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IL-21 Is Associated With Virological Relapse of HBeAg Positive Chronic Hepatitis B After Discontinuance of Entecavir.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;32(2):178-186

Liver Disease Department, The Wuxi Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: To investigate the association between interleukin-21 (IL-21) expression level and virological relapse (VR) of HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) after discontinuance of entecavir (ETV).

Methods: The serum IL-21 level of 112 CHB patients was measured at 0, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks after ETV discontinuance. ELISA was used for the measurement of serum IL-21 level. Read More

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February 2021

The Roles of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in the Infection and Gastrointestinal Inflammation: A Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

Although millions of people have been infected by (), only a small proportion of infected individuals will develop adverse outcomes, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer. Advanced development of the disease has been well-linked with chronic inflammation, which is significantly impacted by the adaptive and humoral immunity response. From the perspective of cellular immunity, this review aims to clarify the intricate axis between IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in -related diseases and the pathogenesis of inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Read More

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Th cytokine profile in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Apr 21;21(1):187. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, 92 Zhongnan St, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a highly abnormal immune system. This study aimed to detect the serum levels of Th (T helper) cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in cSLE and healthy controls, and then to elucidate their association with clinical manifestations, disease activity and laboratory parameters. In order to provide clues for early diagnosis and timely intervention treatment of cSLE patients. Read More

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Astragalus-mediated stimulation on antigen-presenting cells could result in higher IL-21 production from CXCR5 Tfh-like cells and better IL-21-mediated effector functions.

Hum Immunol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Special Clinic, Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

T cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients display multiple features of impairment and exhaustion. Here, we hypothesize that Astragalus membranaceus, a herbal medicine commonly used to accompany chemotherapy, might have adjuvating effects on T cells from RCC patients. To investigate this, circulating T cells from healthy individuals and RCC patients were cocultured ex vivo with aqueous extract from Astragalus. Read More

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Increased Circulating T Follicular Helper Cells Induced IL-12/21 in Patients With Acute on Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:641362. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: T Follicular helper (Tfh) cells, recognized as a distinct CD4 T cell subset, mediate the development of long-lived humoral immunity B cell activation/differentiation. Tfh cells play an important role during hepatic viral infection, but its role in hepatitis B virus-related acute on chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains to be explored.

Materials And Methods: The frequency of Tfh cells, serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-12, IL-21, IL-17 and TNF) levels and IgG/M levels were investigated in HBV-ACLF (n = 36), serious chronic hepatitis B (n = 21), moderate chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 32) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10). Read More

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Changes in extracellular cytokines in predicting disease severity and final clinical outcome of patients with blunt chest trauma.

Immunobiology 2021 Mar 27;226(3):152087. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Division of Trauma Surgery & Critical Care, JPN Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background: Chest trauma causes substantial morbidity and mortality and its severity is assessed using clinical diagnosis or scoring systems like Injury severity score (ISS) and thoracic trauma severity score (TTSS). Association of inflammatory cytokines with severity of disease and final clinical outcome is not clearly defined in patients with chest trauma. In this study, we thought to evaluate the inflammatory response in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in chest trauma patients and correlate the level of extracellular cytokines with diseases severity and final outcome. Read More

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Cytokine Profiling in Plasma from Patients with Brain Tumors Versus Healthy Individuals using 2 Different Multiplex Immunoassay Platforms.

Biomark Insights 2021 30;16:11772719211006666. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

We compared the performance of two 96-well multiplex immunoassay platforms in assessing plasma cytokine concentrations in patients with glioblastoma (GBM; n = 27), individuals with melanoma, breast or lung cancer metastases to the brain (n = 17), and healthy volunteers (n = 11). Assays included a bead-based fluorescence MILLIPLEX assay/Luminex (LMX) platform and 4 planar electrochemiluminescence kits from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD). The LMX kit evaluated 21 cytokines and the 3 MSD kits evaluated 20 cytokines in total, with 19 overlapping human cytokines between platforms (GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, TNFα). Read More

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is essential for the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Vascular Physiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 564-8565 Suita, Japan;

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by arteriopathy in the small to medium-sized distal pulmonary arteries, often accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a nuclear receptor/transcription factor, detoxifies xenobiotics and regulates the differentiation and function of various immune cells. However, the role of AHR in the pathogenesis of PAH is largely unknown. Read More

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High-dimensional analysis defines multicytokine T-cell subsets and supports a role for IL-21 in atopic dermatitis.

Allergy 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Dermatology and the Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Flow cytometry is a well-accepted approach for immune profiling; however, its value is restricted by the limited number of markers that can be analyzed simultaneously. Mass cytometry/CyTOF offers broad-scale immune characterization integrating large number of parameters. While partial blood phenotyping was reported in atopic dermatitis (AD), patients' comprehensive profiling, critical for leveraging new targeted treatments, is not available. Read More

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Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps: Age and Disease Severity Differences in the Levels of Inflammatory Markers.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 18;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medicine Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

The aim of our study was to analyze the concentrations of inflammatory markers in the nasal tissue of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) and controls of different age groups, as well as to find associations between age, inflammation development, and NPs. : Patients were divided into two groups-patients with CRSwNPs and control subjects who had nasal surgery for another reason beside CRS. Our analysis was performed across three different age groups (18-30 years, 31-50 years, and 51 years and more). Read More

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Altered follicular regulatory T (Tfr)- and helper T (Tfh)-cell subsets are associated with autoantibody levels in microscopic polyangiitis patients.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is an autoimmune disease characterized by B cells-derived ANCAs, and ANCA was proved to be a key factor in its pathogenesis. Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells were T-cell subsets that play important roles in B-cell maturation and antibody production. However, their significances in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) patients, one type of AAV, has not been thoroughly studied. Read More

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Altered distributions in circulating follicular helper and follicular regulatory T cells accountable for imbalanced cytokine production in multiple sclerosis.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.

Follicular T helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tfr) cells are distinct subsets of CD4 T lymphocytes, regulating humoral immune responses in the germinal center. It is widely accepted that dysregulated Tfh and Tfr cells are associated with autoimmunity. In this study, we evaluated the frequencies of circulating chemokine receptor (CXCR)5 programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 ) Tfh (cTfh) and CXCR5 PD-1 forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3 ) CD25 Tfr (cTfr) cells, and their corresponding cytokines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 28 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Read More

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Protective/reparative cytokines are suppressed at high injury severity in human trauma.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2021 2;6(1):e000619. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Trauma elicits a complex inflammatory response that, among multiple presenting factors, is greatly impacted by the magnitude of injury severity. Herein, we compared the changes in circulating levels of mediators with known proinflammatory roles to those with known protective/reparative actions as a function of injury severity in injured humans.

Methods: Clinical and biobank data were obtained from 472 (trauma database-1 (TD-1), University of Pittsburgh) and 89 (trauma database-2 (TD-2), Indiana University) trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and who survived to discharge. Read More

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GMP-Compliant Universal Antigen Presenting Cells (uAPC) Promote the Metabolic Fitness and Antitumor Activity of Armored Cord Blood CAR-NK Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:626098. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes recognized for their important role against tumor cells. NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have enhanced effector function against various type of cancer and are attractive contenders for the next generation of cancer immunotherapies. However, a number of factors have hindered the application of NK cells for cellular therapy, including their poor growth kinetics and relatively low starting percentages within the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood or cord blood (CB). Read More

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February 2021

Could implant position influence the peri-implant parameters in edentulous mandibles of diabetics rehabilitated with overdentures? A split-mouth randomized study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Dental Research Division, School of Dentistry, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

This randomized controlled trial assessed the impact of crestal level position of implants installed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients rehabilitated with overdentures. Twenty-two mandibular edentulous T2DM patients were submitted to implant placement for retention of an overdenture. By means of a split-mouth design, two implants were installed: one at supracrestal level (SL) and one at crestal level (CL). Read More

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HIV-1 infection and the lack of viral control are associated with greater expression of interleukin-21 receptor on CD8+ T cells.

AIDS 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

IAVI Human Immunology Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been linked with the generation of virus-specific memory CD8+ T cells following acute infection with HIV and reduced exhaustion of CD8+ T cells. IL-21 has also been implicated in the promotion of CD8+ T cell effector functions during viral infection. Little is known about the expression of interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) during HIV-1 infection or its role in HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell maintenance and subsequent viral control. Read More

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Conventional type 2 lung dendritic cells are potent inducers of follicular helper T cells in the asthmatic lung.

Allergol Int 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells represent a unique subset of helper CD4 T cells in lymphoid follicles. Recently, Tfh cells were shown to play an important role in asthma through B cell differentiation. Conventional lung DCs are classified into two major subsets: conventional type 1 (cDC1) and type 2 (cDC2). Read More

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Plasma interleukin-21 levels and genetic variants are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Mar 5;22(1):246. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan Fourth Hospital, Puai Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430033, China.

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by autoantibodies development and an elevated spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Previous reports highlighted a relationship between IL-21and the pathogenesis of RA. Although elevated IL-21 levels have been reported in RA patients, the association of common IL-21 genetic variants with a predisposition to RA development in the Chinese population lacks. Read More

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Antiviral Cytokine Response in Neuroinvasive and Non-Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection.

Viruses 2021 02 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Virology, OIE Reference Center for West Nile Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale "G. Caporale", 64100 Teramo, Italy.

Data on the immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) are limited. We analyzed the antiviral cytokine response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with WNV fever and WNV neuroinvasive disease using a multiplex bead-based assay for the simultaneous quantification of 13 human cytokines. The panel included cytokines associated with innate and early pro-inflammatory immune responses (TNF-α/IL-6), Th1 (IL-2/IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4/IL-5/IL-9/IL-13), Th17 immune response (IL-17A/IL-17F/IL-21/IL-22) and the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Read More

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February 2021

Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Modulate Cytokine Production by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 5;8:609204. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery, Medicine Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Interest in Transplant, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

A subset of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) developed a condition of hyper-inflammation, which can cause multi-organ damage and the more severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote tissue regeneration and modulate immune responses and, thus, have the rational requirements to be used to counteract SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and hyper-inflammation. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into possible mechanisms of action of MSCs obtained from human dental pulp [dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)] in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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February 2021

IL-21/IL-21R Signaling Aggravated Respiratory Inflammation Induced by Intracellular Bacteria through Regulation of CD4 T Cell Subset Responses.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 19;206(7):1586-1596. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology and Key Laboratory of the Educational Ministry of China, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, People's Republic of China

The IL-21/IL-21R interaction plays an important role in a variety of immune diseases; however, the roles and mechanisms in intracellular bacterial infection are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effect of IL-21/IL-21R on chlamydial respiratory tract infection using a chlamydial respiratory infection model. The results showed that the mRNA expression of IL-21 and IL-21R was increased in -infected mice, which suggested that IL-21 and IL-21R were involved in host defense against lung infection. Read More

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Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Convalescent Plasma.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Feb 26;8(2):ofaa574. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: The efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) is primarily ascribed as a source of neutralizing anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. However, the composition of other immune components in CCP and their potential roles remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to describe the composition and concentrations of plasma cytokines and chemokines in eligible CCP donors. Read More

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February 2021

Serum IL-21 levels predict HBeAg decline during rescue therapy in patients with partial response to nucleos(t)ide analogues.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Mar 15;21(3):216. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Hepatology Division 3, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, P.R. China.

To investigate whether IL-21 levels predict treatment outcomes of salvage therapy among patients with suboptimal response (SOR) to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), serum IL-21 levels were measured in a prospective cohort of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with SOR to antiviral therapy. The patients switched therapy to entecavir (ETV) with or without adefovir (ADV) for 104 weeks. IL-21 levels at treatment week 12 in patients who achieved HBeAg loss with undetectable levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA at week 104 were the primary endpoint and the results were compared with those of corresponding patients without such an endpoint. Read More

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Inflammatory versus Anti-inflammatory Profiles in Major Depressive Disorders-The Role of IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35 and Foxp3.

J Pers Med 2021 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Adult Psychiatry, Medical University of Lodz, 91-229 Lodz, Poland.

Background: The authors of this research study intended to verify whether there are any changes in gene expression in depressed patients without coexisting inflammatory diseases for selected immune-inflammatory factors that are particularly important in autoimmune disease pathogenesis (IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35, Foxp3).

Methods: The study was carried out on a group of 190 patients with depression and 100 healthy volunteers. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale. Read More

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January 2021

Chemokine networks modulating natural killer cell trafficking to solid tumors.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA; Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907 USA. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cell-based cell therapy has been emerging as a powerful weapon in the treatment of multiple malignancies. However, the inadequate infiltration of the therapeutic NK cells into solid tumors remains a big challenge to their clinical utility. Chemokine networks, which play essential roles in the migration of lymphocytes, have been recognized as critical in driving the intratumoral infiltration of NK cells via interactions between soluble chemokines and their receptors. Read More

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January 2021

[Clinical effect and mechanism of total glucosides of paeony in the adjuvant therapy for children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis: a prospective randomized controlled study].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jan;23(1):49-54

Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221000, China.

Objective: To study the clinical effect and mechanism of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) in the adjuvant therapy for children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN).

Methods: Sixty-four HSPN children with moderate proteinuria were divided into a TGP treatment group (=34) and a routine treatment group (=30) using a random number table. Thirty healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the healthy control group. Read More

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January 2021

Lymphocyte subpopulations in Sjögren's syndrome are distinct in anti-SSA-positive patients and related to disease activity.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Center, Immunology, NOVA Medical School | FCM, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objectives: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) patients exhibit great phenotypical heterogeneity, reinforced by the positiveness of anti-SSA antibody. We aimed to evaluate lymphocyte subpopulations in SSA-positive (SSA+SjS) and SSA-negative (SSA-SjS) SjS patients, Sicca patients, and healthy controls (HC), and to investigate associations between lymphocyte subpopulations and disease activity in SjS.

Methods: According to the fulfilment of the ACR/EULAR 2016 classification criteria, patients were included as SjS or as Sicca. Read More

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January 2021

Immune Skew of Circulating Follicular Helper T Cells Associates With Myasthenia Gravis Severity.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 03 12;8(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

From the Department of Neurology (S.A., C.F., T.M.), Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine; Department of Geriatric Medicine and Neurology (H.O.), Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon; Department of Neurology (M.H., R.T.), Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (M.H., Y.O., Y.H., T.K.), Kansai Medical University Medical Center, Osaka, Japan; Brigham and Women's Hospital (K. Kimura), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Neurology (K. Kawamura), National Hospital Organization Minami Kyoto Hospital; and Department of Immunology (H.U.), Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Objective: To clarify functional alterations of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) in myasthenia gravis (MG) because Tfh play important roles in helping B cells generate antibody-producing cells.

Methods: A total of 24 immunotherapy-naive patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibody-positive MG and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. Samples from 6 patients were available for posttreatment analysis. Read More

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Effects of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(1):e0244806. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To analyze the effect of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Systemically healthy controls (C group, n = 62), T2DM patients not taking statins (D group, n = 57) and T2DM patients taking statins (S group, n = 24) were recruited. In each group, subjects (40-85 years) were subclassified into the h (periodontal health)group, the g (gingivitis)group or the p (periodontitis) group according to different periodontal conditions. Read More

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[Expressions of Th1/Th2 cytokines and autoantibodies in the serum of males with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia and their significance].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Aug;26(8):695-699

Center of Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

Objective: To investigate the expressions of Th1/Th2 cytokines and autoantibodies in the serum of the patients with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia (IO) and their significance.

Methods: From November 2017 to April 2020, we examined the levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and the expressions of AhCGAb, AsAb and AcAb in the serum of 48 infertile men with mild or moderate IO, 48 with severe IO and another 72 males with normal semen parameters by ELISA. We compared the results of detection among the three groups and analyzed them with the logistic regression model. Read More

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