95 results match your criteria il-21 il-27

Cytokines that Modulate the Differentiation of Th17 Cells in Autoimmune Uveitis.

J Immunol Res 2021 16;2021:6693542. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China.

Increasing evidence has suggested that T helper 17 (Th17) cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of ocular immune disease. The association between pathogenic Th17 cells and the development of uveitis has been confirmed in experimental and clinical studies. Several cytokines affect the initiation and stabilization of the differentiation of Th17 cells. Read More

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Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Modulate Cytokine Production by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 5;8:609204. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery, Medicine Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Interest in Transplant, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

A subset of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) developed a condition of hyper-inflammation, which can cause multi-organ damage and the more severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote tissue regeneration and modulate immune responses and, thus, have the rational requirements to be used to counteract SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and hyper-inflammation. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into possible mechanisms of action of MSCs obtained from human dental pulp [dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)] in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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February 2021

Diving into inflammation: a pilot study exploring the dynamics of the immune-microbiota axis in ileal tissue layers of patients with Crohn's disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy.

Background And Aims: Crohn's Disease (CD) pathogenesis is still unclear. Disorders in the mucosal immunoregulation and its crosstalk with the microbiota may represent an important component in tissue injury. We aimed to characterize the molecular immune response distribution within the ileal layers and to evaluate the correlated microbiota in pathological/healthy settings comparing first surgery/relapse clinical conditions. Read More

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February 2021

IL-21-Deficient T Follicular Helper Cells Support B Cell Responses Through IL-27 in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:599648. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Clinical Care and Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) affects over 350 million people worldwide. Current treatment does result in reduced complications; however, a cure (development of antibodies to the S antigen) is not achieved, requiring life-long therapy. Humoral responses contribute to viral elimination by secreting neutralizing antibodies; though, effective induction of humoral immunity require CD4T cell differentiation into T follicular helper (T) cells that support B cell response through interleukin-21 (IL-21). Read More

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January 2021

A Bovine Enteric Infection Model to Analyze Parenteral Vaccine-Induced Mucosal Immunity and Accelerate Vaccine Discovery.

Front Immunol 2020 23;11:586659. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Mycobacterial diseases of cattle are responsible for considerable production losses worldwide. In addition to their importance in animals, these infections offer a nuanced approach to understanding persistent mycobacterial infection in native host species. ssp. Read More

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November 2020

Association between Interleukin-21, 23 and 27 Expression and Protein Level with Cytomegalovirus Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

Int J Organ Transplant Med 2020 ;11(1):27-34

Shiraz Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cytokines have regulatory crosstalk with CMV infection leading to manage of post-liver transplantation virus-related outcomes.

Objective: To investigate the link between IL-21, IL-23 and IL-27 mRNA and protein level with active CMV infection, which was evaluated in reactivated and non-reactivated liver transplant recipients.

Methods: Two groups of liver transplant recipients were enrolled in this study-54 without and 15 with active CMV infection. Read More

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January 2020

The importance of T cell-derived cytokines in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

Cytokine 2020 Oct 8:155321. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; Department of Haematology and Laboratory Sciences, School of Para-Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Infection with the same species of Leishmania (L)donovani causes different manifestations including visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), indicating that the host-related immunological parameters perform a decisive role in the pathogenesis of diseases. As PKDL is a reservoir of the parasite, a better understanding of the host immune responses is necessary to restrict the L. donovani transmission. Read More

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October 2020

Characterization of cytokine profile to distinguish latent tuberculosis from active tuberculosis and healthy controls.

Cytokine 2020 Nov 6;135:155218. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and its mortality rate ranks first. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) means that a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but has no relative clinical symptoms. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of patients with LTBI would develop into active tuberculosis. Read More

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November 2020

Aerobic Exercise Increases Tear Secretion and Decreases Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Subjects.

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2020 Sep-Oct;9(5):404-411

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of tear secretion and inflammatory cytokines induced by aerobic exercise (AE) on healthy Chinese.

Design: A prospective, cross-sectional study.

Methods: A total of 73 eyes from 43 healthy participants were included in this study, which was composed of 2 parts. Read More

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[Peculiarities of the content of peripheral blood cytokines in pregnant women with a habitual miscarriage.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2020 ;65(5):299-303

V.N. Gorodkov Ivanovo Research Institute of Maternity and Childhood, Ministry of Health of Russia, 153045, Ivanovo, Russia.

A lot of research nowadays is dedicated to the problem of habitual pregnancy loss, and this attention is dictated by the continued high frequency of this condition. The pathogenesis of habitual pregnancy loss is very complicated and includes many factors, at present especially close attention is paid to immune aspects. It is considered, that cytokine imbalance might play a key role in the pathogenesis of habitual pregnancy loss. Read More

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Pathogenic and protective roles of cytokines in pemphigus: A systematic review.

Cytokine 2020 05 10;129:155026. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Pemphigus is a rare and life-threatening group of blistering autoimmune diseases that affects the skin and mucous membranes. There are two major subtypes of pemphigus, including pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF); each has different clinical manifestations. Pemphigus cannot be considered as a single disease and each patient may have a specific immunological profile. Read More

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Elevated plasma and synovial fluid interleukin-8 and interleukin-18 may be associated with the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis.

Knee 2020 Jan 6;27(1):26-35. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Tissue Engineering Group (TEG), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (NOCERAL), Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a multifactorial degenerative disease typically defined as the 'wear and tear' of articular joint cartilage. However, recent studies suggest that OA is a disease arising from chronic low-grade inflammation. We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammatory mediators present in both the systemic peripheral blood system and localised inflammation in synovial fluid (SF) of OA and non-OA knees; and subsequently made direct comparative analyses to understand the mechanisms that may underpin the processes involved in OA. Read More

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January 2020

Inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling by tyrphostin AG126 downregulates the IL-21/IL-21R and JAK/STAT pathway in the BTBR mouse model of autism.

Neurotoxicology 2020 03 4;77:1-11. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with deficits in social interaction and communication. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin AG126 represents a promising therapeutic agent for several neuroinflammatory disorders. There are currently no treatments available that can improve ASD and we previously showed that AG126 treatment exerts beneficial effects on BTBR T Itpr3/J (BTBR) mice, a model for autism that shows the core features of ASD; however, the immunological mechanisms and molecular targets associated with this effect were previously unclear. Read More

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JAK/STAT Cytokine Signaling at the Crossroad of NK Cell Development and Maturation.

Front Immunol 2019 12;10:2590. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

St. Anna Children's Cancer Research Institute (CCRI), Vienna, Austria.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes of the innate immune system and play a critical role in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses. NK cells develop in the bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that differentiate through common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) to NK lineage-restricted progenitors (NKPs). The orchestrated action of multiple cytokines is crucial for NK cell development and maturation. Read More

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November 2020

Adoptive transfer of type 1 regulatory T cells suppressed the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation model mice.

J Pharmacol Sci 2019 Dec 2;141(4):139-145. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are CD4 T cells that produce a large amount of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether Tr1 cells suppress allergic asthma. In this study, the effects of adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced Tr1 cells on allergic asthma were evaluated. Read More

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December 2019

Interleukin-7, T helper 1, and regulatory T-cell activity-related cytokines are increased during the second trimester of healthy pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2019 12 28;82(6):e13188. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Problem: Healthy pregnancy is associated with a physiologic increase in inflammatory responses. The objective of this study was to assess changes in plasma cytokines associated with uncomplicated pregnancy.

Method Of Study: To examine these changes, plasma levels of immune response mediators from healthy gravidas (N = 115, gestation weeks 23-30) were compared with those from healthy non-pregnant women (N = 42). Read More

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December 2019

IL-27 in patients with Chikungunya fever: A possible chronicity biomarker?

Acta Trop 2019 Aug 7;196:48-51. Epub 2019 May 7.

Serviço de Reumatologia - Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Inovação Terapêutica Suely Galdino (Nupit-SG)/ UFPE, Endereço: Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235 - Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, CEP: 50670-901, Brazil.

Background/purpose: Although many patients with chikungunya virus disease (CHIKVD), an arboviral disease characterized by sudden fever and incapacitating poliartralgia, develop chronic articular symptoms, the mechanisms involved in CHIKVD's chronification and its possible biomarkers remain poorly understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-21, IL-22, IL-29, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β have been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Since chronic manifestations of CHIKVD share many clinical and immunological characteristics with those diseases, we assessed the serum levels of those cytokines and analyzed their associations with clinical manifestations in patients with CHIKVD. Read More

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The role of cytokines in the regulation of NK cells in the tumor environment.

Cytokine 2019 05 18;117:30-40. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, P.BOX 124, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that are important effectors in the first line of defense toward transformed cells. This is mediated both by direct cytotoxic mechanisms and by production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Recent evidence has shown that NK cells also display memory, similar to the cells of the adaptive immune system. Read More

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Recruitment of CXCR3 T cells into injured tissues in adult IgA vasculitis patients correlates with disease activity.

J Autoimmun 2019 05 8;99:73-80. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Paris Descartes University, Cochin Institute, CNRS UMR8104, INSERM U1016, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Adult immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) is an immune complex small vessel vasculitis. So far, the involvement of T cells in this pathology has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to analyze T-cell homeostasis as well as cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the blood and tissues of IgAV patients. Read More

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Novel Immunoregulatory Functions of IL-18, an Accomplice of TGF-β1.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jan 11;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, University of Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.

TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic factor exerting a strong regulatory role in several cell types, including immune cells. In NK cells it profoundly alters the surface expression of crucial activating and chemokine receptors. To understand which soluble signals might better contrast these effects, we cultured human NK cells in the presence of TGF-β1 and different innate and adaptive cytokines, generally referred as "immunostimulatory". Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of Interleukin-21, 23 and 27 mRNA Expression and Protein Level in Liver Transplant Patients.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Aug 12;17(4):298-307. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Shiraz Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Cytokines have prominent roles in activating of different T cells and shifting the immune response, in this study the role of three cytokines (IL-21, IL-23 and IL-27) is investigated in the liver transplant rejection. Three EDTA-treated blood samples were collected from each liver transplanted patient in 1st, 4th and 7th day of post-transplantation. The expression level of the mentioned cytokines was determined using real-time PCR for all samples. Read More

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Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IFN-γ-producing cells in chronic Chagas disease associate with a functional IL-7/IL-7R axis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 5;12(12):e0006998. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Instituto Nacional de Parasitología Dr. Fatala Chaben, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease. Read More

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December 2018

Role of TRAFs in Signaling Pathways Controlling T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation and T Cell-Dependent Antibody Responses.

Front Immunol 2018 22;9:2412. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Follicular helper T (T) cells represent a highly specialized CD4 T cell subpopulation that supports the generation of germinal centers (GC) and provides B cells with critical signals promoting antibody class switching, generation of high affinity antibodies, and memory formation. T cells are characterized by the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, the transcription factor Bcl-6, costimulatory molecules ICOS, and PD-1, and the production of cytokine IL-21. The acquisition of a T phenotype is a complex and multistep process that involves signals received through engagement of the TCR along with a multitude of costimulatory molecules and cytokines receptors. Read More

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October 2019

High Serum sCD40 and a Distinct Colonic T Cell Profile in Ulcerative Colitis Associated With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Mar;13(3):341-350

Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology Research Group, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background And Aims: There is a strong association between primary sclerosing cholangitis [PSC] and ulcerative colitis [UC], but the immunological link between the two diseases is obscure. We compared serum cytokine profiles of patients with PSC-UC and UC, and investigated a number of selected cytokines in colonic biopsy samples. We also assessed the presence and activation of T cells in peripheral blood and colonic mucosa. Read More

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δ-Tocotrienol feeding modulates gene expression of EIF2, mTOR, protein ubiquitination through multiple-signaling pathways in chronic hepatitis C patients.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Jul 21;17(1):167. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Biomedical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA.

Background: δ-Tocotrienol is a naturally occurring proteasome inhibitor, which has the capacity to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells obtained from several organs of humans, and other cancer cell lines. Moreover, results of plasma total mRNAs after δ-tocotrienol feeding to hepatitis C patients revealed significant inhibition in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, VCAM1, proteasome subunits) and induction in the expression of ICAM1 and IFN-γ after post-treatment. This down-regulation of proteasome subunits leads to autophagy, apoptosis of immune cells and several genes. Read More

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Anti-interleukin and interleukin therapies for psoriasis: current evidence and clinical usefulness.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2017 Nov 6;9(11):277-294. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.

Anti-interleukin (IL) therapies have emerged as a major treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This article reviews the up-to-date results of pivotal clinical trials targeting the interleukins used for the treatment of psoriasis, including IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-20, IL-22, IL-23, IL-36 and bispecific biologics IL-17A/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Cytokines involved in the circuits of psoriasis inflammation without ongoing clinical trials are also mentioned (IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-18, IL-19, IL-21, IL-24, IL-27, IL-33, IL-35, IL-37, and IL-38). Read More

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November 2017

Serum Cytokine Profile in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis Infected by Aspergillus flavus.

Ann Lab Med 2018 Mar;38(2):125-131

Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India.

Background: Fungi, especially Aspergillus flavus, can cause chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and modulate host innate immune components. The objective of this study was to examine the serum levels of T helper (Th) cell subset Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines and total IgE in patients having chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and Aspergillus flavus infection.

Methods: A case-control study including 40 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and 20 healthy controls was conducted. Read More

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RIG-I-like receptor activation by dengue virus drives follicular T helper cell formation and antibody production.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Nov 29;13(11):e1006738. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Follicular T helper cells (TFH) are fundamental in orchestrating effective antibody-mediated responses critical for immunity against viral infections and effective vaccines. However, it is unclear how virus infection leads to TFH induction. We here show that dengue virus (DENV) infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) drives TFH formation via crosstalk of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) RIG-I and MDA5 with type I Interferon (IFN) signaling. Read More

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November 2017

Assessment of biomarkers using multiplex assays in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 2;17(1):176. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: With the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a leading health problem worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of immune and inflammatory biomarkers in the aqueous humor of patients with different severities of DR and to analyze the correlations between Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and these biomarkers, and between IL-6 and the severity of the disease. Read More

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October 2017

PI3K-Akt pathway enhances the differentiation of interleukin-27-induced type 1 regulatory T cells.

Immunology 2017 11 31;152(3):507-516. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Interleukin 27 (IL-27) has been identified as a potent cytokine in the differentiation of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells through interactions with several key elements, including transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor and IL-21. Autocrine production of IL-21 is known to be important for maintaining IL-10 expression by Tr1 cells. Although previous studies have shown that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) -Akt axis contributes to the differentiation of helper T-cell subsets, the role of the PI3K pathway on Tr1 cell differentiation remains to be elucidated. Read More

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November 2017