Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 21;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.
The causes of otitis media (OM) involve bacterial and viral infection, anatomo-physiological abnormalities of the Eustachian canal and nasopharynx, allergic rhinitis, group childcare centers, second-hand smoking, obesity, immaturity and defects of the immune system, formula feeding, sex, race, and age. OM is accompanied by complex and diverse interactions among bacteria, viruses, inflammatory cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells. The present study summarizes the antibodies that contribute to immune reactions in all types of otitis media, including acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as well as the transcription factors that induce the production of these antibodies. Read More