231 results match your criteria hyperfunctioning nodule


Update on the Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules.

J Nucl Med 2021 Jul;62(Suppl 2):13S-19S

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.

Thyroid nodules (TN) are prevalent in the general population and represent a common complaint in clinical practice. Most are asymptomatic and are associated with a 7%-15% risk of malignancy (). PubMed and Medline were searched for articles with a focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TN over the past 5 y. Read More

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Hyperfunctioning Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with a Mutation: The First Case Report and a Literature Review.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Jun 5;10(3):262-267. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.

Introduction: Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is rare and consequently, little information on its molecular etiology is available. Although V600E ( c.1799T>A, p. Read More

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Percutaneous injection of ethanol for thyroid nodule treatment: a comparative study.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, Brasil.

Objective: Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is an alternative to surgery for the treatment of thyroid nodules (TNs). However, size reductions of treated (TTNs) and untreated TN (UTNs) have not been compared. Volumetric reductions in TTNs with PEI were evaluated by comparing TTNs and UTNs in the same patient, and independent variables predicting good post-PEI outcomes were analyzed. Read More

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Malignancy risk of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules compared with non-toxic nodules: systematic review and a meta-analysis.

Thyroid Res 2021 Feb 25;14(1). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Background: Hyperfunctioning or hot nodules are thought to be rarely malignant. As such, current guidelines recommend that hot nodules be excluded from further malignancy risk stratification. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the malignancy risk in hot nodules and non-toxic nodules in observational studies. Read More

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February 2021

Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a hyper-functional thyroid nodule.

Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 2021 ;24(1):33-34

Sveučilišna Klinička Bolnica Mostar, Bijeli Brijeg bb, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The authors reported the case of 69 years old woman presented with subclinical hyperthyroidism. 99m-Tc pertechnetate scan showed the abnormal focus of hot uptake in the left lobe, suggestive of a hyperfunctioning toxic thyroid nodule. Surgical treatment was advised because of the size of the nodule as a more applicable solution. Read More

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January 2021

An Unusual Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Case Report of a Bifocal Intrathyroidal Parathyroid Carcinoma.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Dec 28:145561320977466. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Stomatology - CHU Saint Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. We reported a 51-year old woman who presented symptoms of hypercalcemia. 99mTc sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) revealed a large hypermetabolic nodule in the left thyroid lobe suggestive of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. Read More

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December 2020

Thyroid scintigraphy in the era of fine-needle aspiration cytology.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, SSD Medicina ad indirizzo Endocrino-metabolico, University of Brescia, ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate whether thyroid scintigraphy would alter the clinical management of patients referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA).

Methods: We reviewed the medical and imaging records of patients referred to our Department between 2016 and 2019. All the patients had to take a serum thyrotropin test administered in our hospital at least two months before the FNA; where the TSH level was ≤1. Read More

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December 2020

Usefulness of accessible imaging methods in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 01;28(1):R1-R9

Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

In thyroid nodules (TN) submitted to fine-needle aspiration (FNA), Bethesda categories III and IV are considered 'indeterminate' cytology. This result corresponds to 10-25% of all FNAs and the risk of malignancy (RoM) ranges from 10% to 30% for category III and from 15% to 40% for category IV. This review analyzed the practical applicability of accessible imaging method in the management of patients with cytologically indeterminate TN > 1 cm (ITN). Read More

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January 2021

[Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of benign symptomatic thyroid nodules].

Ugeskr Laeger 2020 10;182(43)

Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation is an effective and safe treatment option for solid and cystic, cold, benign symptomatic thyroid nodules of ≥ 2 cm and less-than 20 ml. It is non-invasive, and in this review, we consider it well supported in the current literature for its efficacy, safety, patient satisfaction and cost. In addition, it is also a promising alternative therapy for hyperfunctioning nodules. Read More

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October 2020

[The "hot" thyroid gland carcinoma and a critical look at thermal ablation].

Chirurg 2021 Jan;92(1):34-39

Institut für Pathologie, Neuropathologie und Molekularpathologie - Hannover-Zentrum, Berliner Allee 48, 30175, Hannover, Deutschland.

Hot and hyperfunctioning thyroid gland nodules are currently treated primarily by radioiodine or surgical resection. In recent years local thermal ablation as an alternative therapeutic modality is increasingly recommended. This article reports the case of a patient with a hot thyroid nodule, which was resected and turned out to be follicular thyroid cancer. Read More

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January 2021

2020 European Thyroid Association Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Image-Guided Ablation in Benign Thyroid Nodules.

Eur Thyroid J 2020 Jul 8;9(4):172-185. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Standard therapeutic approaches for benign thyroid lesions that warrant intervention are surgery for cold and either surgery or radioiodine for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN). Image-guided thermal ablation (TA) procedures are increasingly proposed as therapy options for selected clinical conditions. Due to mounting scientific evidence and widening availability, ETA considered it appropriate to develop guidelines for the use of TA in adult patients. Read More

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Thyroid Nodules: Advances in Evaluation and Management.

Am Fam Physician 2020 09;102(5):298-304

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Thyroid nodules can be detected by ultrasonography in up to 68% of the general population. They are typically benign and are often discovered incidentally. The primary goal of thyroid nodule evaluation is to determine whether it is malignant. Read More

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September 2020

GNAS mutated thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Mc Cune Albright syndrome.

Bone Rep 2020 Dec 18;13:100299. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

INSERM UMR 1033, Université de Lyon, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital E Herriot, 69437 Lyon, France.

Mc Cune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder defined by the triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, "café au lait" skin hyperpigmentation and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, such as precocious puberty. MAS is caused by an activating post zygotic somatic mutation of GNAS gene, coding for the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha). In endocrine tissues, this mutation results in overproduction of hormones and endocrine cell hyperfunction and proliferation. Read More

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December 2020

A synchronous papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as a large toxic nodule in a female adolescent.

Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2020 21;2020:14. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital Ghent, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Case Presentation: We report for the first time a synchronous papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 12-year-old girl presenting with a large (5 cm diameter) left thyroid nodule, an increased left and right upper pole technetium tracer uptake at scintigraphy and hyperthyroidism. The uptake at the right lobe was explained by the crossing of the left nodule to the right site of the neck at Computed Tomography (CT) scanning.

Background: Although thyroid nodules are less common in children than in adults, there is more vigilance required in children because of the higher risk of malignancy. Read More

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Follicular thyroid carcinoma in a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule with suspicious sonomorphological features.

Nuklearmedizin 2020 12 17;59(6):440-442. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

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December 2020

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Cystic Changes in a Patient With Prior History of Toxic Nodule.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2020 Jan-Dec;8:2324709620942672

Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, USA.

Thyroid nodules are palpable on up to 7% of asymptomatic patients. Cancer is present in 8% to 16% of those patients with previously identified thyroid nodules. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of thyroid cancers. Read More

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Fusion iENA Scholar Study: Sensor-Navigated I-124-PET/US Fusion Imaging versus Conventional Diagnostics for Retrospective Functional Assessment of Thyroid Nodules by Medical Students.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 17;20(12). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Jena University Hospital, D-07749 Jena, Germany.

In conventional thyroid diagnostics, the topographical correlation between thyroid nodules (TN) depicted on ultrasound (US) in axial or sagittal orientation and coronally displayed scintigraphy images can be challenging. Sensor-navigated I-124-PET/US fusion imaging has been introduced as a problem-solving tool for ambiguous cases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of multiple unexperienced medical students (MS) versus multiple nuclear medicine physicians (MD) regarding the overvalue of I-124-PET/US in comparison to conventional diagnostics (CD) for the functional assessment of TN. Read More

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Adherence to guidelines for hormonal evaluation in patients with incidentally detected adrenal nodules: effects of radiology report wording and standardized reporting.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2020 09;45(9):2910-2915

Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 2221 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Objective: To compare the rates of hormonal evaluation in patients who had CT reports describing adrenal incidentalomas with and without a specific recommendation for hormonal evaluation.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adult outpatients without a history of cancer who had a CT report describing an incidental adrenal nodule. Radiology reports were reviewed to determine whether a standardized macro was used which gave specific recommendations for hormonal evaluation and endocrinology consultation. Read More

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September 2020

Prevalence of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules among those in need of fine needle aspiration cytology according to ATA 2015, EU-TIRADS, and ACR-TIRADS.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 06 9;47(6):1518-1526. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Purpose: Given the large number of patients with thyroid nodules, improvement of the specificity of current ultrasound-based thyroid nodule classification systems (ATA, EU-TIRADS, and ACR-TIRADS) is warranted to reduce the number of diagnostic thyroidectomies. Thyroid scintigraphy has been shown to demonstrate hyperfunctional nodules, associated with a low malignancy risk, in euthyroid patients. However, it is not known if thyroid scintigraphy could improve specificity of current classification systems. Read More

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Primary Hyperparathyroidism Manifesting with Severe Hypercalcemia in a Nonagenarian Man: Pitfall of Common Imaging Techniques, Localization by 18F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Successful Management with Calcimimetics.

Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2019 ;62(4):156-160

Nuclear Medicine, Galliera Hospital, Genoa, Italy.

A nonagenarian hypertensive man with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was admitted to the emergency department for gastrointestinal symptoms and worsening symptoms of depression. Severe hypercalcemia (15.3 mg/dL) was found and he was hospitalized. Read More

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[Radiofrequency ablation of thyroid nodules : an alternative to surgery or first-line treatment ?]

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Dec;15(674):2257-2261

Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme, CHUV et Université de Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne.

Thyroid nodules are a very common problem whose prevalence increases with age. When treatment is considered, surgical excision is traditionally the first choice, except in the case of hyperfunctioning nodules, where treatment with radioactive iodine plays a major role. In recent years, there has been increasing experience in the thermal ablation of thyroid nodules by radiofrequency, with very encouraging results. Read More

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December 2019

Hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma: A systematic review.

Mol Clin Oncol 2019 Dec 1;11(6):535-550. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Breast-Thyroid Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 201620, P.R. China.

Hyperthyroidism may be caused by the development of primary or metastatic thyroid carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to collect recently reported cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in order to analyze its pathological characteristics, diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies. A PubMed (https://www. Read More

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December 2019

Retrosternal Ectopic Thyroid Mimicking Esophagus in Tc-99m Pertechnetate Thyroid Scan.

Indian J Nucl Med 2019 Oct-Dec;34(4):351-352

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Abnormal Pertechnetate distribution can occur due to many reasons such as retrosternal extension of eutopic thyroid gland, ectopic functioning thyroid gland, physiological uptake in esophagus, teratoma having functioning thyroid tissue component, metastatic lymph nodes and sequestered thyroid nodule. We present a case of thyrotoxicosis with hyper functioning thyroid gland and two abnormal foci of uptake in the mediastinum in a linear fashion that mimcked esophageal activity. These foci persisted even after consuming water. Read More

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October 2019

Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia: a case report.

Acta Chir Belg 2020 Dec 21;120(6):433-436. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Surgery, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Jette, Belgium.

Introduction: A 26-year-old female presented with severe hypercalcemia. She was asymptomatic. Blood analysis revealed high serum calcium (13 mg/dL = 3. Read More

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December 2020

Toxic nodular goiter and thyroid cancer: Is hyperthyroidism protective against thyroid cancer?

Surgery 2019 09 16;166(3):356-361. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The suppressive effect of the increase in thyroid hormone in patients with toxic nodular goiter is thought to protect the extranodular thyroid tissue from thyroid malignancy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and features of thyroid cancer in patients with toxic nodular goiter who underwent thyroidectomy.

Methods: Medical data of patients who had solitary toxic or nontoxic nodules and underwent total thyroidectomy were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

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September 2019

Hyperfunctioning Papillary Microcarcinoma Diagnosed by 124I PET/Ultrasound Fusion Imaging.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 May;44(5):404-405

From the Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

A 49-year-old woman presented with a multinodular goiter, causing local symptoms and hyperthyroisdism. Besides a hypofunctioning benign nodule (TIRADS 3, benign in FNAC), the conventional diagnostic revealed another small hyperfunctioning nodule with suspicious ultrasound features (TIRADS 4C). To rule out a trapping-only nodule and topographical misalignments, a I PET/ultrasound fusion was performed and confirmed elevated iodine uptake within the suspicious nodule. Read More

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CAD system based on B-mode and color Doppler sonographic features may predict if a thyroid nodule is hot or cold.

Eur Radiol 2019 Aug 9;29(8):4258-4265. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate if the analysis of sonographic parameters could predict if a thyroid nodule was hot or cold.

Methods: Overall, 102 thyroid nodules, including 51 hyperfunctioning (hot) and 51 hypofunctioning (cold) nodules, were evaluated in this study. Twelve sonographic features (i. Read More

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Evaluation of Hot Nodules of Thyroid Gland Using Tc-99m Pertechnetate: a Novel Approach Using Quantitative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 3;52(6):468-472. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13620 South Korea.

Planar scintigraphy using Tc-99m pertechnetate is useful for snapshot evaluation of hot thyroid nodules, which are pathologically follicular adenoma and seldom, if ever, malignant. The autonomy of the hot nodules has been demonstrated by the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent extra-nodular thyroid tissue besides the hot nodules. Here, we present two cases of hot thyroid nodules in patients who underwent quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Read More

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December 2018

A Rare Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Caused by a Giant Solitary Parathyroid Adenoma.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Nov 8;19:1334-1337. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Fourth Surgical Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital "G. Papanikolaou", Thessaloniki, Greece.

BACKGROUND Solitary parathyroid adenomas are the leading cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in 0% to 85% of cases. Diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma is based on typical clinical presentation of hypercalcemia, biochemical profile, and modern imaging studies. The purpose of this article is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic approach used for a 73-year-old female patient with a giant parathyroid adenoma measuring 5×2. Read More

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November 2018

Clinical Significance of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Mutations and/or Sodium-Iodine Symporter Gene Overexpression in Indeterminate Thyroid Fine Needle Biopsies.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 25;9:566. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

To examine the prevalence of genetic alterations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor () gene and sodium-iodine symporter () in a series of thyroid fine needle biopsy (FNB) specimens with indeterminate cytology, and to assess the correlation of the type of genetic changes with clinical features and follow-up results in the target thyroid nodule. Between February 2015 and September 2017, 388 consecutive FNBs with indeterminate cytology were evaluated for mutations and gene overexpression using ThyroSeqV.2 next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. Read More

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September 2018