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A staggered 3-layer DOI PET detector using BaSOreflector for enhanced crystal identification and inter-crystal scattering event discrimination capability.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Chiba, 263-8555, JAPAN.

The spatial resolution of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners can be improved by the use of crystals with fine pitch and rejection of inter-crystal scattering (ICS) events, which leads to a better quantification of radiopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, depth-of-interaction (DOI) information is essential to preserve the spatial resolution at the PET field-of-view (FOV) periphery while keeping the sensitivity. In this study we proposed a novel staggered 3-layer DOI detector using BaSO4 reflector material for an enhanced crystal identification performance as well as ICS event rejection capability over those of ESR reflector based DOI detectors. Read More

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Unsupervised machine learning can delineate central sulcus by using the spatiotemporal characteristic of somatosensory evoked potentials.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Rd. HBS-Building 592, Houston, Texas, 77204-5060, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded with electrocorticography (ECoG) for central sulcus (CS) identification is a widely accepted procedure in routine intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. Clinical practices test the short-latency SSEPs for the phase reversal over strip electrodes. However, assessments based on waveform morphology are susceptible to variations in interpretations due to the hand area's localized nature and usually require multiple electrode placements or electrode relocation. Read More

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A novel decoding method for motor imagery tasks with 4D data representation and 3D convolutional neural networks.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingyuan, Beijing University of Technology, Chaoyang District, Beijing, Beijing, 100022, CHINA.

Objective: Motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) produces one of the most commonly used biosignals in intelligent rehabilitation systems. The newly developed 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3DCNN) is gaining increasing attention for its ability to recognize MI tasks. The key to successful identification of movement intention is dependent on whether the data representation can faithfully reflect the cortical activity induced by MI. Read More

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Suspension torture and its physical sequelae.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 1;80:102155. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

DIGNITY - the Danish Institute Against Torture, Bryggervangen 55, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Suspension torture is one of the most common and widespread methods of torture. The objective of the study is to conduct a systematic literature review and produce an overview of suspension torture and its health implications, thus improving the diagnosis of suspension torture victims and documentation of their injuries. The review includes the prevalence, geographical distribution and description of variations of suspension torture. Read More

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Performance of the RT-LAMP-based eazyplex® SARS-CoV-2 as a novel rapid diagnostic test.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 1;138:104817. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Diagnostic assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that are easy to perform and produce fast results are essential for timely decision making regarding the isolation of contagious individuals.

Objective: We evaluated the CE-approved eazyplex® SARS-CoV-2, a ready-to-use real time RT-LAMP assay for identification of the SARS-CoV-2 N and ORF8 genes from swabs in less than 30 min without RNA extraction.

Study Design: Oropharyngeal and nasal swabs from 100 positive and 50 negative patients were inoculated into 0. Read More

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Impact of augmented-reality improvement in ablation catheter navigation as assessed by virtual-heart simulations of ventricular tachycardia ablation.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 2;133:104366. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Alliance for Cardiovascular Diagnostic and Treatment Innovation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Recently, an augmented reality (AR) solution allows the physician to place the ablation catheter at the designated lesion site more accurately during cardiac electrophysiology studies. The improvement in navigation accuracy may positively affect ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation termination, however assessment of this in the clinic would be difficult. Novel personalized virtual heart technology enables non-invasive identification of optimal lesion targets for infarct-related VT. Read More

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Nondestructive multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens with background microflora and symbiosis using a paper chromogenic array and advanced neural network.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 1;183:113209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, 01854, MA, USA. Electronic address:

We have developed an inexpensive, standardized paper chromogenic array (PCA) integrated with a machine learning approach to accurately identify single pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, or Escherichia coli O157:H7) or multiple pathogens (either in multiple monocultures, or in a single cocktail culture), in the presence of background microflora on food. Cantaloupe, a commodity with significant volatile organic compound (VOC) emission and large diverse populations of background microflora, was used as the model food. The PCA was fabricated from a paper microarray via photolithography and paper microfluidics, into which 22 chromogenic dye spots were infused and to which three red/green/blue color-standard dots were taped. Read More

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A forensic case study for body fluid identification using DNA methylation analysis.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Apr 1;51:101872. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu Suwon-si, Gyeongi-do 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Recently, a method of identifying body fluids using DNA methylation has been developed (Frumkin et al., 2011). An existing multiplex assay using 9 CpG markers could differentiate 5 body fluids: semen, blood, saliva, menstrual blood, and vaginal fluid. Read More

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Identification of COVID-19 subtypes based on immunogenomic profiling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 27;96:107615. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Biomedical Informatics Research Lab, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Big Data Research Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Although previous studies have shown that the host immune response is crucial in determining clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, the association between host immune signatures and COVID-19 patient outcomes remains unclear. Based on the enrichment levels of 11 immune signatures (eight immune-inciting and three immune-inhibiting signatures) in leukocytes of 100 COVID-19 patients, we identified three COVID-19 subtypes: Im-C1, Im-C2, and Im-C3, by clustering analysis. Im-C1 had the lowest immune-inciting signatures and high immune-inhibiting signatures. Read More

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Method validation of 12 kinds of food dye in chewing gums and soft drinks, and evaluation of measurement uncertainty for soft drinks.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 27;356:129705. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea. Electronic address:

We developed and validated a method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of food dyes in two food matrices, i.e., chewing gum and soft drinks. Read More

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Discovery of emerging sulfur-containing PAHs in PM: Contamination profiles and potential health risks.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 1;416:125795. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

We reported the discovery and identification of emerging sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), in PM collected from two typical regions of China, Taiyuan and Guangzhou. Until now, there is no research on contamination status, sources and potential health risks of this unexpected group of organic contaminants in PM. High atmospheric concentrations (ngm) and significant time-dependent variations were determined in PM of Taiyuan from 2017 to 2018. Read More

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Humor and emotion: Quantitative meta analyses of functional neuroimaging studies.

Cortex 2021 Mar 11;139:60-72. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602 United States; Department of Neuroscience, Biomedical & Health Sciences Institute, Division of Neuroscience, University of Georgia, Athens, GA United States. Electronic address:

Humor is a ubiquitous aspect of human behavior that is infrequently the focus of neuroscience research. To localize human brain structures associated with the experience of humor, we conducted quantitative activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta analyses of 57 fMRI studies (n = 1248) reporting enhanced regional brain activity evoked by humorous cues versus matched control cues. We performed separate ALE analyses of studies that employed picture-driven, text-based, and auditory laughter cues to evoke humor. Read More

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A Spatial Assessment of Prostate Cancer Mortality-to-Incidence Ratios Among South Carolina Veterans: 1999 - 2015.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Purpose: To assess veteran-specific prostate cancer (PrCA) mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIR) in South Carolina's (SC) veteran population.

Methods: U.S. Read More

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Novel Method of Evaluating Liver Transplant Surgery Fellows Using Objective Measures of Operative Efficiency and Surgical Outcomes.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Section of Abdominal Transplant Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of liver transplants (LT) in North America are performed by transplant surgery fellows with attending surgeon supervision. While a strict case volume requirement is mandatory for graduating fellows, no guidelines exist on providing constructive feedback to trainees during fellowship.

Study Design: A retrospective review of all adult LTs performed by abdominal transplant surgery fellows at a single ASTS-accredited academic institution from 2005-2019 was conducted. Read More

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Focused Role of Nanoparticles Against COVID-19: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102287. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau, Pinang, Malaysia.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has witnessed a rapid and global proliferation since its early identification in patients with severe pneumonia in Wuhan, China. As of 27th May 2020, 2019-nCoV cases have risen to >5 million, with confirmed deaths of 350,000. However, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostic and treatment measures are yet to be fully unraveled, given the novelty of this particular coronavirus. Read More

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Mesoscale hierarchical organization of primary somatosensory cortex captured by resting-state-fMRI in humans.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 6:118031. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.; Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) plays a key role in the processing and integration of afferent somatosensory inputs along an anterior-to-posterior axis, contributing towards necessary human function. It is believed that anatomical connectivity can be used to probe hierarchical organization, however direct characterization of this principle in-vivo within humans remains elusive. Here, we use resting-state functional connectivity as a complement to anatomical connectivity to investigate topographical principles of human S1. Read More

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Regulators and signalling in insect antimicrobial innate immunity: Functional molecules and cellular pathways.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 6:110003. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

Insects possess an immune system that protects them from attacks by various pathogenic microorganisms that would otherwise threaten their survival. Immune mechanisms may deal directly with the pathogens by eliminating them from the host organism or disarm them by suppressing the synthesis of toxins and virulence factors that promote the invasion and destructive action of the intruder within the host. Insects have been established as outstanding models for studying immune system regulation because innate immunity can be explored as an integrated system at the level of the whole organism. Read More

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Jolkinolide B targets thioredoxin and glutathione systems to induce ROS-mediated paraptosis and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Bladder cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis. In the current study, anti-proliferation assay of a Euphorbiaceae diterpenoid library led to the identification of an anti-bladder cancer agent Jolkinolide B (JB). JB showed significant cytotoxicity against a panel of bladder cancer cell lines and suppressed the growth of cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant bladder cancer xenografts in single or combination treatments. Read More

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Oncogenic extrachromosomal DNA functions as mobile enhancers to globally amplify chromosomal transcription.

Cancer Cell 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA. Electronic address:

Extrachromosomal, circular DNA (ecDNA) is emerging as a prevalent yet less characterized oncogenic alteration in cancer genomes. We leverage ChIA-PET and ChIA-Drop chromatin interaction assays to characterize genome-wide ecDNA-mediated chromatin contacts that impact transcriptional programs in cancers. ecDNAs in glioblastoma patient-derived neurosphere and prostate cancer cell cultures are marked by widespread intra-ecDNA and genome-wide chromosomal interactions. Read More

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6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Neurological and psychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported, but more data are needed to adequately assess the effects of COVID-19 on brain health. We aimed to provide robust estimates of incidence rates and relative risks of neurological and psychiatric diagnoses in patients in the 6 months following a COVID-19 diagnosis.

Methods: For this retrospective cohort study and time-to-event analysis, we used data obtained from the TriNetX electronic health records network (with over 81 million patients). Read More

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MendelVar: gene prioritization at GWAS loci using phenotypic enrichment of Mendelian disease genes.

Bioinformatics 2021 Apr;37(1):1-8

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

Motivation: Gene prioritization at human GWAS loci is challenging due to linkage-disequilibrium and long-range gene regulatory mechanisms. However, identifying the causal gene is crucial to enable identification of potential drug targets and better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Mapping GWAS traits to known phenotypically relevant Mendelian disease genes near a locus is a promising approach to gene prioritization. Read More

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An Overview of Traceback Investigations and Three Case Studies of Recent Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce.

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland.

Leafy greens contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have continued to cause foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years and present a threat to public health. An important component of foodborne illness outbreak investigations is determining the source of the outbreak vehicle through traceback investigations. The Food and Drug Administration is home to traceback investigation experts that employ a standardized process to initiate, execute, and interpret the results of traceback investigations in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state and local partners. Read More

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De novo assembly of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus brain transcriptome for identification of potential targets for antibody development.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249801. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Crustaceans are major constituents of aquatic ecosystems and, as such, changes in their behavior and the structure and function of their bodies can serve as indicators of alterations in their immediate environment, such as those associated with climate change and anthropogenic contamination. We have used bioinformatics and a de novo transcriptome assembly approach to identify potential targets for developing specific antibodies to serve as nervous system function markers for freshwater prawns of the Macrobrachium spp. Total RNA was extracted from brain ganglia of Macrobrachium carcinus freshwater prawns and Illumina Next Generation Sequencing was performed using an Eel Pond mRNA Seq Protocol to construct a de novo transcriptome. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence and Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: 2020 Summative Review.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):251-279

Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Abstract: Despite considerable research efforts, pancreatic cancer is associated with a dire prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. Early symptoms of the disease are mostly nonspecific. The premise of improved survival through early detection is that more individuals will benefit from potentially curative treatment. Read More

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Weight, BMI and stability are risk factors associated with lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability: a meta-analysis.

J ISAKOS 2019 Nov 23;4(6):313-327. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Orthopaedic surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Importance: Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are common in the general population and may lead to chronic ankle instability (CAI). If patients at risk could be identified, they could receive adequate and on-time treatment.

Objective: The purpose of the current review was to identify all reported intrinsic factors associated with sustaining a LAS or progressing to CAI after an initial sprain. Read More

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November 2019

Ambient PM Organic and Elemental Carbon in New York City: Changing Source Contributions During a Decade of Large Emission Reductions.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State University of New York, Albany.

Fine particle (PM) exposure is a public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. In New York State, significant emission reductions occurred during the past decades due to fuel switching, increased renewable energy, and transformations in buildings and transportation. Between 2002 and 2018, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO, SO, VOCs, and primary PM declined by 58%, 61%, 89%, 47%, and 29%, respectively, in New York and three adjoining states. Read More

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Novel mutualists of two species infesting in Indonesia.

Mycologia 2021 Apr 9:1-23. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa.

Several species in the complex have emerged as important pests of woody plants globally, particularly in habitats where they are invasive aliens. These beetles live in obligate symbioses with fungi in the genus . In this study, we identified spp. Read More

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Frontal sinuses as tools for human identification: a systematic review of imaging methods.

Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2021 Apr 9:20200599. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Stomatology, Public Health and Forensic Odontology, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, USP-University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The frontal sinuses are potential evidences for human identification because of the inherent distinctiveness of their morphology. Over the last decades, several techniques emerged to enable the visualization and analysis of the frontal sinuses via bi- and three-dimensional imaging. This systematic review aimed to compile different methodological approaches found in the scientific literature to contribute to human identification. Read More

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High-Resolution Ion-Mobility-Enabled Peptide Mapping for High-Throughput Critical Quality Attribute Monitoring.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MOBILion Systems, Inc., 4 Hillman Drive, Suite 130, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania 19317, United States.

Characterization and monitoring of post-translational modifications (PTMs) by peptide mapping is a ubiquitous assay in biopharmaceutical characterization. Often, this assay is coupled to reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) separations that require long gradients to identify all components of the protein digest and resolve critical modifications for relative quantitation. Incorporating ion mobility (IM) as an orthogonal separation that relies on peptide structure can supplement the LC separation by providing an additional differentiation filter to resolve isobaric peptides, potentially reducing ambiguity in identification through mobility-aligned fragmentation and helping to reduce the run time of peptide mapping assays. Read More

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Comprehensive Screening of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Similar Compounds Using GC-APLI-TIMS-TOFMS/GC-EI-MS.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, United States.

In the present work, a novel workflow based on complementary gas-phase separations for the identification of isomeric PAHs from complex mixtures is described. This is the first report on the coupling of gas chromatography (GC), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), and trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) for the characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Over a hundred known unknowns are uniquely identified based on the molecular ion retention indices (5%), mobility (RSD < 0. Read More

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