83,776 results match your criteria il-2


Bach2 attenuates IL-2R signaling to control Treg homeostasis and Tfr development.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109096

Shanghai Institute of Immunology & Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Differentiation and homeostasis of Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are tightly controlled by the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling, yet the mechanisms governing these processes are incompletely understood. Here, we report that transcription factor Bach2 attenuates IL-2R signaling to coordinate Treg differentiation and homeostasis. Bach2 is required for the quiescence, survival, and maintenance of resting Treg cells (rTregs). Read More

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Lifileucel, a Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy, in Metastatic Melanoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 12:JCO2100612. Epub 2021 May 12.

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Purpose: Effective treatment options are limited for patients with advanced (metastatic or unresectable) melanoma who progress after immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has demonstrated efficacy in advanced melanoma. Lifileucel is an autologous, centrally manufactured tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte product. Read More

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Blockade of transforming growth factor β2 by anti-sense oligonucleotide improves immunotherapeutic potential of IL-2 against melanoma in a humanized mouse model.

Cytotherapy 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background Aims: IL-2 is a potent cytokine that activates natural killer cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. However, the medical use of IL-2 is restricted because of its narrow therapeutic window and potential side effects, including the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs).

Methods: In this study, the authors investigated the complementary effects of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide (TASO) on the immunotherapeutic potential of IL-2 in a melanoma-bearing humanized mouse model. Read More

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Systemic inflammation is negatively associated with early post discharge growth following acute illness among severely malnourished children - a pilot study.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 16;5:248. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

The Childhood Acute Illness & Nutrition (CHAIN) Network, Nairobi, Kenya.

Rapid growth should occur among children with severe malnutrition (SM) with medical and nutritional management. Systemic inflammation (SI) is associated with death among children with SM and is negatively associated with linear growth. However, the relationship between SI and weight gain during therapeutic feeding following acute illness is unknown. Read More

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Changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cells, and IL-6 and IL-10 levels predict response of pediatric medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors with residual or disseminated disease to craniospinal irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiotherapy modulates immune cells and cytokines resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described.

Methods And Materials: The study population consisted of children (n=83, ages 3∼18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors, and CNS embryonal tumor-NOS), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard post-operative focal or craniospinal-irradiation (CSI). Read More

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Simlukafusp alfa (FAP-IL2v) immunocytokine is a versatile combination partner for cancer immunotherapy.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1913791

Roche Innovation Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Simlukafusp alfa (FAP-IL2v, RO6874281/RG7461) is an immunocytokine comprising an antibody against fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) and an IL-2 variant with a retained affinity for IL-2Rβγ > IL-2 Rβγ and abolished binding to IL-2 Rα. Here, we investigated the immunostimulatory properties of FAP-IL2v and its combination with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibition, CD40 agonism, T cell bispecific and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies. The binding and immunostimulatory properties of FAP-IL2v were investigated and compared with FAP-IL2wt. Read More

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An immunoinformatics approach for the design of a multi-epitope vaccine targeting super antigen TSST-1 of Staphylococcus aureus.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 11;19(1):69. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Vignan's Foundation for Science, Technology and Research (Deemed to be University), Vadlamudi, Guntur - District, Andhra Pradesh, 522 213, India.

Background: TSST-1 is a secretory and pyrogenic superantigen that is being responsible for staphylococcal mediated food poisoning and associated clinical manifestations. It is one of the main targets for the construction of vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the vaccines have met failure due to adverse reactions and toxicity reported during late clinical studies. Read More

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Cornuside alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting Th17 cell infiltration into the central nervous system.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 May;22(5):421-430

College of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.

The present study was conducted to clarify the therapeutic effect of cornuside on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and its influence on T helper 17 (Th17) cell and regulatory T (Treg) cell infiltration into the central nervous system. Rats were randomly placed into four treatment groups: control, EAE, EAE+cornuside, and EAE+prednisolone. The neurological function scores of rats were assessed daily. Read More

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Common and differential effects of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on helper T-cell responses and associated pathways.

BMB Rep 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Our understanding of the differential effects between specific omega-3 fatty acids is incomplete. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell responses and identify the pathways associated with these responses. Naïve CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of palmitate (PA), DHA, or EPA. Read More

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Effects of supplementing a healthy diet with pecan nuts or extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory profile of patients with stable coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 11:1-27. Epub 2021 May 11.

Graduate Program in Health Sciences (Cardiology), Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IC/FUC). 395 Princesa Isabel Avenue, 90040-371, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The consumption of nuts and extra-virgin olive oil has been associated with suppression of inflammatory pathways that contribute to atherosclerosis, but its role on the modulation of the inflammatory profile in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding pecan nuts or extra-virgin olive oil to a healthy diet on inflammatory markers in patients with stable CAD. In this randomized clinical trial, 204 patients were enrolled to three study groups: 67 to control group (CG: healthy diet), 68 to pecan nuts group (PNG: 30g/day of pecans + healthy diet) and 69 to extra-virgin olive oil group (OOG: 30ml/day of extra-virgin olive oil + healthy diet). Read More

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The immune protection induced by a serine protease from the Trichinella spiralis adult against Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 10;15(5):e0009408. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Trichinellosis is a major foodborne parasitosis caused by Trichinella spiralis. In the present study, a serine protease gene from an adult T. spiralis (Ts-Adsp) cDNA library was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. Read More

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Upregulation of Inflammatory Cytokines in Pulmonary Embolism Using Biochip-Array Profiling.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211013107

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USA.

The complex pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism (PE) involves hemostatic activation, inflammatory processes, cellular dysfunction, and hemodynamic derangements. Due to the heterogeneity of this disease, risk stratification and diagnosis remains challenging. Biochip-array technology provides an integrated high throughput method for analyzing blood plasma samples for the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers for potential risk stratification. Read More

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Development of Donor Recipient Chimeric Cells of bone marrow origin as a novel approach for tolerance induction in transplantation.

Stem Cell Investig 2021 19;8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Cell therapies and chimerism-based strategies are currently the most successful approach for tolerance induction in transplantation. This study aimed to establish and characterize novel Donor Recipient Chimeric Ccell (DRCC) therapy of bone marrow (BM) origin presenting donor-recipient phenotype to support tolerance induction.

Methods: fusions of fully MHC-mismatched BM cells from ACI (RT1) and Lewis (RT1) rats were performed using polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Read More

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Effects of hypothermia on inflammatory cytokine expression in rat liver following asphyxial cardiac arrest.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 15;21(6):626. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea.

Hypothermic treatment is known to protect against cardiac arrest (CA) and improve survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the CA-induced liver damage and the effects of hypothermia on this damage. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA. Read More

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Correlation between ground-glass opacity on pulmonary CT and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Int J Med Sci 2021 16;18(11):2394-2400. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, P.R. China.

Comparative analysis of laboratory data in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients presenting with or without ground-glass opacities (GGOs). This retrospective study examined 61 patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, as defined by the report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19. All patients were admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Union Hospital from Dec 28, 2019 to Feb 22, 2020 and classified into a GGO group or a non-GGO group based on CT results. Read More

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Ischemic Stroke, Inflammation, and Endotheliopathy in COVID-19 Patients.

Stroke 2021 May 10:STROKEAHA120031971. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. (L.S.M., A.S.Z., I.M., P.C., P.L., A.S.J., D.N., J.S., K.N.S., S.S., R.S., L.H.S.).

Background And Purpose: Reports indicate an increased risk of ischemic stroke during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We aimed to identify patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke and explore markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability, and endotheliopathy, a structural and functional disturbance of the vascular endothelium due to a stressor.

Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study comparing acute ischemic stroke patients with and without COVID-19 across 3 hospitals. Read More

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Brief in vitro IL-12 conditioning of CD8 T Cells for anticancer adoptive T cell therapy.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Animal Section, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Cancer immunotherapy represents a potential treatment approach through non-specific and specific enhancement of the immune responses. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a potential modality of immunotherapy that depends on harvesting T cells from the tumor-bearing host, activating them in vitro and infusing them back to the same host. Several cytokines, in particular IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15, have been used to enhance survival T cells in vitro. Read More

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Amlexanox enhances the antitumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 6;560:1-6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0812, Japan.

Cancer immunotherapy, especially treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling, has attracted attention as a new therapeutic option for cancer. However, only a limited number of patients have responded to this treatment approach. In this study, we searched for compounds that enhance the efficacy of anti-PD-1 mAb using mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), which is a mixed culture system of the two key cells (dendritic and T cells) involved in tumor immunity. Read More

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Structures and anti-melanoma activities of two polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, School of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China; Department of Pharmacology and Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Polysaccharide is one of the necessary macromolecules in life activities, and it is also a very promising natural product for tumor prevention and treatment. In this study, two homogeneous polysaccharides (APS-4I and APS-4II) were isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. Read More

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The Effects of Oral Liposomal Glutathione and In Vitro Everolimus in Altering the Immune Responses against BCG Strain in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

Biomol Concepts 2021 May 9;12(1):16-26. Epub 2021 May 9.

Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA; College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by () still remains a devastating infectious disease in the world. There has been a daunting increase in the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) worldwide. T2DM patients are three times more vulnerable to infection compared to healthy individuals. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of HBAI20 Hepatitis B vaccine in non-responders: double-blinded, randomised, controlled phase 2 trial.

Liver Int 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of NUTRIM, Maastricht UMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Approximately 5-10% of the general population respond inadequately to licensed recombinant hepatitis B vaccines. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a new HBAI20 vaccine, consisting of a new AI20 adjuvant (20µg recombinant human IL-2 attached to 20µg aluminum hydroxide) in combination with HBVaxPro®-10µg.

Methods: In a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase 2 trial, 18-59 years old healthy non-responders (titre <10 mIU/mL after three or more doses of hepatitis B vaccine) were assigned (3:1 ratio) to receive either HBAI20 vaccine or HBVaxPro®-10µg in a 0, 1 and 2 months schedule. Read More

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Comparing cytokine production and clinical response following vaccination with BCG Moreau and BCG Russia strains in a Brazilian infant population.

Vaccine 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratório Avançado de Saúde Pública, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IGM/Fiocruz), Salvador, Bahia 40296 710, Brazil; Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade Estadual da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA 41150 000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: BCG is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and, in Brazil, comprises part of the recommended vaccine schedule within the first month of life. Due to a local manufacturing shortage of BCG Moreau, BCG Russia was introduced in 2017 by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

Objective: To evaluate differences in immune responses induced by BCG Moreau and BCG Russia in infants, in addition to scar formation. Read More

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Tetramethylpyrazine supplementation improves performance, digestion, blood and immune state of broilers exposure to oxidative stress.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Animal Science, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on the growth performance, nutrient digestion, blood parameters and immunity of broilers under oxidative stress. Five treatments included negative control, positive control with lipopolysaccharide induction and TMP addition at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet using 600 male Arbor Acres broiler chicks. Results showed that during 1-14 days of age, body weight gain and feed efficiency in the positive control were worsened (p < . Read More

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Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms, vitamin D level, and cytokines in children with type 1 diabetes.

Gene 2021 May 4:145691. Epub 2021 May 4.

Siriraj Diabetes Center of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Aims: The study aimed to examine genetic polymorphism of vitamin D-related genes and association between those genes and vitamin D and cytokines levels in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted among 100 T1D children and 100 controls at Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, during 2016 to 2018. Vitamin D metabolite levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, serum cytokine levels of IFN- ɣ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α by immunoassay, and genetic variations at VDR, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, GC, DHCR7, and CYP24A1 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Read More

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Role of calcium phosphate and bioactive glass coating on in vivo bone healing of new Mg-Zn-Ca implant.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 May 7;32(5):55. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India.

Present investigation focuses on development and detailed characterization of a new Mg alloy sample (BM) with and without coating of hydroxyapatite (BMH) and bioactive glass (BMG) by air plasma spray method. After detailed mechano-physico-chemical characterization of powders and coated samples, electrochemical corrosion and SBF immersion tests were carried out. Detailed in vitro characterizations for cell viability were undertaken using MG-63 cell line followed by in vivo tests in rabbit model for studying bone healing up to 60 days. Read More

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Raleigh Instability-Driven Coaxial Spinning of Knotted Cell-Laden Alginate Fibers as Artificial Lymph Vessels.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Constructing artificial lymph vessels, which play a key role in the immune response, can provide new insights into immunology and disease pathologies. An immune tissue is a highly complex network that consists of lymph vessels, with a "beads-on-a-string" knotted structure. Herein, we present the facile and rapid fabrication of beads-on-a-string knotted cell-laden fibers using coaxial spinning of alginate by exploiting the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Read More

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Effect of inhaled anaesthetics gases on cytokines and oxidative stress alterations for the staff health status in hospitals.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of waste anaesthetic gases on cytokines and oxidative stress of hospital health team members following exposure to waste anaesthetic gases (WAGs).

Subjects And Methods: In total, 180 participants took part in this study; 60 of these were healthy male controls and the 120 participants in the intervention group were staff who work in the operating room. This latter group comprises six occupational subgroups (1) surgeons, (2) surgical assistants, (3) anaesthesiologists (4) anaesthesiology assistants, (5) nurses and (6) janitors. Read More

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Corrigendum: IL-7 During Antigenic Stimulation Using Allogeneic Dendritic Cells Promotes Expansion of CD45RACD62LCD4 Invariant NKT Cells With Th-2 Biased Cytokine Production Profile.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:689959. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020. Read More

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Case Report: A Novel IL2RG Frame-Restoring Rescue Mutation Mimics Early T Cell Engraftment Following Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient With X-SCID.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:644687. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Immunology Outpatient Clinic, Vienna, Austria.

Mutations of the interleukin 2 receptor γ chain (IL2RG) result in the most common form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is characterized by severe and persistent infections starting in early life with an absence of T cells and natural killer cells, normal or elevated B cell counts and hypogammaglobulinemia. SCID is commonly fatal within the first year of life, unless the immune system is reconstituted by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy. We herein describe a male infant with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) diagnosed at 5 months of age. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of inflammatory parameters and substitute insulin resistance indices in elderly women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 3;150:111389. Epub 2021 May 3.

Graduate Program of Health Sciences and Technologies - PGCTS, University of Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Purpose: To analyze the influence of inflammatory parameters and substitute insulin resistance indices on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) development in elderly women, as well as to compare anthropometric measures and metabolic parameters according to the presence of type 2 DM and HbA1c levels.

Patients And Methods: One hundred and twenty elderly women (67.9 ± 6. Read More

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