739 results match your criteria il-17 il-21


The Roles of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in the Infection and Gastrointestinal Inflammation: A Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

Although millions of people have been infected by (), only a small proportion of infected individuals will develop adverse outcomes, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer. Advanced development of the disease has been well-linked with chronic inflammation, which is significantly impacted by the adaptive and humoral immunity response. From the perspective of cellular immunity, this review aims to clarify the intricate axis between IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 in -related diseases and the pathogenesis of inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Read More

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Increased Circulating T Follicular Helper Cells Induced IL-12/21 in Patients With Acute on Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:641362. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: T Follicular helper (Tfh) cells, recognized as a distinct CD4 T cell subset, mediate the development of long-lived humoral immunity B cell activation/differentiation. Tfh cells play an important role during hepatic viral infection, but its role in hepatitis B virus-related acute on chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains to be explored.

Materials And Methods: The frequency of Tfh cells, serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-12, IL-21, IL-17 and TNF) levels and IgG/M levels were investigated in HBV-ACLF (n = 36), serious chronic hepatitis B (n = 21), moderate chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 32) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10). Read More

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In vitro effects of curcumin on proinflammatory cytokines and expression of their genes in minor salivary gland tissue of patients with Sjogren's syndrome.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Curcumin reduces disease severity and ameliorates lupus-like/Sjögren's Syndrome-like disease in mice model. The immunological basis of these effects is largely unknown. This study examined the effects of curcumin on pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by minor salivary glands in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Read More

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Resolvin E1 Regulates Th17 Function and T Cell Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:637983. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and plays a critical role in resolving inflammation and tissue homeostasis. T17 cells are a distinct group of T helper (T) cells with tissue-destructive functions in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases the secretion of IL-17. Dendritic cell (DC)-mediated antigen presentation regulates the T17-induced progression of inflammation and tissue destruction. Read More

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Could implant position influence the peri-implant parameters in edentulous mandibles of diabetics rehabilitated with overdentures? A split-mouth randomized study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Dental Research Division, School of Dentistry, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

This randomized controlled trial assessed the impact of crestal level position of implants installed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients rehabilitated with overdentures. Twenty-two mandibular edentulous T2DM patients were submitted to implant placement for retention of an overdenture. By means of a split-mouth design, two implants were installed: one at supracrestal level (SL) and one at crestal level (CL). Read More

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Retrobulbar administration of purified anti-nerve growth factor in developing rats induces structural and biochemical changes in the retina and cornea.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(2):209-216. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Research and Development Laboratory for Biochemical, Molecular and Cellular Applications in Ophthalmological Science, IRCCS, Fondazione Bietti, Rome 00182, Italy.

Aim: To develop an experimental model of endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation by retrobulbar administration of purified neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies in young Sprague-Dawley rats and provide further information on NGF expression in the retina and cornea.

Methods: Sixty old pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats (p14, post-natal days) were treated with repeated retrobulbar injections of neutralizing anti-NGF (2 µL, 100 µg/mL, every 3d). After 2wk (p28), retinal and corneal tissues were investigated for morphological, biochemical, and molecular expression of trkA by using Western blotting or immunofluorescence. Read More

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February 2021

Characterization of γδT cells in lung of Plasmodium yoelii-infected C57BL/6 mice.

Malar J 2021 Feb 15;20(1):89. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Key Laboratory of Immunology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Background: Malaria has high morbidity and mortality rates in some parts of tropical and subtropical countries. Besides respiratory and metabolic function, lung plays a role in immune system. γδT cells have multiple functions in producing cytokines and chemokines, regulating the immune response by interacting with other cells. Read More

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February 2021

Altered Th17/Treg ratio as a possible mechanism in pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

Cytokine 2021 May 8;141:155452. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) as a single organ autoimmune disease is a main cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults which is determined through autoantibodies to podocytes proteins. Th17/regulatory T (Treg) balance has emerged as a prominent factor in the regulation of autoimmunity. In this study, we evaluated the balance of Th17 and Treg cells, expression level of related master transcription factors, cytokines and microRNAs in mononuclear cells of peripheral blood of 30 patients with IMN and 30 healthy individuals before treatment. Read More

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Inflammatory versus Anti-inflammatory Profiles in Major Depressive Disorders-The Role of IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35 and Foxp3.

J Pers Med 2021 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Adult Psychiatry, Medical University of Lodz, 91-229 Lodz, Poland.

Background: The authors of this research study intended to verify whether there are any changes in gene expression in depressed patients without coexisting inflammatory diseases for selected immune-inflammatory factors that are particularly important in autoimmune disease pathogenesis (IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35, Foxp3).

Methods: The study was carried out on a group of 190 patients with depression and 100 healthy volunteers. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale. Read More

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January 2021

MicroRNAs as the Important Regulators of T Helper 17 Cells: A Narrative Review.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Dec 19;19(6):589-601. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Immunology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

T helper (Th)-17 cells are a distinct and important subset of Th cells and their functions are due to the ability of production and secretion of key cytokines in the immune system such as interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). According to these cytokines, these cells have vital roles in the pathogenesis of the disease such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Nowadays, microRNAs (miRNAs) are defined as essential regulators of cell function by targeting transcription factors and other elements that act in cells to control gene expression. Read More

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December 2020

Effects of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(1):e0244806. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To analyze the effect of statins on cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva and on clinical periodontal parameters of middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Systemically healthy controls (C group, n = 62), T2DM patients not taking statins (D group, n = 57) and T2DM patients taking statins (S group, n = 24) were recruited. In each group, subjects (40-85 years) were subclassified into the h (periodontal health)group, the g (gingivitis)group or the p (periodontitis) group according to different periodontal conditions. Read More

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January 2021

From genes polymorphisms to mucosal expression of cytokines: evaluating IL-23/IL-17 axis in adult patients with gastritis.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Sep;20(3):1452-1462

Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Chronic inflammation is the typical sign of gastritis that may shift into gastric cancer. IL-17A and IL-17F as a novel inflammatory cytokines subset of CD4+Th play the main role in inflammation. A key cytokine receptor in the inflammatory IL-17/IL-23 axis, the interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R), may be related to gastritis. Read More

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September 2020

Computationally predicted SARS-COV-2 encoded microRNAs target NFKB, JAK/STAT and TGFB signaling pathways.

Gene Rep 2021 Mar 31;22:101012. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 58140 Sivas, Turkey.

Recently an outbreak that emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, spread to the whole world in a short time and killed >1,410,000 people. It was determined that a new type of beta coronavirus called severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was causative agent of this outbreak and the disease caused by the virus was named as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID19). Despite the information obtained from the viral genome structure, many aspects of the virus-host interactions during infection is still unknown. Read More

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Immunomodulatory effects of nanocurcumin on Th17 cell responses in mild and severe COVID-19 patients.

J Cell Physiol 2021 07 28;236(7):5325-5338. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the increased frequency and overactivation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and subsequent production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines result in hyperinflammation and disease progression. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin on the frequency and responses of Th17 cells in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. In this study, 40 severe COVID-19 intensive care unit-admitted patients and 40 patients in mild condition were included. Read More

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Th17/Treg-Related Transcriptional Factor Expression and Cytokine Profile in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2020 11;11:572858. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine whether there is a correlation between transcription factors expression and Th17/Treg ratio, cytokine profile in the RA phenotype as well as to identify transcription factors that could be a potential biomarker for RA.

Methods: The study was conducted on 45 patients with RA, 27 patients with OA and 46 healthy controls (HCs). Th17 and Treg frequency was determined by flow cytometry (15 patients with RA/OA and 15 subjects of HC). Read More

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December 2020

Based on G-Series Mouse TH17 Array Study the Effect of Fluoride on C2C12 Cells Cytokines Expression.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, 263 Kaiyuan Avenue, Luoyang, 471023, Henan, People's Republic of China.

C2C12 cells were cultured on medium containing fluoride (0, 1, and 2.5 mmol/L) for 48 h to investigate the effect of excessive fluoride on T helper 17 (Th17)-related cytokine expression profile in skeletal muscle cells, and the culture supernatant was collected and subjected for the detection of 18 cytokines via Th17 array. Results showed that compared with the control group, no differential expression proteins (DEPs) were found in the 1 mmol/L fluoride group; however, eight DEPs were upregulated in the 2. Read More

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November 2020

IL-17 and IL-21 polymorphisms in relation to HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese Han population.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jan 21;87:104638. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms may influence the hepatic and extrahepatic HBV-related disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of IL-17, IL-21 gene and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese Han population.

Methods: We performed a multi-center study comprised 866 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 1086 unrelated patients with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as control to evaluate the effects of IL-17 (rs4711998), IL-21 SNPs (rs12508721, rs13143866 and rs2221903) and the susceptibility of HCC. Read More

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January 2021

The Role of Gamma-Delta T Cells in Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Front Immunol 2020 23;11:580304. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Gamma-delta (γδ) T cells are a subset of T cells that promote the inflammatory responses of lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and are especially vital to the initial inflammatory and immune responses. Given the capability to connect crux inflammations of adaptive and innate immunity, γδ T cells are responsive to multiple molecular cues and can acquire the capacity to induce various cytokines, such as GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IFN-γ. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms responsible for γδ T cell proinflammatory functions remain poorly understood, particularly in the context of the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Read More

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October 2020

T Cells Subsets in the Immunopathology and Treatment of Sjogren's Syndrome.

Biomolecules 2020 11 11;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical Immunology Research of Biochemical Sciences Faculty, Universidad Autónoma "Benito Juárez" de Oaxaca, Oaxaca City 68120, Mexico.

Sjogren´s syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease whose pathogenesis is characterized by an exacerbated T cell infiltration in exocrine glands, markedly associated to the inflammatory and detrimental features as well as the disease progression. Several helper T cell subsets sequentially converge at different stages of the ailment, becoming involved in specific pathologic roles. Initially, their activated phenotype endows them with high migratory properties and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in target tissues. Read More

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November 2020

Roles of cytokines and T cells in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Mar 3;203(3):366-374. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Hanamaki General Hospital, Hanamaki, Japan.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue caused by the presence of autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Activated T, B and plasma cells, as well as cytokines, play important roles in the production of pathogenic autoantibodies and the induction of inflammation at the neuromuscular junction in MG. Many studies have focused on the role of cytokines and lymphocytes in anti-AChR antibody-positive MG. Read More

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IFN-γ IL-17 Th17 cells regulate fibrosis through secreting IL-21 in systemic scleroderma.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 12 6;24(23):13600-13608. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Dermatology, First Medical Centre of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to explore the function of IFN-γ IL-17 Th17 cells on fibrosis in systemic scleroderma (SSc). Blood and skin samples were collected from 20 SSc cases and 10 healthy individuals. The percentage of IFN-γ IL-17 Th17 cells was detected using flow cytometry. Read More

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December 2020

Cytokine profiles of healthy and diseased sites in individuals with periodontitis.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 Dec 22;120:104957. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Periodontology, Dental Research Division, Guarulhos University, Praça Tereza Cristina, 229, Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd., Room D10-6, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aims of this study were: 1) to compare the levels of cytokines between healthy and diseased sites, in patients with untreated periodontitis; 2) to correlate cytokine levels with each other and with key periodontal pathogens, in healthy and diseased sites.

Methods: Paired gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were obtained from two healthy (probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≤3 mm without bleeding) and two diseased sites (PD and CAL ≥5 mm with bleeding on probing [BoP]) of patients with generalized stage III/IV grade B/C periodontitis. GCF levels of eighteen cytokines and subgingival levels of seven periodontal pathogens were assessed by multiplex immunoassay and qPCR, respectively. Read More

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December 2020

CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets and Related Human Immunological Disorders.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 28;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Molecular and Cellular Immunoregulation Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The immune system plays a critical role in protecting hosts from the invasion of organisms. CD4 T cells, as a key component of the immune system, are central in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. After decades of investigation, five major CD4 T helper cell (Th) subsets have been identified: Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg (T regulatory), and Tfh (follicular T helper) cells. Read More

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October 2020

The inflammation in cutaneous lichen planus is dominated by IFN-ϒ and IL-21-A basis for therapeutic JAK1 inhibition.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Feb 12;30(2):262-270. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Cutaneous lichen planus (CLP) and psoriasis (PSO) are both common chronic inflammatory skin diseases for which development of new treatments requires the identification of key targets. While PSO is a typical Th17/IL-17-disorder, there is some evidence that Th1/IFN-ɣ dominate the inflammatory process in CLP. Nonetheless, the immunopathogenesis of CLP is not fully explained and key immunological factors still have to be recognized. Read More

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February 2021

Serum cytokines in ANCA-associated vasculitis: Correlation with disease-related clinical and laboratory findings.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department and Clinic of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University in Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic, autoimmune disease. Cytokine dysregulation during active disease and clinical remission, reflects significant immunological activity in various disease stages, and might be responsible for the potential relapse of ANCA-vasculitis.

Objectives: This study aimed to screen serological profiles in active granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and to determine their associations with clinical characteristics. Read More

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October 2020

Monocytes as Potential Mediators of Pathogen-Induced T-Helper 17 Differentiation in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC).

Hepatology 2020 10 8;72(4):1310-1326. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Aims: T cells from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) show a prominent interleukin (IL)-17 response upon stimulation with bacteria or fungi, yet the reasons for this dominant T-helper 17 (Th17) response in PSC are not clear. Here, we analyzed the potential role of monocytes in microbial recognition and in skewing the T-cell response toward Th17.

Approach And Results: Monocytes and T cells from blood and livers of PSC patients and controls were analyzed ex vivo and in vitro using transwell experiments with cholangiocytes. Read More

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October 2020

Effects of treatment with hydroxychloroquine on the modulation of Th17/Treg ratio and pregnancy outcomes in women with recurrent implantation failure: clinical trial.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2020 Dec 14;42(6):632-642. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells has been recently suggested as a new risk factors for recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Furthermore Th17/Treg cells are involved in immune regulation in peripheral blood and endometrial tissue of patients with RIF. In this research, we investigated the effects of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on the level and function of Th17 and Treg cells in women with RIF. Read More

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December 2020

Implant of mesenchymal cells decreases acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplantation.

Cir Cir 2020 ;88(5):554-561

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Objective: The objective of the study was to show adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) immunomodulatory effects in small bowel transplantation (SBTx).

Materials And Methods: Forty Wistar Han rats (age: 10-12 weeks): were allogenic receptor rats and were allotted in 2 groups. Control group: rats undergoing orthopic SBTx ; AD-MSCs group: rats undergoing orthotopic SBTx plus AD-MSCs. Read More

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January 2020

Early changes in IL-21, IL-22, CCL2, and CCL4 serum cytokines after outpatient autologous transplantation for multiple sclerosis: A proof of concept study.

Clin Transplant 2020 12 28;34(12):e14114. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Hematology, Internal Medicine Division, Dr. José Eleuterio González University Hospital and School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico.

Changes in serum cytokines after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were documented. Thirty-six consecutive MS patients who had their Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scored before AHSCT were prospectively enrolled. Cyclophosphamide (Cy) was infused at 200 mg/kg in two administrations given 10 days apart: the first dose for mobilization, the second as the conditioning regimen. Read More

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December 2020

Antagonism of interleukin 17 protects chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat lungs from adverse effects of environmental PM.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(9):5808-5817. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University No. 215, Heping West Road, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei, China.

Severe air pollution has raised concerns about the adverse effects of particulate matters 2.5 μm in size (PM) on human health. However, the mechanisms elucidating how PM affects lungs, especially in COPD, remain unclear. Read More

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September 2020