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Effect of natural garlic essential oil on chickens with artificially infected Eimeria tenella.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Nov 3;300:109614. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071001, China. Electronic address:

Chicken coccidiosis is a kind of parasitic protozoosis caused by Eimeria parasitizing in the chicken intestinal epithelial cells. Eimeria tenella is considered as a significantly virulent and harmful parasite. At present, drug resistance remains a major problem and a large number of drug residues have been found to be produced in the treatment of the disease. Read More

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November 2021

Glycyrrhiza polysaccharides can improve and prolong the response of chickens to the Newcastle disease vaccine.

Poult Sci 2021 Oct 16;101(1):101549. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, PR China; MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, PR China.

Licorice is a medicinal and food plant widely used to treat diseases and produce food additives, because of its unique chemical constituents like polysaccharides, flavones, and saponins. Glycyrrhiza Polysaccharides (GPS-1) are water-soluble neutral polysaccharides extracted from licorice. Currently, GPS-1 is administrated to chickens by gavage every d for 14 d to observe the impact of GPS-1 on the Newcastle disease vaccine. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of the flavonoids quercetin and taxifolin on UVA-induced damage to human primary skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, Hněvotínská 3, 77515, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The ultraviolet (UV) part of solar radiation can permanently affect skin tissue. UVA photons represent the most abundant UV component and stimulate the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative damage to various biomolecules. Several plant-derived polyphenols are known as effective photoprotective agents. Read More

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November 2021

Engineering a Minimal Leucine-rich Repeat IgG-binding Module.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Sea lamprey immunization can yield leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein binders analogous to globular antibodies developed from mammals. A novel minimal LRR was discovered through lamprey immunization with human immunoglobulin G Fc domain (IgG Fc). Initial attempts to solubly express this LRR protein, VLRB. Read More

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November 2021

Protective mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after heterologous systemic prime-mucosal boost immunization.

Nat Commun 2021 Nov 26;12(1):6871. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are currently in use, but effective boosters are needed to maintain or increase immunity due to waning responses and the emergence of novel variants. Here we report that intranasal vaccinations with adenovirus 5 and 19a vectored vaccines following a systemic plasmid DNA or mRNA priming result in systemic and mucosal immunity in mice. In contrast to two intramuscular applications of an mRNA vaccine, intranasal boosts with adenoviral vectors induce high levels of mucosal IgA and lung-resident memory T cells (T); mucosal neutralization of virus variants of concern is also enhanced. Read More

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November 2021

Prevention and partial reversion of the lupus phenotype in ABIN1[D485N] mice by an IRAK4 inhibitor.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 Nov;8(1)

MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK

Objective: We have reported previously that the IRAK4 inhibitor PF06426779 given to ubiquitin-binding-defective ABIN1[D485N] mice at 6 weeks of age prevents the major facets of lupus that develop 10 weeks later. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether PF06426779 could reverse the lupus phenotype when administered to 13-week-old ABIN1[D485N] mice that had already developed symptoms of lupus.

Methods: Splenomegaly, the number of splenic neutrophils, T and Germinal Centre B (GCB) cells, serum levels of immunoglobulins, the extent of kidney, liver and lung pathology, and glomerular IgA and IgM were measured after feeding 13-week-old ABIN1[D485N] and wild-type mice for another 10 weeks with R&M3 diet with and without PF06426779 (4 g/kg). Read More

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November 2021

Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease and Diagnosis Accuracy in a Single-Center European Pediatric Cohort over 10 Years.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 18;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Gastroenterology Unit, Modena University Hospital, 41124 Modena, Italy.

(1) Background: Changes in the clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD) in children have been reported. The guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) allow esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsies to be avoided under specific circumstances. We aimed to assess the clinical picture of pediatric CD patients at diagnosis and to validate ESPGHAN non-biopsy criteria. Read More

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November 2021

KDP, a Lactobacilli Product from Kimchi, Enhances Mucosal Immunity by Increasing Secretory IgA in Mice and Exhibits Antimicrobial Activity.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 4;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt.

The potential of KDP, a lactic acid bacterial strain of , to enhance the production of mucosal specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice and thereby enhance gut mucosal immunity was examined. KDP is composed of dead cells isolated from the Korean traditional food kimchi. Female BALB/c mice orally received 0. Read More

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November 2021

Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 29;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Group of Virology and Pathogenesis, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-UVigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain.

Viral and host immune kinetics during acute COVID-19 and after remission of acute symptoms need better characterization. SARS-CoV-2 RNA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in sequential samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients during acute infection and six months following diagnosis. Twenty four laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate and severe COVID-19 were included. Read More

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October 2021

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Tick-Borne Pathogens in Czech Patients with Suspected Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The hypothesized importance of coinfections in the pathogenesis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) leads to the use of combined, ongoing antimicrobial treatment in many cases despite the absence of symptoms typical of the presence of infection with specific pathogens. Serum samples from 103 patients with suspected post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome were tested for the presence of antibodies to the major tick-borne pathogens , /, and . Although the presence of anti- antibodies was detected in 12. Read More

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October 2021

Riboflavin as a Mucosal Adjuvant for Nasal Influenza Vaccine.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Nov 9;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Intranasal immunization with whole inactivated virus (WIV) is an important strategy used for influenza prevention and control. However, a powerful mucosal adjuvant is required to improve nasal vaccine efficacy. Riboflavin, as a food additive with the advantages of being safe and low-cost, widely exists in living organisms. Read More

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November 2021

A Novel Double Mosaic Virus-like Particle-Based Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Incorporates Both Receptor Binding Motif (RBM) and Fusion Domain.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Nov 5;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

COVID-19 has emerged, and has rapidly become a major health problem worldwide, causing millions of mortalities. Vaccination against COVID-19 is the most efficient way to stop the pandemic. The goal of vaccines is to induce neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus. Read More

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November 2021

New-Onset and Relapsed Kidney Histopathology Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 29;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Introduction: The introduction of COVID-19 vaccination programs has become an integral part of the major strategy to reduce COVID-19 numbers worldwide. New-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination, sparking debate on whether there are causal associations. How these vaccines achieve an immune response to COVID-19 and the mechanism that this triggers kidney pathology remains unestablished. Read More

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October 2021

Broad-Spectrum and Gram-Negative-Targeting Antibiotics Differentially Regulate Antibody Isotype Responses to Injected Vaccines.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Antibiotics are extensively used worldwide for the treatment of common infections by agents such as and They also represent the most common cause of alteration of the microbiota in people. We addressed whether broad-spectrum and Gram-negative-targeting antibiotics differentially regulate systemic and mucosal immune responses to vaccines. Antibiotics treatment enhances serum IgG1 responses in mice immunized systemically with a model polyvalent vaccine. Read More

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October 2021

Sublingual Immunization with Chimeric C1q/CD40 Ligand/HIV Virus-like Particles Induces Strong Mucosal Immune Responses against HIV.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 23;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Development of a vaccine that can elicit robust HIV specific antibody responses in the mucosal compartments is desired for effective prevention of HIV via sexual transmission. However, the current mucosal vaccines have either poor immunogenicity when administered orally or invite safety concerns when administered intranasally. Sublingual immunization has received more attention in recent years based on its efficiency in inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses in both mucosal and extra-mucosal tissues. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Tetraspanin 2 (TSP2) Fused to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit LTB Adjuvant Following Intranasal Vaccination of Cattle.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences and Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

Fasciolosis, caused by the liver flukes and is an economically important and globally distributed zoonotic disease. Liver fluke infections in livestock cause significant losses in production and are of particular concern to regions where drug resistance is emerging. Antigens of the surface tegument represent promising vaccine candidates for controlling this disease. Read More

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October 2021

Dynamics of Neutralizing Antibody Responses Following Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Correlation with Commercial Serologic Tests. A Reappraisal and Indirect Comparison with Vaccinated Subjects.

Viruses 2021 Nov 22;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences, University of Namur, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

Neutralising antibodies (NAbs) represent the real source of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections by preventing the virus from entering target cells. The gold standard in the detection of these antibodies is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). As these experiments must be done in a very secure environment, other techniques based on pseudoviruses: pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT) or surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) have been developed. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular and Serological Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant in Bangladesh in 2021.

Viruses 2021 Nov 19;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

SeraDiaLogistics, 81545 Munich, Germany.

Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging at an alarming rate. The delta variant and other variants of concern (VoC) carry spike (S)-protein mutations, which have the potential to evade protective immunity, to trigger break-through infections after COVID-19 vaccination, and to propagate future waves of COVID-19 pandemic. To identify SARS CoV-2 variants in Bangladesh, patients who are RT-PCR-positive for COVID-19 infections in Dhaka were screened by a RT-PCR melting curve analysis for spike protein mutations. Read More

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November 2021

Robust and Persistent B- and T-Cell Responses after COVID-19 in Immunocompetent and Solid Organ Transplant Recipient Patients.

Viruses 2021 Nov 11;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Unit of Microbiology and Virology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The development and persistence of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in immunocompetent (IC) and immunocompromised patients is crucial for long-term protection. Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was analysed in 57 IC and 15 solid organ transplanted (TX) patients. Antibody responses were determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. Read More

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November 2021

Peritoneal Administration of a Subunit Vaccine Encapsulated in a Nanodelivery System Not Only Augments Systemic Responses against SARS-CoV-2 but Also Stimulates Responses in the Respiratory Tract.

Viruses 2021 Nov 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The COVID-19 pandemic has currently created an unprecedented threat to human society and global health. A rapid mass vaccination to create herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is a crucial measure to ease the spread of this disease. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine candidate, a SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein encapsulated in ,,-trimethyl chitosan particles or S-TMC NPs. Read More

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November 2021

Surface Modification of Metallic Inserts for Enhancing Adhesion at the Metal-Polymer Interface.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Nov 20;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Physics and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Vavrečkova 275, 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic.

A combination of mechanical and chemical treatments was utilized to modify the surface textures of copper and duralumin inserts in order to enhance the adhesion at the metal-polymer interface and provide an adhesive joint with a high loadbearing capacity. Pretreatment of the surfaces with sandblasting was followed by etching with various chemical mixtures. The resulting surface textures were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical confocal microscope. Read More

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November 2021

Cyclomodulins and Hemolysis in as Potential Low-Cost Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 31;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Hněvotínská 3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The frequent occurrence of positive for cyclomodulins such as colibactin (CLB), the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), and the cytolethal distending factor (CDT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients published so far provides the opportunity to use them as CRC screening markers. We examined the practicability and performance of a low-cost detection approach that relied on culture followed by simplified DNA extraction and PCR in isolates recovered from 130 CRC patients and 111 controls. Our results showed a statistically significant association between CRC and the presence of colibactin genes and , the gene, and newly, the hemolytic phenotype of isolates. Read More

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October 2021

and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in COVID-19 Patients with Severe Pneumonia.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 22;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Microbiology, University Hospital Olomouc, I. P. Pavlova 6, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered to patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia pose a risk of infection caused by . This risk is reduced mainly by strict hygiene measures and early de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Recently, oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) has also been discussed. Read More

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October 2021

Relationship between Saliva and Sublingual Immunotherapy.

Pathogens 2021 Oct 21;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Narita Hospital, 852 Hatakeda, Narita, Chiba Prefecture 286-0124, Japan.

The demand for allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT), especially sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), is increasing because of its efficacy in inducing clinical remission of allergic diseases and its low risk of side effects. Since not all patients that undergo SLIT demonstrate an improvement in allergic symptoms, the development of biomarkers to predict the outcome and adjuvants for SLIT is desired. Saliva is the first target with which tablets used in SLIT come into contact, and salivary pH, chemical properties or microbiome composition are reported to possibly be associated with the outcome of SLIT. Read More

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October 2021

Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Membranous and IgA Nephropathies.

Cells 2021 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-006 Warsaw, Poland.

Glomerular diseases (GNs) are responsible for approximately 20% of chronic kidney diseases. Glucocorticoid receptor gene () single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated in differences in predisposition to autoimmunity and steroid sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the SNPs-rs6198, rs41423247 and rs17209237-in 72 IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and 38 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients compared to 175 healthy controls and to correlate the effectiveness of treatment in IgAN and MN groups defined as a reduction of proteinuria <1 g/24 h after 12 months of treatment. Read More

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November 2021

Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Vaccine in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Infliximab Combination Therapy: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 18;10(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Dasman Diabetes Institute (DDI), Dasman 15462, Kuwait.

Background: Vaccination is a promising strategy to protect vulnerable groups like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients against COVID-19 and associated severe outcomes. COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials excluded IBD patients taking infliximab with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine (infliximab combination). Therefore, we sought to evaluate serologic responses to COVID-19 vaccination with the mRNA vaccine, BNT162b2, in patients with IBD receiving infliximab combination therapy compared with healthy participants. Read More

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November 2021

Auxin Metabolite Profiling in Isolated and Intact Plant Nuclei.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 16;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The plant nucleus plays an irreplaceable role in cellular control and regulation by auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) mainly because canonical auxin signaling takes place here. Auxin can enter the nucleus from either the endoplasmic reticulum or cytosol. Therefore, new information about the auxin metabolome (auxinome) in the nucleus can illuminate our understanding of subcellular auxin homeostasis. Read More

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November 2021

Urinary Protein and Peptide Markers in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 9;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Bolshoy Boulevard 30, Bld. 1, 121205 Moscow, Russia.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a non-specific type of kidney disease that causes a gradual decline in kidney function (from months to years). CKD is a significant risk factor for death, cardiovascular disease, and end-stage renal disease. CKDs of different origins may have the same clinical and laboratory manifestations but different progression rates, which requires early diagnosis to determine. Read More

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November 2021

Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Accurate and Prompt Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Diagnosis Using the Rational Selection of Serological Biomarkers.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Oct 23;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 23.

First Department of Paediatrics, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Immunology and Vaccinology Research Laboratory and Infectious Diseases Department "MAKKA", Athens Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Prompt COVID-19 diagnosis is urgently required to support infection control measures. Currently available serological tests for measuring SARS-CoV-2 antibodies use different target antigens, although their sensitivity and specificity presents a challenge. We aimed to develop an "in-house" serological ELISA to measure antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by combining different protein antigens. Read More

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October 2021

Global Prevalence of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Nov 18;7(11). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Czech National Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation (Cochrane Czech Republic, Czech EBHC: JBI Centre of Excellence, Masaryk University GRADE Centre), Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Mucormycosis, a secondary fungal infection, gained much attention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This deadly infection has a high all-cause mortality rate and imposes a significant economic, epidemiological, and humanistic burden on the patients and healthcare system. Evidence from the published epidemiological studies showed the varying prevalence of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Read More

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November 2021