4,252 results match your criteria ileum distal


Differential diagnosis of bovine intestinal diseases and their sequelae regarding ultrasonography and other diagnostic tools.

Vet World 2021 Jun 16;14(6):1537-1547. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine and Infectious Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Intestinal disorders represented a large proportion of abdominal emergencies in bovine practice, and their definite diagnosis was a big challenge. The study described different intestinal disorders in cattle either in the small intestine (SI) or large intestine with their sequelae and peritonitis between SI loops.

Materials And Methods: This study involved healthy (n=20) and diseased (n=40) cattle with intestinal disorders. Read More

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Retrograde Balloon-Assisted Deep Enteroscopy in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Melanoma.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2021 30;2021:5572230. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (UWSMPH), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

A 74-year-old male with a history of metastatic melanoma presents with persistently abnormal small bowel findings on PET-CT scan. The patient had persistent FDG uptake near the ileocolic junction on imaging, concerning for metastatic melanoma. Capsule endoscopy demonstrated ulcerated mucosa in the distal ileum. Read More

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Amyloidosis of the distal ileum: A stricturing lesion is not always Crohn's disease.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Surgery, Western Precinct, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Portal pneumatosis in a patient with severe Salmonella colitis.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, España.

65-year-old patient with a history of ischemic stroke with residual ophthalmoparesis, positive in fecal occult blood screening, pending colonoscopy, who attended the emergency room due to 3 days with pain, abdominal distension and diarrhea. In the emergency room, he presented with diffuse abdominal pain, hemodynamic instability with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis, with severe elevation of acute phase reactants. Abdominal fluid resuscitation and CT (computed tomography) were performed, which reported dilatation of the loops of the small intestine to the distal ileum with thickening of the wall of the right colon and gas, dissecting intrahepatic portal branches and splanchnic veins. Read More

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Effects of a multi-strain -based direct-fed microbial on weanling pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 20;5(3):txab058. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a multi-strain -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Eighty pigs, of equal number of barrows and gilts (initial body weight: 7.0 ± 0. Read More

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Right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult with hepatic malformation and intestinal malrotation.

Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 17;7(1):169. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Surgery, Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan.

Background: Bochdalek hernia is a common congenital diaphragmatic defect that usually manifests with cardiopulmonary insufficiency in neonates. It is very rare in adults, and symptomatic cases are mostly left-sided. Diaphragmatic defects generally warrant immediate surgical intervention to reduce the risk of incarceration or strangulation of the displaced viscera. Read More

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Effects of a low-dose IL-2 treatment in HLA-B27 transgenic rat model of spondyloarthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Jul 16;23(1):193. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Infection & Inflammation, UMR 1173, Inserm, UVSQ/Université Paris Saclay, 2 ave de la Source de la Bièvre, 78180, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Introduction/aim: HLA-B27/human β2m transgenic rats (B27-rats) develop an inflammatory disorder resembling spondyloarthritis (SpA) with dysregulated IL-10/IL-17 production by regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg plays a major role in controlling pathogenic inflammatory processes. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a cytokine which promotes Treg cell survival and function, may thus have therapeutic efficacy in SpA. Read More

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Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the appendix and distal ileum. A rare case report.

J Minim Access Surg 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Laparoscopic and GI Surgeon, Currae Specialty Hospital, Thane, Maharashtra, India.

Primary gastrointestinal (GI) tract lymphomas constitute 1%-4% of all GI malignancies. Primary lymphomas of appendix are even more rare and are seen in 0.015% of all appendicectomy specimens. Read More

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Chemical Gastroenterocolitis after Dental Root Canal Therapy with Camphorated and Mentholated Chlorophenol.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2021 28;2021:9918830. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

University Clinic of General, Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery, Hospital of Herford, Herford, Germany.

A 78-year-old man with a history of pancolitis, after the treatment of dental abscess with oral antibiotics and local application of camphorated and mentholated chlorophenol (CMCP), presented with abdominal pain of 4-day duration, as well as hair loss in the area of moustache and finger nail lifting. He was already treated with rectal application of budesonide because of pancolitis, diagnosed 6 weeks ago and interpreted as an allergic reaction to clindamycin. For further investigation, we performed gastroscopy and colonoscopy, which showed the edematous mucosa with polypus-like changes of the whole mucosa of the stomach, duodenum, first part of the jejunum, distal ileum, complete colon, and rectum. Read More

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The Mechanism of Oral Melatonin Ameliorates Intestinal and Adipose Lipid Dysmetabolism Through Reducing Escherichia Coli-Derived Lipopolysaccharide.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Gut microbiota have been reported to be sensitive to circadian rhythms and host lipometabolism, respectively. Although melatonin-mediated beneficial efforts on many physiological sites have been revealed, the regulatory actions of oral melatonin on the communication between gut microbiota and host are still not clear. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) has been shown to be strongly responsible for the regulation of systemic lipid metabolism. Read More

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Vagus nerve stimulation modulates arachidonic acid production in the mesenteric lymph following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Acute Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan (K.N., Y.O.) Department of Acute Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital of Medicine, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan (K.N., K.M., A.S., J.A., Y.O.) Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan (S.D., A.W., N.I., T.K.) Emergency Medicine and Acute Care Surgery, Matsudo City General Hospital, Chiba, Japan (M.Y.) Emergency and Critical Care Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, 2-1-10 Nishiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8567, Japan (M.K.) Department of Comprehensive Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan (K.Y.) Department of Surgery, Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, CA 92354, USA (R.C).

Background: Inflammatory lipid mediators in mesenteric lymph (ML), including arachidonic acid (AA), are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after hemorrhagic shock. A previous study suggested vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could relieve shock-induced gut injury and abrogate ML toxicity, resulting in the prevention of MOD. However, the detailed mechanism of VNS in lymph toxicity remains unclear. Read More

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Effects of colostrum feeding on the mRNA abundance of genes related to toll-like receptors, key antimicrobial defense molecules, and tight junctions in the small intestine of neonatal dairy calves.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Institute of Animal Science, Physiology Unit, University of Bonn, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of feeding either colostrum or milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of genes related to pathogen recognition [toll-like receptors (TLR1-10)], antimicrobial defense [β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1)], and tight junctions (claudin 1 = CLDN1, claudin 4 = CLDN4, and occludin = OCLN) in different sections of the small intestine of neonatal calves at d 4 of life. Holstein dairy calves were fed either colostrum (COL; n = 7) or milk-based formula (FOR; n = 7) with comparable nutrient composition but lower contents of several bioactives in the formula than in the respective colostrum group until d 4 of life. Following euthanasia on d 4 (2 h after feeding), tissue samples from the duodenum, jejunum (proximal, middle, and distal), and ileum were collected. Read More

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A Grain-Based SARA Challenge Affects the Composition of Epimural and Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Communities throughout the Digestive Tract of Dairy Cows.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 2;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.

The effects of a subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on the composition of epimural and mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the digestive tract were determined in eight non-lactating Holstein cows. Treatments included feeding a control diet containing 19.6% dry matter (DM) starch and a SARA-challenge diet containing 33. Read More

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Grape Polyphenols Attenuate Diet-Induced Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice in Association With Reduced Butyrate and Increased Markers of Intestinal Carbohydrate Oxidation.

Front Nutr 2021 14;8:675267. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Food Science and New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health (Rutgers Center for Lipid Research and Center for Nutrition, Microbiome, and Health), New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

A Western Diet (WD) low in fiber but high in fats and sugars contributes to obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Supplementation with grape polyphenols (GPs) rich in B-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) can attenuate symptoms of cardiometabolic disease and alter the gut microbiota and its metabolites. We hypothesized that GP-mediated metabolic improvements would correlate with altered microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Read More

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA.

The objective was to test the hypothesis that there is no effect of origin or processing procedure on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and crude protein (CP) in sunflower co-products. Six sources of sunflower meal (SFM) and 1 source of sunflower expellers (SFE) were obtained from Ukraine, Italy, Hungary, and the U.S. Read More

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Effective oral delivery of Exenatide-Zn complex through distal ileum-targeted double layers nanocarriers modified with deoxycholic acid and glycocholic acid in diabetes therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 Aug 7;275:120944. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

The oral administration route is popular with T2DM patients because they need convenience in lifelong medication. At present, oral Exenatide is not available on the market and therefore the relevant studies are valuable. Herein, we constructed a novel dual cholic acid-functionalized nanoparticle for oral delivery of Exenatide, which was based on the functionalized materials of deoxycholic acid-low molecular weight protamine and glycocholic acid-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-polysialic acid. Read More

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Whole tissue homogenization preferable to mucosal scraping in determining the temporal profile of segmented filamentous bacteria in the ileum of weanling rats.

Access Microbiol 2021 Mar 23;3(3):000218. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are thought to play a role in small intestine immunological maturation. Studies in weanling mice have shown a positive correlation between ileal SFB abundance and plasma and faecal interleukin 17 (IL-17) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations. Although the first observation of SFB presence was reported in rats, most studies use mice. Read More

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Small Intestinal Adenocarcinomas Arising in Enteritis Cystica Profunda With Metaplasia: A Report of 2 Cases.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Enteritis cystica profunda (ECP) is an uncommon benign condition arising after mucosal damage. We describe 2 cases of small intestinal adenocarcinomas associated with ECP at the distal ileum, one in a background of active Crohn ileitis (case 1), the other 22 years after pelvic radiation therapy (case 2). Both patients presented with small bowel obstruction and received ileocectomy. Read More

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Flupirtine enhances NHE-3-mediated Na absorption in rat colon via an ENS-dependent mechanism.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 Aug 16;321(2):G185-G199. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Recent studies in our lab have shown that the K7 channel activator, flupirtine, inhibits colonic epithelial Cl secretion through effects on submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). We hypothesized that flupirtine would also stimulate Na absorption as a result of reduced secretory ENS input to the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, unidirectional Na fluxes were measured under voltage-clamped conditions. Read More

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Decreased Expression of Ileal Thyroid Hormone Transporters in a Hypothyroid Patient: A Case Report.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:664839. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Malabsorption of levothyroxine (LT4) is a common problem faced in clinical practice. It is usually solved, if there are no complexities including gastrointestinal absorption disorder, by taking medicines on an empty stomach and avoiding foods interfering with LT4. Herein we present a rare case of a patient exhibiting malabsorption of LT4 with decreased membranous expression of ileal transporters. Read More

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A Novel Multiparameter Scoring Model for Noninvasive Early Prediction of Ischemic Colitis: A Multicenter, Retrospective, and Real-World Study.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 9;12(6):e00370. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Ischemic colitis (IC) is a common gastrointestinal ischemic disease caused by hypoperfusion or reperfusion injury. However, there are few studies on risk factors associated with poor prognoses of the disease. This study aimed to determine the predictors of poor prognoses in patients with IC and establish a prognostic scoring method with good internal and external validity for identifying severe cases in an early stage. Read More

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Enteritis cystica profunda with lipoma in the second portion of the duodenum.

Yeungnam Univ J Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maryknoll Medical Center, Busan, Korea.

Enteritis cystica profunda (ECP), a rare and benign condition, is defined as the displacement of the glandular epithelium into the submucosa and more profound layers of the small intestinal wall leading to the formation of mucin-filled cystic spaces. ECP frequently occurs in the ileum or jejunum and is associated with diseases such as Crohn disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. ECP also develops in the absence of known pathology. Read More

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SLC26A6-selective inhibitor identified in a small-molecule screen blocks fluid absorption in small intestine.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

SLC26A6 (also known as putative anion transporter 1 [PAT1]) is a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed at the luminal membrane of enterocytes where it facilitates intestinal Cl- and fluid absorption. Here, high-throughput screening of 50,000 synthetic small molecules in cells expressing PAT1 and a halide-sensing fluorescent protein identified several classes of inhibitors. The most potent compound, the pyrazolo-pyrido-pyrimidinone PAT1inh-B01, fully inhibited PAT1-mediated anion exchange (IC50 ~350 nM), without inhibition of the related intestinal transporter SLC26A3 (also known as DRA). Read More

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Chronic intentional chicken bone ingestion mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 4;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Internal Medicine, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Virginia, USA.

Ingestion of food by-products, such as peach pits, chicken bones and fish bones, may lead to intestinal complications. The ingestion of the foreign body is often acute and non-intentional. Acute and life-threatening complications include intestinal perforation or obstruction. Read More

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Small intestine duplication cyst with recurrent hematochezia: a case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 1;21(1):246. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Small intestine duplication cysts (SIDCs) are rare congenital anatomical abnormalities of the digestive tract and a rare cause of hematochezia.

Case Presentation: We describe an adult female presented with recurrent hematochezia. The routine gastric endoscope and colonic endoscope showed no positive findings. Read More

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Review on the Regional Effects of Gastrointestinal Luminal Stimulation on Appetite and Energy Intake: (Pre)clinical Observations.

Nutrients 2021 May 11;13(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Center, 6229 HX Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Macronutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen are able to activate "intestinal brakes", feedback mechanisms on proximal GI motility and secretion including appetite and energy intake. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the current evidence with respect to four questions: (1) are regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) present in the intestinal luminal nutrient modulation of appetite and energy intake? (2) is this "intestinal brake" effect macronutrient specific? (3) is this "intestinal brake" effect maintained during repetitive activation? (4) can the "intestinal brake" effect be activated via non-caloric tastants? Recent evidence indicates that: (1) regional differences exist in the intestinal modulation of appetite and energy intake with a proximal to distal gradient for inhibition of energy intake: ileum and jejunum > duodenum at low but not at high caloric infusion rates. (2) the "intestinal brake" effect on appetite and energy appears not to be macronutrient specific. Read More

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Depletion of the gut microbiota differentially affects the impact of whey protein on high-fat diet-induced obesity and intestinal permeability.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14867

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Ireland.

Whey protein isolate (WPI) is considered a dietary solution to obesity. However, the exact mechanism of WPI action is still poorly understood but is probably connected to its beneficial effect on energy balance, adiposity, and metabolism. More recently its ability to modulate the gut microbiota has received increasing attention. Read More

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Differential Recovery of Small Intestinal Segments after Partial-Body Irradiation in Non-Human Primates.

Radiat Res 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

In the event of a radiological attack or accident, it is more likely that the absorbed radiation dose will be heterogeneous, rather than uniformly distributed throughout the body. This type of uneven dose distribution is known as partial-body irradiation (PBI). Partial exposure of the vital organs, specifically the highly radiosensitive intestines, may cause death, if the injury is significant and the post-exposure recovery is considerably compromised. Read More

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Downregulation of Serum and Distal Ileum Fibroblast Growth Factor19 in Bile Acid Diarrhoea Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bile acid diarrhoea or BAD is a common but little recognised cause of chronic diarrhoea. Few of these patients in China have been diagnosed due to a lack of diagnostic options.

Aims: To clarify the diagnostic value of serum fibroblast growth factor19 (FGF19) in BAD patients. Read More

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Luminal Bioavailability of Orally Administered ω-3 PUFAs in the Distal Small Intestine, and Associated Changes to the Ileal Microbiome, in Humans with a Temporary Ileostomy.

J Nutr 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Leeds Institute of Medical Research, St James's University Hospital, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Background: Oral administration of purified omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs is associated with changes to the fecal microbiome. However, it is not known whether this effect is associated with increased PUFA concentrations in the gut.

Objectives: We investigated the luminal bioavailability of oral ω-3 PUFAs (daily dose 1 g EPA and 1g DHA free fatty acid equivalents as triglycerides in soft-gel capsules, twice daily) and changes to the gut microbiome, in the ileum. Read More

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