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Effectiveness of patient-targeted interventions to inform decision making and improve uptake of colorectal cancer genetic evaluation for at-risk individuals: A systematic review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 20;118:103928. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Basic Nursing Department, School of Nursing, Jilin University, 965 Xinjiang Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inherited colorectal cancer syndromes increase the risk of contracting colorectal and other cancers. International guidelines recommend the identification of individuals with hereditary colorectal cancer and the supervision of asymptomatic individuals with a family history. However, detection of hereditary colorectal cancer is suboptimal. Read More

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Fall-related eye injury among older adults in the United States.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114; Glaucoma Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles ST, Boston, MA 02114. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population.

Design: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Read More

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Early responses to salt stress in quinoa genotypes with opposite behaviour.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Soil salinity is among the major abiotic stresses that plants must cope with, mainly in arid and semiarid regions. The tolerance to high salinity is an important agronomic trait to sustain food production. Quinoa is a halophytic annual pseudo-cereal species with high nutritional value that can secrete salt out of young leaves in external non-glandular cells called epidermal bladder cells (EBC). Read More

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Climate change and health in urban informal settlements in low- and middle-income countries - a scoping review of health impacts and adaptation strategies.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1908064

Centre for Global Health, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

: Climate change affects human health with those with the least resources being most vulnerable. However, little is known about the impact of climate change on human health and effective adaptation methods in informal settlements in low- and middle-income countries.: The objective of this scoping review was to identify, characterize, and summarize research evidence on the impact of climate change on human health in informal settlements and the available adaptation methods and interventions. Read More

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January 2021

The E3 ligase MREL57 modulates microtubule stability and stomatal closure in response to ABA.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2181. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry; Department of Plant Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Regulation of stomatal movement is critical for plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The microtubule cytoskeleton undergoes disassembly, which is critical for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). However, the mechanism underlying this regulation largely remains unclear. Read More

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Hospital variability in modifiable factors driving coronary artery bypass charges.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md; Adventist Healthcare White Oak Medical Center, Silver Spring, Md.

Objective: Coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with significant interhospital variability in charges. Drivers of hospital charge variability remain elusive. We identified modifiable factors associated with statewide interhospital variability in hospital charges for coronary artery bypass grafting. Read More

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Outbreak response operations during the US measles epidemic, 2017-19.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 13;21(1):620. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security and Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 East Pratt Street, Suite, Baltimore, 210, USA.

Background: To understand operational challenges involved with responding to US measles outbreaks in 2017-19 and identify applicable lessons in order to inform preparedness and response operations for future outbreaks, particularly with respect to specific operational barriers and recommendations for outbreak responses among insular communities.

Methods: From August 2019 to January 2020, we conducted 11 telephone interviews with 18 participants representing state and local health departments and community health centers that responded to US measles outbreaks in 2017-19, with a focus on outbreaks among insular communities. We conducted qualitative, thematic coding to identify and characterize key operational challenges and lessons identified by the interviewees. Read More

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Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection associates with functional alterations in circulating microRNAs.

Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biosciences, John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, Centre for Health Aging and Understanding Disease, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The molecular mechanisms underlying successful fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) remain poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to characterize alterations in microRNAs (miRs) following FMT for rCDI.

Methods: Sera from two prospective multicentre randomized controlled trials were analyzed for miRNA levels using the Nanostring nCounter platform and quantitative RT-PCR. Read More

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Cyclone Idai as a Trigger for Pellagra Outbreak in Nhamatanda, Mozambique: A Case-Control Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

4Departamento de Vigilância, Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique.

In mid-June 2019, 3 months after cyclone Idai landfall in Mozambique, health authorities of Nhamatanda district reported an outbreak of Pellagra. Applying a mixed-method protocol, we carried out an investigation to characterize cases of pellagra, identify the associated factors for the outbreak using a case-control study, and explore the perceived impact on food security (availability, access, and usage) before and after Idai. We collected data from 121 cases and 121 controls and conducted in-depth interviews with 69 heads of households. Read More

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Impact of Race/Ethnicity and County-Level Vulnerability on Receipt of Surgery Among Older Medicare Beneficiaries With the Diagnosis of Early Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, The Urban Meyer III and Shelley Meyer Chair for Cancer Research, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Patients can experience barriers and disparities to access high-quality cancer care. This study sought to characterize receipt of surgery and chemotherapy among Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC) relative to race/ethnicity and social vulnerability.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to identify patients with a diagnosis of early-stage (stage 1 or 2) PDAC between 2004 and 2016. Read More

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Assessing Dementia Prevalence in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: Cohort Profile, Protocol, and Preliminary Findings.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: There is growing consensus that non-genetic determinants of dementia can be linked to various risk- and resiliency-enhancing factors accumulating throughout the lifespan, including socioeconomic conditions, early life experiences, educational attainment, lifestyle behaviors, and physical/mental health. Yet, the causal impact of these diverse factors on dementia risk remain poorly understood due to few longitudinal studies prospectively characterizing these influences across the lifespan.

Objective: The Initial Lifespan's Impact on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia (ILIAD) study aims to characterize dementia prevalence in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), a 60-year longitudinal study documenting life course trajectories of educational, family, occupational, psychological, cognitive, and health measures. Read More

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RESOURCES TO IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERIODONTAL TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(3 cz 2):702-707

SHUPYK NATIONAL HEALTHCARE UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE, KYIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: Is to characterize the «Medico-sociological map» developed by us to identify systemic and local risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus as a resource to improve the treatment of generalized periodontitis.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: We have developed a Medic-sociological map to identify systemic and local risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus. Methods of accumulation of primary dental and endocrinological information, review and analytical methods. Read More

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January 2021

Acquisition of Developmental Milestones in Hypomyelination With Atrophy of the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum and Other TUBB4A-Related Leukoencephalopathy.

J Child Neurol 2021 Apr 12:883073821000977. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Neurology, 6567Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Mutations in are associated with a spectrum of neurologic disorders categorized as -related leukoencephalopathy. Affected children can present with global developmental delay or normal early development, followed by a variable loss of skills over time. Further research is needed to characterize the factors associated with the divergent developmental trajectories in this rare monogenic disorder because this phenotypic spectrum is not fully explained by genotype alone. Read More

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Secondary analysis of transcriptomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection models to characterize COVID-19.

Patterns (N Y) 2021 Apr 5:100247. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Biomedical Informatics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45229, USA.

Standard transcriptomic analyses alone have limited power in capturing the molecular mechanisms driving disease pathophysiology and outcomes. To overcome this, unsupervised network analyses are used to identify clusters of genes that can be associated with distinct molecular mechanisms and outcomes for a disease. In this study, we developed an integrated network analysis framework that integrates transcriptional signatures from multiple model systems with protein-protein interaction data to find gene modules. Read More

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Assessment of Professionalism During the Emergency Medicine Clerkship Using the National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in Emergency Medicine.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Apr 15;5(2):e10494. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

and the Department of Emergency Medicine University of Washington Seattle WA USA.

Objectives: In 2016, a national consensus conference created the National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in Emergency Medicine (NCAT-EM), a standardized end-of-shift assessment tool. We report the first large-scale analysis of professionalism concerns collected from May 2017 through December 2018 by a multisite consortium using the NCAT-EM. Our primary objective was to characterize the nature and frequency of professionalism concerns. Read More

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miR-181d/RBP2/NF-κB p65 Feedback Regulation Promotes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Blast Crisis.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:654411. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Hematology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal proliferative disease. Once it progresses into the phase of blast crisis (CML-BP), the curative effect is poor, and the fatality rate is extremely high. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the molecular mechanisms of blast crisis and identify new therapeutic targets. Read More

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Improving Incident Reporting in a Hospital-Based Radiation Oncology Department: The Impact of a Customized Crew Resource Training and Event Reporting Intervention.

Cureus 2021 Apr 5;13(4):e14298. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Curriculum and Accreditation, Emory University Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Atlanta, USA.

Background Radiation oncology (RO) is a high-risk environment with an increased potential for error due to the complex automated and manual interactions between heterogeneous teams and advanced technologies. Errors involving procedural deviations-- can adversely impact patient morbidity and mortality. Under-reporting of errors is common in healthcare for reasons such as fear of retribution, liability, embarrassment, etc. Read More

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Body mass index trajectories among people with obesity and association with mortality: Evidence from a large Israeli database.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 23;7(2):148-158. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Clalit Research Institute Clalit Health Services Ramat Gan Israel.

Objective: Previous studies using longitudinal weight data to characterize obesity are based on populations of limited size and mostly include individuals of all body mass index (BMI) levels, without focusing on weight changes among people with obesity. This study aimed to identify BMI trajectories over 5 years in a large population with obesity, and to determine the trajectories' association with mortality.

Methods: For inclusion, individuals aged 30-74 years at index date (1 January 2013) with continuous membership in Clalit Health Services from 2008 to 2012 were required to have ≥1 BMI measurement per year in ≥3 calendar years during this period, of which at least one was ≥30 kg/m. Read More

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Barriers to Care Experienced by Patients Who Inject Drugs During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Analysis.

J Addict Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine (EG, NSN, LRM, TH, SYL, MJD); Division of Emergency Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine (SYL).

Objectives: To identify the barriers to accessing health care and social services faced by people who inject drugs (PWID) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: This report is a sub-analysis of a larger qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with PWID admitted to an academic medical center from 2017 to 2020 for an invasive injection-related infection. Read More

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Surveying the Vampire Bat () Serum Proteome: A Resource for Identifying Immunological Proteins and Detecting Pathogens.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.

Bats are increasingly studied as model systems for longevity and as natural hosts for some virulent viruses. Yet the ability to characterize immune mechanisms of viral tolerance and to quantify infection dynamics in wild bats is often limited by small sample volumes and few species-specific reagents. Here, we demonstrate how proteomics can overcome these limitations by using data-independent acquisition-based shotgun proteomics to survey the serum proteome of 17 vampire bats () from Belize. Read More

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Heavy metals multi-tolerant Bradyrhizobium isolated from mercury mining region in Algeria.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 8;289:112547. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratoire d'Ecologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia, Algeria.

Heavy metals accumulation in the environment has led to a decrease in the capacity of ecosystems to sustain life as human, animal and plant health is threatened. To remedy this problem, rhizoremediation has been suggested as a solution. Legumes and rhizobia symbiotic association has captivated attention due to its involvement in the restoration of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. Read More

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Dynamic association of the H3K64 trimethylation mark with genes encoding exported proteins in Plasmodium falciparum.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 8:100614. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Pathogen Biology group, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thycaud PO, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695014, India. Electronic address:

Epigenetic modifications have emerged as critical regulators of virulence genes and stage-specific gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum. However, the specific roles of histone core epigenetic modifications in regulating the stage-specific gene expression are not well understood. In this study, we report an unconventional trimethylation at lysine 64 on histone 3 (H3K64me3) and characterize its functional relevance in P. Read More

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Advanced characterization of regioselectively substituted methylcellulose model compounds by DNP enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 15;262:117944. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization MAS NMR is introduced to characterize model methylcellulose ether compounds at natural isotopic abundance. In particular an approach is provided to determine the position of the methyl ether group within the repeating unit. Specifically, natural abundance C-C correlation experiments are used to characterize model 3-O-methylcellulose and 2,3-O-dimethylcellulose, and identify changes in chemical shifts with respect to native cellulose. Read More

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Development of new therapeutic options for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The University of Sydney, Sydney Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Important cytogenetic and genetic risk factors for the development of UM include chromosome 3 monosomy, mutations in the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins GNAQ/GNA11, and loss of the BRACA1-associated protein 1 (BAP 1). Most primary UMs are treated conservatively with radiotherapy, but enucleation is necessary for large tumours. Read More

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Molecular identification of Trichoderma sp. isolates and biochemical characterization of antagonistic interaction against rice blast.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Agricultural Microbiology Laboratory, Embrapa Rice and Beans, Santo Antônio de, Goiás, GO, 75375-000, Brazil.

This study aimed to identify four isolates of Trichoderma sp. (Ufra.T06, Ufra. Read More

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Can craniometry play a role in cluster headache diagnosis? A pilot exploratory TC-3D based study.

Pain Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Neuroradiology Service, department of Radiology, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Italy.

Background: Since the pioneering reports of the so-called "leonine face" in cluster headache (CH) patients, cranial and facial features of these patients have been poorly investigated with conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities in craniometric measurements could characterize male CH patients and represent reliable and reproducible diagnostic biomarkers able to identify CH patients.

Methods: Brain CT images were recorded between 2018 and 2020 in 24 male patients with CH, and in 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Read More

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Transarterial radioembolization versus systemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: Analysis of the US National Cancer Database.

J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, United States.

Systemic therapy remains the recommended first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion (MVI). Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is a promising alternative treatment given superior quality of life. The aims of this study were to 1) characterize trends and correlates for TARE as first-line treatment of HCC patients with MVI in the US and 2) compare survival after TARE versus systemic therapy. Read More

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Using Markov chain model to evaluate medical students' trajectory on progress tests and predict USMLE step 1 scores---a retrospective cohort study in one medical school.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 9;21(1):200. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Michigan State University, 909 Wilson Rd, 120 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Medical students must meet curricular expectations and pass national licensing examinations to become physicians. However, no previous studies explicitly modeled stages of medical students acquiring basic science knowledge. In this study, we employed an innovative statistical model to characterize students' growth using progress testing results over time and predict licensing examination performance. Read More

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Outcomes for various dural graft materials after posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 9:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

Methods: A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Research Funding, Income, and Career Satisfaction among Clinician-Scientists in Ophthalmology in the United States.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento. Electronic address:

Purpose: To characterize clinician-scientists in ophthalmology and identify factors associated with successful research funding, income, and career satisfaction.

Design: Cross-sectional study METHODS: We conducted a survey of clinician-scientists in ophthalmology at U.S. Read More

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