Brazilian state of Pará: cross-sectional study.

Sao Paulo Med J 2021 Mar-Apr;139(2):99-106

MSc, PhD. Professor, Institute of Coastal Studies, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Bragança (PA), Brazil.

Background: High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and occurrence of drug-resistant strains have been recorded in northern Brazil. Abandonment of treatment and insufficient and inadequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have been recorded in the metropolitan area of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará.

Objectives: To identify the sociodemographic profile and level of adherence to ART among women seen at a referral unit in the interior of Pará, northern Brazil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-opioid recreational drug use and a prolonged HIV outbreak among men who have sex with men in Taiwan: An incident case-control study, 2006-2015.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background/purpose: Limited data are available on the role of illicit non-injecting drug use in a prolonged HIV outbreak that predominantly affected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Taiwan since 2006. We aimed to assess associations between specific types of drug use and incident HIV infections in this outbreak.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study among MSM clients at voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service at National Taiwan University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ketamine Use Among People Who Regularly Use Ecstasy and Other Illicit Stimulants in Australia: Trends and Characteristics of Use, 2009-2019.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 Mar;82(2):188-196

Behaviours and Health Risks, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic used in medical practice, used recreationally since the mid-1960s. This study describes trends in ketamine use in sentinel cross-sectional samples of Australians who regularly use illicit stimulants, along with characteristics of consumers.

Method: Data on trends in recent ketamine use (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent advances in developing optical and electrochemical sensors for analysis of methamphetamine: A review.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130393. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Resources and Enviroment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, P.O. Box 611731, Xiyuan Ave, Chengdu, PR China; Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan University of Technology, Quchan, 9477177870, Iran; Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, 2028, Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, South Africa. Electronic address:

Recognition of misused stimulant drugs has always been a hot topic from a medical and judicial perspective. Methamphetamine (MAMP) is an addictive and illegal drug that profoundly affects the central nervous system. Like other illicit drugs, the detection of MAMP in biological and street samples is vital for several organizations such as forensic medicine, anti-drug headquarters and diagnostic clinics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of Water Pipes vs Other Modes of Cannabis Consumption and Subsequent Illicit Drug Use in a Longitudinal Cohort of Young Swiss Men.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e213220. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Importance: There are concerns that the use of water pipes to consume cannabis is associated with increased risks of engaging in more addictive behaviors.

Objective: To examine whether consuming cannabis with a water pipe was associated with later consumption of other illicit drugs compared with not using a water pipe.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) was a population-based study, recruiting 5987 Swiss men aged 18 to 25 years from 3 of 6 Swiss Armed Forces recruitment centers (response rate: 79. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF