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Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms, vitamin D level, and cytokines in children with type 1 diabetes.

Gene 2021 May 4:145691. Epub 2021 May 4.

Siriraj Diabetes Center of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Aims: The study aimed to examine genetic polymorphism of vitamin D-related genes and association between those genes and vitamin D and cytokines levels in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted among 100 T1D children and 100 controls at Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, during 2016 to 2018. Vitamin D metabolite levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, serum cytokine levels of IFN- ɣ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α by immunoassay, and genetic variations at VDR, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, GC, DHCR7, and CYP24A1 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Read More

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Endothelial Transient Receptor Potential V4 Channels Mediate Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), involving severe inflammation and edema, is a major cause of primary graft dysfunction following transplant. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels modulates vascular permeability. Thus, this study tests the hypothesis that endothelial TRPV4 channels mediate lung IRI. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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Carbon and Nitrogen K-Edge NEXAFS Spectra of Indole, 2,3-Dihydro-7-azaindole, and 3-Formylindole.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., 34149 Trieste, Italy.

The near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of indole, 2,3-dihydro-7-azaindole, and 3-formylindole in the gas phase have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges. The spectral features have been interpreted based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations within the transition potential (TP) scheme, which is accurate enough for a general description of the measured C 1s NEXAFS spectra as well as for the assignment of the most relevant features. For the nitrogen K-edge, the agreement between experimental data and theoretical spectra calculated with TP-DFT was not quite satisfactory. Read More

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Murine endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis depending on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 May;135(9):1065-1082

Neuroimmune Interactions Laboratory, Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a huge challenge for scientists, as little translational relevance has been achieved. However, many studies using MSCs have proved their suppressive and regenerative capacity. Thus, there is still a need for a better understanding of MSCs biology and the establishment of newer protocols, or to test unexplored tissue sources. Read More

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Tuberculosis vaccine BCG: the magical effect of the old vaccine in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 May 7:1-14. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine that was developed about 100 years ago by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. Many countries have been using the vaccine for decades against tuberculosis (TB). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a single dose of BCG for infants in TB endemic as well as leprosy high risk countries, and globally almost 130 million infants are vaccinated yearly. Read More

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Helios serves as a suppression marker to reduce regulatory T cell function in pancreatic cancer patients.

Immunol Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Destabilizing and reprogramming regulatory T (Treg) cells have become a potential strategy to treat tumor. Mounting evidence indicates that the transcription factor Helios is required for the stable differentiation of Treg lineage. Hence, we investigated whether Helios suppression could be a potential treatment option for pancreatic cancer patients. Read More

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Cord blood levels of interleukin-10 decrease in neonates with increased birth weight: novel implications of the cytokine network in early obesity.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Immunometabolism, Research Division, General Hospital of Mexico "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", 06720, Mexico City, Mexico.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are associated with body weight alterations in children, adolescents, and adults. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-10 and IFN-gamma in birth weight of neonates. One hundred eighty-two infants were enrolled and divided in groups of normal birth weight (< 95th percentile) or increased birth weight (> 95th percentile) for gestational age. Read More

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Effect of inhaled anaesthetics gases on cytokines and oxidative stress alterations for the staff health status in hospitals.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of waste anaesthetic gases on cytokines and oxidative stress of hospital health team members following exposure to waste anaesthetic gases (WAGs).

Subjects And Methods: In total, 180 participants took part in this study; 60 of these were healthy male controls and the 120 participants in the intervention group were staff who work in the operating room. This latter group comprises six occupational subgroups (1) surgeons, (2) surgical assistants, (3) anaesthesiologists (4) anaesthesiology assistants, (5) nurses and (6) janitors. Read More

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Immunological Features of Pediatric Interstitial Pneumonia Due to .

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:651487. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neonatology, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and immunologic mechanism are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia (MPP). However, the role of immune system of pediatric interstitial pneumonia due to infections remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunologic features of pediatric interstitial pneumonia due to . Read More

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IFN-I Mediates Lupus Nephritis From the Beginning to Renal Fibrosis.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:676082. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The abundant cell-free nucleic (DNA/RNA) in SLE patients, especially dsDNA, is a key substance in the pathogenesis of SLE and LN. The deposition of DNA/RNA-immune complexes (DNA/RNA-ICs) in the glomerulus causes a series of inflammatory reactions that lead to resident renal cell disturbance and eventually renal fibrosis. Read More

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Integrin α4β1/VCAM-1 Interaction Evokes Dynamic Cell Aggregation Between Immune Cells and Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells at Infectious Hemolysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:653143. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Hepatopathy, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.

Bacterial and viral infection is a common cause of pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome. Increasing evidence indicates that red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to immune response and inflammation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that link RBC and hemolysis to the development and progression of inflammatory pathologies are not entirely understood. Read More

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A Combination of Atorvastatin and Aspirin Enhances the Pro-Regenerative Interactions of Marrow Stromal Cells and Stroke-Derived Monocytes .

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:589418. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States.

Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are being tested in clinical trials for stroke patients. MSCs appear to promote recovery through secretomes that promote modulation of immune cells, including myeloid phagocytes. Many stroke patients have comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes for which they are prescribed medications that might affect the function of MSCs and monocytes (Mo) when they are administered in stroke patients. Read More

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T-Natural Killers and Interferon Gamma/Interleukin 4 in Augmentation of Infection in Foot Ulcer in Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 29;14:1897-1908. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Immunology, Zoology & Entomology Department, Faculty of Science for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: The link between immune system and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis attracted attention to demonstrate the role of immune cells and their secreted cytokines in T2DM development and its subsequent foot complications.

Objective: To investigate the relation between T Natural killer cell (TNK) %, Interleukin 4 (IL4) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and diabetic foot infection (DFI) development in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).

Patients And Methods: Ninety patients with diabetes were included in this work, divided as T2DM group (n=30), DFU group (n=30), and DFI group (n=30). Read More

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Exploration of the Associations of lncRNA Expression Patterns with Tumor Mutation Burden and Prognosis in Colon Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 29;14:2893-2909. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is emerging as a new biomarker to monitor the response of cancer patients to immunotherapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical in regulating gene expression and play a significant role in cancer-associated immune responses. However, the association between lncRNA expression patterns and TMB levels and survival outcomes remains unknown in colon cancer. Read More

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Steroid hormone bioavailability is controlled by the lymphatic system.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9666. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

The steroid hormone progesterone accounts for immune tolerance in pregnancy. Enhanced progesterone metabolism to 6α-OH-pregnanolone occurs in complicated pregnancies such as in preeclampsia with preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction, and in cancer. As lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) promote tumor immunity, we hypothesized that human LECs modify progesterone bioavailability. Read More

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Comparison of a mycobacterial phage assay to detect viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with standard diagnostic modalities in cattle with naturally infected Johne disease.

Gut Pathog 2021 May 6;13(1):30. Epub 2021 May 6.

Johne's Disease Research Project USDA-ARS-NADC, Ames, IA, USA.

Background: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne disease, is a slow growing mycobacterium. Viable MAP detection is difficult, inconstant and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid phage/qPCR assay performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with three standard methods of MAP detection: fecal MAP PCR; plasma antigen-specific IFN-γ & serum MAP ELISA hypothesizing that, if sensitive and specific, Johne animals would be positive and Control animals negative. Read More

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Type 2 and type 3 innate lymphoid cells at the maternal-fetal interface: implications in preterm birth.

BMC Immunol 2021 May 6;22(1):28. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), University of Coimbra, Polo III - Health Sciences Campus, Azinhaga Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-548, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly accepted that the act of giving birth is the final step in a proinflammatory signaling cascade, orchestrated by an intrauterine milieu coupled to hormonal cues. Consequently, the inflammatory process plays a pivotal role during the pathogenesis of human labor, both in term and preterm deliveries. Read More

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Depression Is Associated with Downregulation of IPS-1 in Chronic HBV-Infected Patients in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 May 6:1-6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Background: Depression and anxiety can modulate immune-related molecule expressions. The chronic HBV-infected (CHB) patients suffer from inappropriate immune responses. Additionally, psychological disorders are prevalent among the patients. Read More

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Trypanosoma cruzi extracellular amastigotes engage Rac1 and Cdc42 to invade RAW macrophages.

Microbes Infect 2021 May 3:104837. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; current address: Division of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi extracellular amastigotes (EAs) relies significantly upon the host cell actin cytoskeleton. In past decades EAs have been established as a reliable model for phagocytosis inducer in non-phagocytic cells. Our current hypothesis is that EAs engage a phagocytosis-like mechanism in non-professional phagocytic cells; however, the molecular mechanisms in professional phagocytes still remain unexplored. Read More

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Oleic acid and oleoylethanolamide decrease interferon-γ-induced expression of PD-L1 and induce apoptosis in human lung carcinoma cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 3:174116. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sanraku Hospital, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Inhibition of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cancer cells provides a reasonable avenue to prevent cancer progression. Although oleate is known to exert anti-cancer effects, its PD-L1 inhibitory effects have not been proven. This study investigated the effects of oleic acid and an oleic acid metabolite, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), on PD-L1 expression and biomarkers of tumorigenesis in several cancer cell lines, namely A549, HuH-7, MCF-7, DLD-1, and LoVo cells. Read More

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Effect of CHRFAM7A Δ2bp gene variant on secondary inflammation after spinal cord injury.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251110. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

The α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) are essential for anti-inflammatory responses. The human-specific CHRFAM7A gene and its 2bp deletion polymorphism (Δ2bp variant) encodes a structurally-deficient α7nAChRs that may impact the anti-inflammatory function. We studied 45 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients for up to six weeks post SCI to investigate the role of the Δ2bp variant on multiple circulating inflammatory mediators and two outcome measures (neuropathic pain and risk of pressure ulcers). Read More

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Downregulation of microRNA‑221 facilitates H1N1 influenza A virus replication through suppression of type‑IFN response by targeting the SOCS1/NF‑κB pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Intensive Care Unit, Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, Henan 471009, P.R. China.

Accumulating data has indicated that host microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) play essential roles in innate immune responses to viral infection; however, the roles and the underlying mechanisms of miRNAs in influenza A virus (IAV) replication remain unclear. The present study examined on the effects of miRNAs on hemagglutinin (H)1 neuraminidase (N)1 replication and antiviral innate immunity. Using a microarray assay, the expression profiles of miRNA molecules in IAV‑infected A549 cells were analyzed. Read More

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Cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid in elderly rheumatoid arthritis patients in a population-based cross-sectional study: RANTES was associated with periodontitis.

J Periodontal Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.

Objective: We studied cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in a cross-sectional population-based cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients ≥61 years of age with and without a diagnosis of periodontitis.

Background Data: Earlier studies on cytokines in GCF in RA patients have not given clear results.

Methods: In a population-based cross-sectional study of patients ≥61 years of age, 233 RA patients were identified. Read More

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Invariant Natural Killer T Cells as Key Players in Host Resistance against .

J Immunol Res 2021 16;2021:6673722. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.

Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are key players in the immunity to several pathogens; however, their involvement in the resistance to infection remains unknown. Using splenocytes from CD1d (CD1d) and iNKT-deficient (J18) mice, we found that iNKT cells are the innate source of IFN- after infection and are required to potentiate macrophage oxidative burst and control fungal growth. To determine whether iNKT cells contribute to host resistance against infection, we infected intratracheally wild-type and J18 C57BL/6 mouse strains with the virulent Pb18 isolate. Read More

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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in the Offspring by Modulating Immunity.

J Immunol Res 2021 14;2021:6638119. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Otolaryngology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, China.

Background: Maternal supplementation with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) has immunologic effects on the developing fetus through multiple pathways. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of VD3 supplementation on immune dysregulation in the offspring during allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Different doses of VD3 as well as control were given to pregnant female mice. Read More

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Sphingomyelin liposome bearing whole lysate antigens induce strong Th2 immune response in BALB/c mice.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):222-231

Nanotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Whole lysate antigens (WLL) has been shown to be effective to tackle leishmaniasis in murine models. Although liposomes can be considered as promising vaccines, the activity of phospholipase-A (PLA) in WLL, breeds difficulties to preparing stable liposomal WLL. One strategy to overcome this shortcoming is to use lipids such as sphingomyelin (SM) which is resistant against PLA. Read More

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February 2021

LILRA3 is related to monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and activation.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):196-202

Department of Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, China.

Objectives: Previously we reported functional leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 () leads to susceptibility and sub-phenotypes of several autoimmune diseases. LILRA3 levels in blood serum and CD14 monocytes enhanced in systemic lupus erythematosus and resulted in disease severity. However, the mechanism of LILRA3 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity remains elusive. Read More

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February 2021

Activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells promotes AML-cell fratricide.

Oncotarget 2021 Apr 27;12(9):878-890. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the proliferation of immature myeloid blasts and a suppressed immune state. Interferons have been previously shown to aid in the clearance of AML cells. Type I interferons are produced primarily by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Read More

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The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living With HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates With Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Translocation.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:661990. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Long-term changes in the immune system of successfully treated people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed 108 white blood cell (WBC) populations in a cohort of 211 PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and in 56 HIV-uninfected controls using flow cytometry. We show that marked differences exist in T cell maturation and differentiation between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected controls: PLHIV had reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells and naïve T cells and increased percentages of CD8+ T cells, effector T cells, and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, together with increased Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios. Read More

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