271 results match your criteria il4 concentrations


Inflammatory Responses with Left Ventricular Compromise after Induction of Myocardial Infarcts in Sheep (Ovis aries).

Comp Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Ischemic myocardial disease is a major cause of death among humans worldwide; it results in scarring and pallor of themyocardium and triggers an inflammatory response that contributes to impaired left ventricular function. This response includes and is evidenced by the production of several inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL1β, IL4, IFNγ, IL10 and IL6. In the current study, myocardial infarcts were induced in 6 mo old male castrated sheep by ligation of the left circumflex obtuse marginal arteries (OM 1 and 2). Read More

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Association of gastrointestinal parasite burden, serum cytokines and hormones concentrations, and pregnancy in Angus-cross beef cows.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jul 18;295:109464. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA; AARVEE Animal Biotech LLC, Corvallis, OR, 97333, USA. Electronic address:

The objective was to elucidate the relationships among gastrointestinal (GI) parasite load, serum cytokines (Th 1 - Interleukin (IL) 2, Interferon (IFN) γ and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α; Th 2- IL4, IL6, and IL10) levels, hormones (progesterone, cortisol, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (isoprostane), prolactin, substance-p, and prostaglandin F metabolites) concentrations, and pregnancy in beef cattle. Angus-cross beef cows (n = 700; age, 3-8 y) were blocked by age and body condition score (BCS, 1-9), and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 350, TRT, 50 mg of eprinomectin/50 kg BW, im) or control (n = 350, CON, no treatment) on Day -30. Cows were synchronized using Controlled Internal Drug Release insert (CIDR) + CO-Synch protocol and artificially inseminated at a fixed time on Day 0 (66 h after CIDR removal). Read More

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Analysis of cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 patients in Erbil city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250330. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Medical Analysis Department, College of Science, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

The emergence of the novel coronavirus and then pandemic outbreak was coined 2019- nCoV or COVID-19 (or SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019). This disease has a mortality rate of about 3·7 percent, and successful therapy is desperately needed to combat it. The exact cellular mechanisms of COVID-19 need to be illustrated in detail. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of iloperidone-loaded lipid nanoemulsions via oral route of administration.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Apr 7;47(4):618-625. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Nanotechnology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India.

Iloperidone (IL) is practically insoluble in water and has significant first-pass metabolism, resulting in low oral bioavailability in humans (36%). IL lipid nanoemulsions (IL-LNEs) were prepared to improve oral bioavailability. IL-LNEs were formulated by hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. Read More

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Wnt signaling enhances macrophage responses to IL-4 and promotes resolution of atherosclerosis.

Elife 2021 03 15;10. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Medicine, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Program, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, United States.

Atherosclerosis is a disease of chronic inflammation. We investigated the roles of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, the classical activators of STAT6, in the resolution of atherosclerosis inflammation. Using mice, resolution was impaired, and in control mice, in both progressing and resolving plaques, levels of IL-4 were stably low and IL-13 was undetectable. Read More

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Interleukins' expression profile changes in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles during the postpartum period in dairy cows.

Cytokine X 2020 Mar 29;2(1):100022. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Centre de recherche en reproduction et fertilité, Département de biomédecine vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec J2S 2M2, Canada.

The postpartum period in dairy cows is associated with a state of temporary negative energy balance and could induce functional changes into ovarian granulosa cells (GC) resulting in significant impact on the ovarian function and fertility. Yet, the regulation of interleukin receptors (ILRs) in GC as well as ILs expression profile during the postpartum period have not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that the postpartum period is associated with changes in ILs expression profile that could affect follicular development and ovulation rate. Read More

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Oxidative Stress Compromises Lymphocyte Function in Neonatal Dairy Calves.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Feb 7;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Dairy calves are unable to mount an effective immune response during their first weeks of life, which contributes to increased disease susceptibility during this period. Oxidative stress (OS) diminishes the immune cell capabilities of humans and adult cows, and dairy calves also experience OS during their first month of life. However, the impact that OS may have on neonatal calf immunity remains unexplored. Read More

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February 2021

High fetal bisphenol A exposure enhances IL22 secretion: A proinflammatory cytokine.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial product, widely used in human consumed types of equipment that can be transmitted orally, by inhalation or through dermal absorption and is detectable in many body fluids including cord blood. A correlation between BPA concentration in maternal serum and cord blood has been demonstrated previously, suggesting a possible transfer of BPA via the transplacental path.

Objective: Our objective is to determine the impact of cord blood BPA level on cytokine responses. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of Allium sativum on IFN-γ and IL4 concentrations in mice with cystic echinococcosis.

Exp Parasitol 2021 Jan 15;220:108042. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of the current investigation was to assess the impacts of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (MEAS) on IL-4 (a cytokine derived from Th2 cells) and IFN-ɣ (a cytokine derived from Th1 cells) levels in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Sixty healthy BALB/c female mice were used in this study. Each animal was intraperitoneally injected with 1500 protoscoleces. Read More

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January 2021

Role of CD 20 T cells and related cytokines in mediating retinal microvascular changes and ocular complications in chronic-plaque type psoriasis.

Cytokine 2020 12 25;136:155253. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, C.so della Repubblica, 79, 04100 Latina, Italy; Center for Biophotonics, Sapienza University of Rome, C.so della Repubblica, 79, 04100 Latina, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the role of CD3 CD20 CD4 CD8 double-negative (DN) or CD3CD20 CD4/CD8 T cells and the related pro-inflammatory cytokines in the humor aqueous, in mediating retinal microvascular changes in patients with chronic plaque-type moderate to severe psoriasis.

Design: A total of 76 patients (57.6 ± 11. Read More

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December 2020

Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic acids punicalagin and curcumin in human placenta and adipose tissue.

Placenta 2020 10 10;100:1-12. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Obstetrics, Nutrition and Endocrinology Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; Mercy Perinatal Research Centre, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: The world is witnessing a steady rise in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), correlated with the current obesity epidemic. Both GDM and obesity negatively impact both the health of women but also that of the next generation. GDM and maternal obesity are associated with increased maternal and fetal inflammation and oxidative stress. Read More

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October 2020

Endometrial stromal cell inflammatory phenotype during severe ovarian endometriosis as a cause of endometriosis-associated infertility.

Reprod Biomed Online 2020 Oct 27;41(4):623-639. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, 110029, India. Electronic address:

Research Question: Do endometrial stromal cells from primary infertile patients with severe ovarian endometriosis display differential secretory profiles of inflammation-associated cytokines during the implantation window that may cause infertility?

Design: Forty-eight cytokines were measured in conditioned medium of isolated endometrial stromal cells obtained from primary infertile patients without endometriosis (control group, n = 12) or with stage IV ovarian endometriosis (ovarian endometriosis group, n = 14) using multiplex assays. Key cytokines showing differential secretory profiles were validated using Western immunoblotting. Cellular phenotypic validation was carried out in vitro by comparing proliferation and migration capacity between control (n = 6) and ovarian endometriosis (n = 7) groups. Read More

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October 2020

Chronic Hepatitis B Infection Is Associated with Increased Molecular Degree of Inflammatory Perturbation in Peripheral Blood.

Viruses 2020 08 7;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador 40296-710, Brazil.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern. The interaction between HBV and the host inflammatory response is an important contributing factor driving liver damage and diseases outcomes. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis employing an adapted molecular degree of perturbation (MDP) score system to assess the overall inflammatory imbalance related to persistent HBV infection. Read More

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Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of interleukin (IL6) in vitro: relevance for major depression and for human hippocampal neurogenesis.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 Jul 29. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, UK.

Background: Although the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)6, has been generally regarded as "depressogenic", recent research has started to question this assumption, in light of the fact that this cytokine can also have anti-inflammatory properties. This bimodal action seems to be dependent on its concentration levels, and on the concomitant presence of other pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Methods: We exposed a human hippocampal progenitor cell line HPC0A07/03C to cytokine levels described in depressed patients (IL6 5pg/ml with IL1β 10pg/ml or Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) 300pg/ml), in healthy subjects (IL6 with IL1β, 1pg/ml or MIF 10pg/ml), as well as to the potentially anti-inflammatory, much higher concentrations of IL6 (50000pg/ml). Read More

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Effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine with and without remifentanil on serum cytokine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a post hoc analysis.

Br J Anaesth 2020 09 11;125(3):267-274. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG), Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Anaesthetic agents are likely to alter circulating cytokine concentrations. Because preceding studies have not been able to exclude the contribution of surgical trauma, perioperative stress, or both to circulating cytokine concentrations, the effects of anaesthesia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify serum cytokines in healthy volunteers administered i. Read More

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September 2020

Effect of arsenic trioxide on the Tregs ratio and the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β1 in the peripheral blood of severe aplastic anemia patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(26):e20630

Henan Key Lab of Experimental Haematology, Henan Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Department of Hematology, Henan Cancer Hospital, Henan Cancer Hospital affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Previous studies have suggested that the anticancer agent, arsenic trioxide (ATO), could attenuate T cell mediated immunity by not only inhibiting the proliferative response of T cells but by also increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, ATO represents a reasonable salvage treatment in some patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The current study aimed to evaluate the function of ATO on the Tregs percentage and cytokines changes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SAA patients. Read More

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Serum cytokine profile during subcutaneous implantation of the decellularized esophagus matrix in rats.

J Biomater Appl 2020 09 22;35(3):446-455. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Central Research Laboratory, Kuban State Medical University, Krasnodar, Russia.

Aim: to study non-specific immune response characteristics (serum cytokine profile) in rats after subcutaneous implantation of the decellularized esophagus matrix.

Methods: Data were obtained in Wistar rats. The rats underwent subcutaneous implantation of decellularized esophagus (DE) and native allogeneic esophagus (NE). Read More

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September 2020

Influences of CD8 Tregs on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

Laryngoscope 2021 02 26;131(2):E316-E323. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: CD8 (or CD4 ) CD25 fork-head box transcription factor (Foxp3) regulatory T cells (CD8 or CD4 Tregs) all play a significant role in immune homeostasis and tolerance. However, the role of CD8 Tregs in allergic rhinitis (AR) have not been clearly elucidated. The present study was aimed to assess the influence of CD8 Tregs on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AR patients. Read More

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February 2021

Human milk cortisol and immune factors over the first three postnatal months: Relations to maternal psychosocial distress.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0233554. Epub 2020 May 21.

Departmental Section of Galenic Pharmacy and Food Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Many biologically active factors are present in human milk including proteins, lipids, immune factors, and hormones. The milk composition varies over time and shows large inter-individual variability. This study examined variations of human milk immune factors and cortisol concentrations in the first three months post-partum, and their potential associations with maternal psychosocial distress. Read More

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Igalan from Inula helenium (L.) suppresses the atopic dermatitis-like response in stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes via JAK/STAT3 signaling.

Inflamm Res 2020 Mar 30;69(3):309-319. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

College of Pharmacy and Natural Product Research Institute, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of igalan, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium (L.), on inhibiting inflammation, regulating the epidermal differentiation gene expression, and reactive oxygen species scavenging in atopic dermatitis (AD)-like inflammatory keratinocytes.

Methods: HaCaT human keratinocytes were treated with igalan at indicated concentrations before being activated by a combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ or IL-4 representative for T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 cell cytokines, which are associated with AD pathogenesis. Read More

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The potential markers involved in newly diagnosed graves' disease and the development of active graves' orbitopathy.

Cytokine 2020 03 20;127:154998. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an JiaoTong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, PR China.. Electronic address:

Background: Graves' disease (GD) patients experience two major issues: one is the severe hyperthyroidism associated with newly diagnosed GD, and the other involves the disfiguring and dysfunctional features of active Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify potential markers involved in the initial phase of GD dysfunction and the development of active GO.

Methods: Seventy-eight subjects were recruited: 40 with newly diagnosed GD, 20 with inactive GO and 18 with active GO. Read More

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Sustaining exposure to high concentrations of bifidobacteria inhibits gene expression of Mouse's mucosal immunity.

Heliyon 2019 Dec 12;5(12):e02866. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Numerous dietary products are supplemented with probiotics that may be beneficial for human health. Recently, bifidobacteria have received increasing attention as a genus of probiotic bacteria with high efficiency and few side effects. To examine potential effects of different bifidobacteria concentrations on the mucosal immune response, we fed mice with (a) 10 colony-forming units (CFU) of bifidobacteria (group 10), and (b) with 10 CFU of bifidobacteria (group 10) over 42 days and assessed gene expression in intestinal mucosa and immune marker concentrations in serum samples; ten untreated female mice were used as a control. Read More

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December 2019

Cytokine and immune cell profiling in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuro-inflammatory diseases.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Nov 14;16(1):219. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard Karl University, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Cytokines play multiple roles during neuro-inflammatory processes and several cytokines have been studied in the context of specific diseases. This study provides a comprehensive picture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes during neuro-inflammation by analyzing multiple cytokines in combination with immune cell subsets and standard CSF parameters.

Methods: Using multiplex assays, we simultaneously measured 36 cytokines (CCL1-3, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL19, CCL20, CCL22-27, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL11-13, CXCL16, CX3CL1, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL16, GM-CSF, IFNγ, MIF, TNFα, and MIB1β) in the CSF and serum of 75 subjects. Read More

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November 2019

[The content of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-4 and the level of expression in macrophages CD86 and CD163 in peritoneal fluid has a reverse correlation with the degree of severity of external genital endometriosis].

Biomed Khim 2019 Aug;65(5):432-436

Academician Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Moscow, Russia.

Concentrations of eight different cytokines and the level of expression of CD86 and CD163 macrophages were studied in peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis. It was found that the concentration of both inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4) as well as the level of macrophage expression of the proinflammatory marker CD86 and anti-inflammatory marker CD163 increased in women with mild external genital endometriosis (1-2 stage), and did not differ from the control group in women with severe endometriosis (3-4 stage). The content of IL-2, IL-10, CM-CSF and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis did not differ significantly from the control group. Read More

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Obesity and childhood asthma in male schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia: Is there a role for leptin, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-21?

Ann Saudi Med 2019 Sep-Oct;39(5):295-301. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

From the Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Adiposity is associated with high serum levels of adipokines and chemokines which are possibly implicated in a co-existence of obesity and asthma.

Objectives: Elucidate the possible roles of leptin, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-21 in linking obesity with childhood asthma.

Design: Cross-sectional, analytical. Read More

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February 2020

ORMDL3 knockdown in the lungs alleviates airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthmatic mice via JNK1/2-MMP-9 pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 08 26;516(3):739-746. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Respiratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China. Electronic address:

Orosomucoid-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) is a common mutation in many asthma patients and its effects on the specific pathogenesis of asthma are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a mouse that specifically knockout the mouse ORDML3 gene to further study the mechanism. We used ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma in wild-type mice and ORMDL3 knockout mice. Read More

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Improvement of Tracheal Responsiveness and Th1/Th2 Balance in a Rat Model of Asthma, Treated with Portulaca Oleracea.

Altern Ther Health Med 2020 Nov;26(6):34-42

Context: A large proportion of asthmatic patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of their disease. Various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties, have been described for Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea). Read More

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November 2020

The effect of alpha linolenic acid on tracheal responsiveness, lung inflammation, and immune markers in sensitized rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019 Mar;22(3):255-261

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: The effects of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) on tracheal responsiveness (TR), total protein (TP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon gamma (INF-γ) level and INF-γ/IL4 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of sensitized rats were examined.

Materials And Methods: TR to methacholine and ovalbumin (OA), BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE as well as IL-4, INF-γ and INF-γ/IL4 ratio were measured in control group (non-sensitized, group C), sensitized rats to OA (group S), S groups treated with two concentrations of ALA and dexamethasone group.

Results: TR to methacholine and OA, BALF levels of TP, PLA2, IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased but BALF level of INF-γ and INF-γ/IL4 ratio decreased in group S compared to group C (<0. Read More

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Alterations in IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels synergistically decrease lipid content and protein expression of FAS and mature SREBP-1 in human sebocytes.

Arch Dermatol Res 2019 Sep 24;311(7):563-571. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea.

When anti-acne alternatives from dietary and plant sources are ingested, systemic alterations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, individually or simultaneously, are induced at a 0.1-10.0-fold (×) range of normal physiological concentrations (1×). Read More

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September 2019

Expression analysis of PD-1 and Tim-3 immune checkpoint receptors in patients with vitiligo; positive association with disease activity.

Exp Dermatol 2019 06;28(6):674-681

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

The contribution of immune checkpoint receptors in the immunopathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases has been addressed in previous reports. In this study,  the expression profile of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) checkpoint molecules was investigated in CD8 T cells of Vitiligo patients. The association of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression with disease activity was also explored. Read More

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