Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 21;7:441. Epub 2020 Aug 21.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Center for Immunity, Inflammation, and Regenerative Medicine (CIIR), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major clinical burden affecting 20 to 50% of hospitalized and intensive care patients. Irrespective of the initiating factors, the immune system plays a major role in amplifying the disease pathogenesis with certain immune cells contributing to renal damage, whereas others offer protection and facilitate recovery. Alarmins are small molecules and proteins that include granulysins, high-mobility group box 1 protein, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-16, IL-33, heat shock proteins, the Ca binding S100 proteins, adenosine triphosphate, and uric acid. Read More