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IL-33 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 convalescent individuals.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2133. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Immunometabolism, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg, Germany.

Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We perform an observational study to investigate seroprevalence and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members (155 individuals; ages 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein aligns with PCR results that confirm the previous infection. Read More

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Pilot study of an occupational healthcare program to assess the SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune status of employees in a large pharmaceutical company.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

New Biological Entities, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health France SCS, 69800 Saint-Priest, France.

Objective: To safeguard key workers involved in development and production of medicines and ensure business continuity, we developed an occupational healthcare program, performed by our company's occupational healthcare services, to assess the infection and immune status for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pilot program, conducted at our company facilities, evaluated the suitability of diagnostic tools in our setting for program upscaling.

Methods: We used different marketed in vitro diagnostics (including tests for antibodies against spike protein subunits S1 and S2 and nucleocapsid [N] protein) combined with medical history, symptoms and likelihood of infection. Read More

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The uncharacterized SANT and BTB domain-containing protein SANBR inhibits class switch recombination.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 5:100625. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biology, The Graduate Center and The City College of New York, New York, NY, 10031, USA. Electronic address:

Class switch recombination (CSR) is the process by which B cells switch production from IgM/IgD to other immunoglobulin isotypes, enabling them to mount an effective immune response against pathogens. Timely resolution of CSR prevents damage due to an uncontrolled and prolonged immune response. While many positive regulators of CSR have been described, negative regulators of CSR are relatively unknown. Read More

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Common pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce the hyper-activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in circulating B lymphocytes of HIV-infected individuals.

AIDS 2021 May;35(6):899-910

Laboratório de Imunogenética, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da Universidade de São Paulo (ICB/USP).

Objective: Despite the antiretroviral treatment, people with HIV (PWH) still experience systemic chronic inflammation and immune-senescence, which represent risk factors for severe comorbidities and inefficient response to pathogens and vaccines. Given the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in PWH and the recently demonstrated role played by NLRP3 in B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that NLRP3 dysregulation in B cells can contribute to chronic inflammation and humoral dysfunction in PWH.

Design: NLRP3 inflammasome activation was evaluated in B lymphocytes and correlated with antibodies production and immunization response in PWH. Read More

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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Viral RNA Load Status and Antibody Distribution Among Patients and Asymptomatic Carriers in Central China.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:559447. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Research Management, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, and People's Hospital of Henan University, Zhengzhou, China.

This study aimed to monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral loads and specific serum-antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig] G and M) among confirmed patients and asymptomatic carriers from returning healthy travelers. The throat swabs, sputum, and stool samples from 57 hospitalized coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and 8 asymptomatic carriers, among 170 returning healthy travelers were tested using reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies were detected serum chemiluminescence assay. Read More

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The Imbalance of Circulating Follicular T Helper Cell Subsets in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Associates With Serological Alterations and Abnormal B-Cell Distribution.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:639975. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Since B-cell hyperactivity and pathologic antibody response are key features in the immunopathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), the role of follicular T helper (T) cells as efficient helpers in the survival and differentiation of B cells has emerged. Our aim was to investigate whether a change in the balance of circulating (c)T subsets and follicular regulatory T (T) cells could affect the distribution of B cells in pSS. Peripheral blood of 38 pSS patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed for the frequencies of cT cell subsets, T cells, and certain B cell subpopulations by multicolor flow cytometry. Read More

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The Essential Involvement of the Omentum in the Peritoneal Defensive Mechanisms During Intra-Abdominal Sepsis.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:631609. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Trauma Research Center, Fourth Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Although the abilities of the omentum to alleviate inflammation and prevent infection have been revealed over the past decades, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unelucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the mortality of mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and omentectomy was remarkably increased compared to those treated with CLP alone. Moreover, the efficacy of the omentum was associated with an impairment in intraperitoneal bacterial clearance together with an increase in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Iguratimod ameliorates nephritis by modulating the Th17/Treg paradigm in pristane-induced lupus.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 31;96:107563. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Iguratimod, an anti-rheumatic drug, has been widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but is still at an investigative stage for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined the therapeutic effects of iguratimod and the mechanism underlying the efficacy in murine lupus model.

Methods: Pristane-induced lupus model of BALB/c mice (PI mice) were treated with iguratimod and mycophenolate mofetil. Read More

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Virtualized clinical studies to assess the natural history and impact of gut microbiome modulation in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 a randomized, open-label, prospective study with a parallel group study evaluating the physiologic effects of KB109 on gut microbiota structure and function: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

Trials 2021 Apr 2;22(1):245. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Kaleido Biosciences, Inc, Lexington, MA, USA.

Objectives: These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. Read More

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Asthma-Associated Long TSLP Inhibits the Production of IgA.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Immunology of Infectious Diseases and Vaccination, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) contributes to asthmatic disease. The concentrations of protective IgA may be reduced in the respiratory tract of asthma patients. We investigated how homeostatic short TSLP (shTSLP) and asthma-associated long TSLP (loTSLP) regulate IgA production. Read More

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Endogenously Produced SARS-CoV-2 Specific IgG Antibodies May Have a Limited Impact on Clearing Nasal Shedding of Virus during Primary Infection in Humans.

Viruses 2021 03 20;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

While SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies have been developed for therapeutic purposes, the specific viral triggers that drive the generation of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgM antibodies remain only partially characterized. Moreover, it is unknown whether endogenously derived antibodies drive viral clearance that might result in mitigation of clinical severity during natural infection. We developed a series of non-linear mathematical models to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 viral and antibody kinetics are coupled or governed by separate processes. Read More

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Immunoglobulins and Transcription Factors in Otitis Media.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 21;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The causes of otitis media (OM) involve bacterial and viral infection, anatomo-physiological abnormalities of the Eustachian canal and nasopharynx, allergic rhinitis, group childcare centers, second-hand smoking, obesity, immaturity and defects of the immune system, formula feeding, sex, race, and age. OM is accompanied by complex and diverse interactions among bacteria, viruses, inflammatory cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells. The present study summarizes the antibodies that contribute to immune reactions in all types of otitis media, including acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as well as the transcription factors that induce the production of these antibodies. Read More

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Combined effects of xylo-oligosaccharides and coated sodium butyrate on growth performance, immune function, and intestinal physical barrier function of broilers.

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13545

College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Animal Origin Food production and Safety Guarantee of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing, Quality, and Safety Control, Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), coated sodium butyrate (CSB), and their combination on growth performance, immune parameters, and intestinal barrier of broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old chicks were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design including two dietary additives (0 and 150 mg/kg XOS and 0 and 400 mg/kg CSB). This trial lasted for 42 days. Read More

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January 2021

Bioinformatic Prediction and Production of Four Recombinant Proteins from Different Developmental Stages of and Testing of Their Diagnostic Sensitivity in Mice.

Iran J Parasitol 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):122-135

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Shanghai 200025, China.

Background: Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis, thus finding high quality antigens is the key to serodiagnosis of trichinosis. This article reports the characterization and sensitivity of four recombinant proteins expressed by four genes (, , , and ) from different developmental stages of for the diagnosis of trichinellosis in mice.

Methods: This study was conducted in Jilin University and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Read More

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Characteristics of immune function in the acute phase of Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Infectious Disease, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Background: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is still diagnosed using symptoms and signs together with some histopathological findings. The purpose of this study was to summarize the characteristics and roles of cellular and humoral immunity in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).

Methods: A total of 502 cases of patients with acute HSP were diagnosed and observed. Read More

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Characterization of the mechanism of action of lanraplenib, a novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in models of lupus nephritis.

BMC Rheumatol 2021 Mar 30;5(1):15. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA, 94404, USA.

Background: B cells are critical mediators of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN), and antinuclear antibodies can be found in the serum of approximately 98% of patients with SLE. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling from immunoreceptors, including the B cell receptor. Active, phosphorylated SYK has been observed in tissues from patients with SLE or cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and its inhibition is hypothesized to ameliorate disease pathogenesis. Read More

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The Characterization of Disease Severity Associated IgG Subclasses Response in COVID-19 Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:632814. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulated immune responses are associated with the clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nucleocapsid protein (NP)-, spike (S)-, receptor binding domain (RBD)- specific immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgG subclasses and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were analyzed in 123 serum from 63 hospitalized patients with severe, moderate, mild or asymptomatic COVID-19. Mild to modest correlations were found between disease severity and antigen specific IgG subclasses in serum, of which IgG1 and IgG3 were negatively associated with viral load in nasopharyngeal swab. Read More

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Production and characterization of a mouse monoclonal antibody against smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) IgM.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Mar 16;113:20-23. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, 23062, USA.

A murine monoclonal antibody (mAb, IgG2a) was produced for the detection of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) immunoglobulin (IgM). The antibody is specific for IgM heavy chain and was shown to also recognize the Ig heavy chain of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) using Western Blot analysis of plasma from 9 teleost taxa. When applied to the analysis of smallmouth bass total plasma IgM using ELISA, the mAb was found to be effective when used in an inhibition kinetic assay. Read More

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Framework for Characterizing Longitudinal Antibody Response in Children After Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:617951. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Human infection produces a robust adaptive immune response. Time courses for 104 children followed for 42 days after initiation of chemotherapy were assayed for antibody levels to the five isotypes of human immunoglobulins (Ig) and 4 subclasses of IgG for 32 antigens encompassing all 4 parasite stages of human infection. IgD and IgE against these antigens were undetectable at 1:100 serum concentration, but other Ig isotypes and IgG subclasses were consistently observed against all antigens. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral immunity through B cell epitope analysis in COVID-19 infected individuals.

Sci Rep 2021 03 15;11(1):5934. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Health Development and Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

The aim of this study is to understand adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 through the analysis of B cell epitope and neutralizing activity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We obtained serum from forty-three COVID-19 patients from patients in the intensive care unit of Osaka University Hospital (n = 12) and in Osaka City Juso Hospital (n = 31). Most individuals revealed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 assessed by a pseudotype virus-neutralizing assay. Read More

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The Immunostimulatory Effects of Commercial Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Non-specific Immune Response, Antioxidants Assay, and Intestinal Morphometry of Nile tilapia, .

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:627499. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

WorldFish, Africa Aquaculture Research and Training Center, Abbassa, Egypt.

The main objective of the present research was to investigate the impacts of commercial immunostimulants on growth, non-specific immune response, antioxidant enzymes, and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia, . Fish (100 ± 6.5 g) were randomly divided into five groups in triplicates (150 fish in each replicate), stocked in 20 m of aerated concrete ponds. Read More

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February 2021

Brief report: Production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin from convalescent plasma.

Transfusion 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Grifols Bioscience Industrial Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Background: In late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus emerged in China and quickly spread into a worldwide pandemic. Prior to the development of specific drug therapies or a vaccine, more immediately available treatments were sought including convalescent plasma. A potential improvement from convalescent plasma could be the preparation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG). Read More

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Immunization with extracellular vesicles excreted by Toxoplasma gondii confers protection in murine infection, activating cellular and humoral responses.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Centro de Parasitologia e Micologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The study aim was to analyze whether microvesicles and exosomes, named extracellular vesicles (EVs), purified from Toxoplasma gondii are able to stimulate the protective immunity of experimental mice when administered, as challenge, a highly virulent strain. EVs excreted from T. gondii tachyzoites (RH strain) were purified by chromatography and used for immunization assays in inbred mouse groups (EV-IM). Read More

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Characterization of innate immune response to Brucella melitensis infection in goats with permissive or restrictive phenotype for Brucella intramacrophagic growth.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 8;234:110223. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Instituto de Patobiología Veterinaria, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), N. Repetto y De los Reseros, 1686 Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Caprine brucellosis is a chronic, world-wide distributed disease which causes reproductive failure in goats and Brucella melitensis, its causative agent, bears a great zoonotic potential. There is evidence suggesting that some cattle and pigs have an innate ability to resist Brucella infection, but this has not yet been investigated in goats. In this study, we compared caprine macrophages that exhibit extreme restriction and permissiveness to B. Read More

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Peripheral neuropathy due to neuroborreliosis: Insensitivity for CXCL13 as early diagnostic marker.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 5;105:460-462. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Landesklinikum Mistelbach-Gänserndorf, Mistelbach, Austria; Department of Neurology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany; Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Centre, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:

The case of a 69-year-old woman with peripheral neuropathy caused by Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic region in Eastern Austria is reported. The patient had noticed transient numbness of her left leg. On initial examination, she had patchy sensory disturbances of the left lower leg, but ancillary examinations of nerve conduction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), including the B-cell chemokine CXCL13, were normal. Read More

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pZL8a: a potential probiotic isolated from pig feces for further research.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 19;11(3):132. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Yanchangbu, Lanzhou, 730046 Gansu China.

This study aimed to screen a potential anti-diarrheal probiotic for pigs to meet the growing demand for antibiotic alternatives in livestock. Six intestinal pathogens, (O157: H7) ATCC 43888, ATCC 6538, ATCC 19115, ATCC 14028, ATCC 9207, and ZSY2 were employed as indicator bacteria. Our result showed that pZL8a isolated from pig feces had extensive and higher antibacterial activity against indicator pathogens among 9 tested strains. Read More

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Chemokine Receptor-6 Promotes B-1 Cell Trafficking to Perivascular Adipose Tissue, Local IgM Production and Atheroprotection.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:636013. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Chemokine receptor-6 (CCR6) mediates immune cell recruitment to inflammatory sites and has cell type-specific effects on diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Previously we showed that loss of CCR6 in B cells resulted in loss of B cell-mediated atheroprotection, although the B cell subtype mediating this effect was unknown. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) harbors high numbers of B cells including atheroprotective IgM secreting B-1 cells. Read More

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February 2021

Modulation of the mucosal immune response of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) against columnaris disease using a biomimetic-mucoadhesive nanovaccine.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 4;112:81-91. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Wildlife Exotic Aquatic Animal Pathology-Research Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Columnaris, a highly contagious bacterial disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is recognized as one of the most important infectious diseases in farmed tilapia, especially during the fry and fingerling stages of production. The disease is associated with characteristic lesions in the mucosa of affected fish, particularly their skin and gills. Vaccines delivered via the mucosa are therefore of great interest to scientists developing vaccines for this disease. Read More

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Synergistic effect of Spirulina platensis and selenium nanoparticles on growth performance, serum metabolites, immune responses, and antioxidant capacity of heat-stressed broiler chickens.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Abu-Zaabal, 13759, Egypt.

This study examined the effects of dietary Spirulina platensis (SP) at levels of 0, 5, and 10 g.kg and selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) at 0, 0.1, and 0. Read More

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Management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis in lactation: case report and review of the literature.

Int Breastfeed J 2021 Mar 4;16(1):23. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, 400 W. Pueblo Street, Santa Barbara, CA, 93105, USA.

Background: Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis (IGM) is a benign chronic inflammatory breast condition that mimics two common breast disorders: breast carcinoma and breast abscess. It can form breast masses, fistulae, and fluid collections, resulting in breast disfigurement with retraction and nipple areolar complex (NAC) inversion. IGM most often presents in women of childbearing age within a few years of pregnancy, and can significantly impact lactation. Read More

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