1,639 results match your criteria ice volume

Effects of Isochoric Freezing Conditions on Cut Potato Quality.

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Isochoric freezing is a pressure freezing technique that could be used to retain the beneficial effects of food storage at temperatures below their freezing point without ice damage. In this study, potato cylinders were frozen in an isochoric system and examined using full factorial combinations of three processing procedures (immersed in water, vacuum-packed and immersed in ascorbic acid solution), four freezing temperatures/pressures (-3 °C/37 MPa, -6 °C/71 MPa, -9 °C/101 MPa and -15 °C/156 MPa) and two average compression rates (less than 0.02 and more than 0. Read More

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Detecting structural and functional neuroplasticity in elite ice-skating athletes.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Apr 30;78:102795. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Sports Science and Physical Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Using resting-state fMRI, this study investigated long-term ice-skating training related changes in elite ice-skating athletes and compared them to healthy age-matched non-athletes under resting-state conditions. Significant differences were found in both structural and functional plasticity. Specifically, elite ice-skating athletes showed higher gray matter volume in the posterior cerebellum, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, posterior cingulate, caudate, and thalamus. Read More

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Evolution of Small Strain Soil Stiffness during Freeze-Thaw Cycle: Transition from Capillarity to Cementation Examined Using Magnetic and Piezo Crystal Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, USA.

Freeze-thaw cycles caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations significantly affect the geotechnical engineering properties. This study investigated the crucial role of water distribution patterns in the characterization of elastic wave properties for the fine F-110 sand during a freeze-thaw cycle. Sand specimens with four different water distribution patterns were prepared, namely homogeneously-mixed, evaporation-driven, vertically-, and horizontally-layered specimens. Read More

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Assessment of Mechanical, Thermal and Durability Properties of High-Volume GGBS Blended Concrete Exposed to Cryogenic Conditions.

Giyeol Lee Okpin Na

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

R&D Division, Hyundai E&C, Yongin-si 16891, Korea.

The purpose of this study is to suggest the optimum mix design with a high volume of GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag) replacement and the procedure of the cryogenic test to consider mechanical and thermal properties, and durability performance. To decide the optimum mix design, four mix designs with high-volume of GGBS replacement were suggested, in terms of the slump and retention time. Based on the test results, with respect to the workability and compressive strength, the mixtures with 65% of GGBS (C40-2 and C40-4) were better than the mixtures with 50% and 60% of GGBS (C40-1 and C40-3). Read More

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Mitochondria and the Frozen Frog.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

The wood frog, , is the best-studied of a small group of amphibian species that survive whole body freezing during the winter months. These frogs endure the freezing of 65-70% of their total body water in extracellular ice masses. They have implemented multiple adaptations that manage ice formation, deal with freeze-induced ischemia/reperfusion stress, limit cell volume reduction with the production of small molecule cryoprotectants (glucose, urea) and adjust a wide variety of metabolic pathways for prolonged life in a frozen state. Read More

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Bronchoscopic performance of bronchoalveolar lavage in germany - a call for standardization.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2021 31;38(1):e2021003. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik - University Medicine, Essen, Germany.

Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a widely used clinical tool in diagnosing interstitial lung diseases. Although there are recommendations and guidelines, the procedure is not completely standardized. Varying approaches likely influence the conclusiveness of BAL data and may be one reason for the divergent judgement of their value between different centers. Read More

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Nanoscale twinning in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni martensite: a backscatter Kikuchi diffraction study.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):54-61. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, Freiberg, 09599, Germany.

Iron-based Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape-memory alloys are of rather low materials cost and show remarkable pseudoelastic properties. To further understand the martensitic transformation giving rise to the pseudoelastic properties, different Fe-Mn-Al-Ni alloys have been heat treated at 1473 K and quenched in ice water. The martensite, which is formed from a body-centred cubic austenite, is commonly described as face-centered cubic (f. Read More

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February 2021

Detailed crystallographic analysis of the ice V to ice XIII hydrogen-ordering phase transition.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134504

Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

Ice V is a structurally highly complex material with 28 water molecules in its monoclinic unit cell. It is classified as a hydrogen-disordered phase of ice. Yet, some of its hydrogen-bonded water molecules display significant orientational order. Read More

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Small-volume vitrification and rapid warming yield high survivals of one-cell rat embryos in cryotubes.

Biol Reprod 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Experimental Animal Division, Bioscience Education and Research Support Center, Akita University, Akita, Akita, Japan.

To cryopreserve cells, it is essential to avoid intracellular ice formation during cooling and warming. One way to achieve this is to convert the water inside the cells into a non-crystalline glass. It is currently believed that to accomplish this vitrification, the cells must be suspended in a very high concentration (20-40%) of a glass-inducing solute, and subsequently cooled very rapidly. Read More

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Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics Revives the Functional Analysis of Plant Metabolic Diversity.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France; email:

The remarkable diversity of specialized metabolites produced by plants has inspired several decades of research and nucleated a long list of theories to guide empirical ecological studies. However, analytical constraints and the lack of untargeted processing workflows have long precluded comprehensive metabolite profiling and, consequently, the collection of the critical currencies to test theory predictions for the ecological functions of plant metabolic diversity. Developments in mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics have revolutionized the large-scale inventory and annotation of chemicals from biospecimens. Read More

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North polar trough formation due to in-situ erosion as a source of young ice in mid-latitudinal mantles on Mars.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6750. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

External Geodynamics and Hydrogeology Group, Department of Geology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

The clockwise spiral of troughs marking the Martian north polar plateau forms one of the planet's youngest megastructures. One popular hypothesis posits that the spiral pattern resulted as troughs underwent poleward migration. Here, we show that the troughs are extensively segmented into enclosed depressions (or cells). Read More

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Synergistic effects of flake-like ZnO/SnFeO/nitrogen-doped carbon composites on structural stability and electrochemical behavior for lithium-ion batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 9;594:173-185. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

In order to improve the electrochemical performance and relieve volume expansion of pure SnFeO anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we synthesized a novel ZnO/SnFeO/nitrogen-doped carbon composites (ZSFO/NC) with flake-like polyhedron morphology by using ZIF-8 as a sacrificial template. Remarkably, it exhibited an initial charge/discharge capacities of 1078.3/1507. Read More

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Effect of ammonium fluoride doping on the ice III to ice IX phase transition.

J Chem Phys 2021 Mar;154(11):114502

Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ, United Kingdom.

Ice III is a hydrogen-disordered phase of ice that is stable between about 0.2 and 0.35 GPa. Read More

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Photooxidation and biodegradation potential of a light crude oil in first-year sea ice.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 15;165:112154. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Disappearing sea ice in the Arctic region results in a pressing need to develop oil spill mitigation techniques suitable for ice-covered waters. The uncertainty around the nature of an oil spill in the Arctic arises from the ice-covered waters and sub-zero temperatures, and how they may influence natural attenuation efficiency. The Sea-ice Environmental Research Facility was used to create a simulated Arctic marine setting. Read More

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Validation of the Applied Food Diagnostics, Inc. Simultaneous Multiplex Real Time PCR (SIMUL-qPCR) Listeria species and monocytogenes Assay in Selected Foods and Environmental Surfaces: AOAC Performance Tested MethodSM 062001.

J AOAC Int 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Applied Food Diagnostics, Inc., 387 Hazle Street, Nuremberg, PA.

Background: The Simultaneous Multiplex Real Time PCR (SIMUL-qPCR) Listeria species and monocytogenes Assay is a quick, reliable method for detecting Listeria species and monocytogenes in environmental and food samples. The assay multiplexes several targets in one run to properly identify Listeria species and monocytogenes. The assay uses proprietary media, Listeria Recovery and Enrichment Broth (LREB), for enrichment purposes. Read More

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Colloidal assembly by directional ice templating.

Soft Matter 2021 Apr;17(15):4098-4108

Complex Fluid and Polymer Engineering, Polymer Science and Engineering, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune - 411008, India.

We investigate directional ice templating of dilute aqueous colloidal particle dispersions and examine the nature of the assemblies that result. We coat micron-size polystyrene colloids with cross-linkable polymer (polyethyleneimine, PEI), add cross-linker, and subject this dispersion to unidirectional freezing. We work at sufficiently low colloid concentrations, such that the particles do not percolate on freezing. Read More

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Rapid coupling between solid earth and ice volume during the Quaternary.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5695. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

The solid earth plays a major role in controlling Earth's surface climate. Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide (CO) and silicate chemical weathering are known to regulate the evolution of climate on a geologic timescale (> 10 yr), but the relationship between the solid earth and the shorter (< 10 yr) fluctuations of Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles is still under debate. Here we show that the seawater osmium isotope composition (Os/Os), a proxy for the solid earth's response to climate change, has varied during the past 300,000 years in association with glacial-interglacial cycles. Read More

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HPM live μ for a full CLEM workflow.

Methods Cell Biol 2021 18;162:115-149. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Electron Microscopy Center, Radboudumc Technology Center Microscopy, Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Cell Biology, Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

With the development of advanced imaging methods that took place in the last decade, the spatial correlation of microscopic and spectroscopic information-known as multimodal imaging or correlative microscopy (CM)-has become a broadly applied technique to explore biological and biomedical materials at different length scales. Among the many different combinations of techniques, Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) has become the flagship of this revolution. Where light (mainly fluorescence) microscopy can be used directly for the live imaging of cells and tissues, for almost all applications, electron microscopy (EM) requires fixation of the biological materials. Read More

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February 2021

FROST: Factors Predicting Orthopaedic Trauma Volumes.

Injury 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Section of Orthopaedics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, NW T2N 1N4 - Calgary, AB Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Orthopaedic surgeons often speculate weather and season impact the nature and volume of surgical trauma. Little evidence exists to support this. We aimed to identify the relationship between weather conditions, time of year, surgical orthopaedic trauma volumes, after-hours surgery, and surgical wait times. Read More

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February 2021

Homogeneous Freezing of Water Using Microfluidics.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

The homogeneous freezing of water is important in the formation of ice in clouds, but there remains a great deal of variability in the representation of the homogeneous freezing of water in the literature. The development of new instrumentation, such as droplet microfluidic platforms, may help to constrain our understanding of the kinetics of homogeneous freezing via the analysis of monodisperse, size-selected water droplets in temporally and spatially controlled environments. Here, we evaluate droplet freezing data obtained using the Lab-on-a-Chip Nucleation by Immersed Particle Instrument (LOC-NIPI), in which droplets are generated and frozen in continuous flow. Read More

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February 2021

Open-Cellular Alumina Foams with Hierarchical Strut Porosity by Ice Templating: A Thickening Agent Study.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 24;14(5). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany.

Alumina replica foams were manufactured by the Schwartzwalder sponge replication technique and were provided with an additional strut porosity by a freeze-drying/ice-templating step prior to thermal processing. A variety of thickeners in combination with different alumina solid loads in the dispersion used for polyurethane foam template coating were studied. An additional strut porosity as generated by freeze-drying was found to be in the order of ~20%, and the spacings between the strut pores generated by ice-templating were in the range between 20 µm and 32 µm. Read More

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February 2021

The atomistic details of the ice recrystallisation inhibition activity of PVA.

Nat Commun 2021 02 26;12(1):1323. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Understanding the ice recrystallisation inhibition (IRI) activity of antifreeze biomimetics is crucial to the development of the next generation of cryoprotectants. In this work, we bring together molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative experimental measurements to unravel the microscopic origins of the IRI activity of poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVA)-the most potent of biomimetic IRI agents. Contrary to the emerging consensus, we find that PVA does not require a "lattice matching" to ice in order to display IRI activity: instead, it is the effective volume of PVA and its contact area with the ice surface which dictates its IRI strength. Read More

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February 2021

A new global ice sheet reconstruction for the past 80 000 years.

Nat Commun 2021 02 23;12(1):1199. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.

The evolution of past global ice sheets is highly uncertain. One example is the missing ice problem during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26 000-19 000 years before present) - an apparent 8-28 m discrepancy between far-field sea level indicators and modelled sea level from ice sheet reconstructions. In the absence of ice sheet reconstructions, researchers often use marine δO proxy records to infer ice volume prior to the LGM. Read More

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February 2021

Assessing glacier retreat and its impact on water resources in a headwater of Yangtze River based on CMIP6 projections.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 12;765:142774. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Glacier retreat caused by global warming alters the hydrological regime and poses far-reaching challenges to water resources and nature conservation of the headwater of Yangtze River, and its vast downstream regions with dense population. However, there is still lack of a robust modeling framework of the "climate-glacier-streamflow" in this water tower region, to project the future changes of glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and the consequent impacts on runoff. Moreover, it is imperative to use the state-of-the-art sixth phase Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) to assess glacio-hydrology variations in future. Read More

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Multiple objects interacting with a solidification front.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3513. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laboratoire de Synthèse et Fonctionnalisation des Céramiques, UMR 3080 CNRS/Saint-Gobain CREE, Saint-Gobain Research Provence, Cavaillon, France.

The interaction of objects suspended in a liquid melt with an advancing solidification front is of special interest in nature and engineering sciences. The front can either engulf the object into the growing crystal or repel it. Therefore, the object-front confrontation can have a strong influence on the microstructure and mechanical or functional properties of the solidified material. Read More

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February 2021

Investigating solution effects injury of human T lymphocytes and its prevention during interrupted slow cooling.

Cryobiology 2021 04 2;99:20-27. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Institute of Biothermal and Technology, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, China.

Cooling rate is a critical parameter affecting the success of cell cryopreservation. Fast cooling can result in intracellular ice formation (IIF), while slow cooling can bring solution effects injury, both are detrimental to the cells. Whilst most of the studies have investigated how IIF affects cells, solution effects injury has received little attention. Read More

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Swelling-Controlled Double-Layered SiO/MgSiO/SiO Composite with Enhanced Initial Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium-Ion Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 4;13(6):7161-7170. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Electro-Functionality Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea.

Si-based anode materials are considered as potential materials for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with the advantages of high specific capacities and low operating voltages. However, significant initial capacity loss and large volume variations during cycles are the primary restrictions for the practical application of Si-based anodes. Herein, we propose an affordable and scalable synthesis of double-layered SiO/MgSiO/SiO composites through the magnesiothermic reduction of micro-sized SiO with Mg metal powder at 750 °C for 2 h. Read More

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February 2021

Programmed intermittent epidural bolus for labour analgesia during first stage of labour: a sequential allocation trial to determine the effective interval time between boluses of a fixed volume of 2.5 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% plus fentanyl 8 µg·mL.

Can J Anaesth 2021 May 2;68(5):653-660. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, 600 University Avenue, Room 7-405, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X5, Canada.

Purpose: We studied the programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) time interval between boluses of 2.5 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% with fentanyl 8 µg·mL to produce effective analgesia in 90% of women (EI90) during the first stage of labour. Read More

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Effects of SiC and Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) Carbon Coatings on Silicon-Flake-Based Anode of Lithium Ion Battery.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, One University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan.

Silicon flakes of about 100 × 1000 × 1000 nm in sizes recycled from wastes of silicon wafer manufacturing processes were coated with combined silicon carbide (SiC) and graphitic (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF)) carbon coatings to serve as active materials of the anode of lithium ion battery (LIB). Thermal carbonization of silicon at 1000 °C for 5 h forms 5-nm SiC encapsulating silicon flakes. SiC provides physical strength to help silicon flakes maintain physical integrity and isolating silicon from irreversible reactions with the electrolyte. Read More

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January 2021

Analysis of pyrethroids in cereals by HPLC with a deep eutectic solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplets.

Anal Methods 2021 02 25;13(5):636-641. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

This work presents a novel and green analytical procedure involving a deep eutectic solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplets (DES-DLLME-SFOD) followed by HPLC to measure three pyrethroids (bifenthrin, β-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) in cereal samples. Firstly, a low-density hydrophobic DES was synthesized from thymol and octanoic acid in the molar ratio of 1/4 and this was applied as a green extraction solvent in the DLLME procedure to avoid the use of a toxic extractant. After centrifugation and placing it on an ice bath, it is transformed into a solid phase on the top of the sample solution to reduce the loss of extractant, conducive to convenient collection thereafter. Read More

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February 2021