226 results match your criteria hydrotalcite synthesis

Complex Crystallization Kinetics of a Mg-Al Hydrotalcite and Their Practical Implications from the Process Point of View.

Ind Eng Chem Res 2021 Aug 2;60(31):11848-11854. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Applied Photochemistry and Materials for Energy Group, University of La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n, P.O. Box 456, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

Hydrotalcites are an important class of layered materials, displaying ion-exchange, adsorption, and base catalytic properties. The crystallization kinetics for hydrotalcites are however hardly available. Nevertheless, as their reconstruction from the oxides (also called as "memory effect") is considered a synthesis route, this can be used to study the crystallization phenomena. Read More

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Synthesis of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Clay with High Adsorption Capacity.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Nov 26;14(23). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava, Slovakia.

A novel Mg-Al metal oxide has been successfully synthesized by the calcination of hierarchical porous Mg-Al hydrotalcite clay obtained by using filter paper as a template under hydrothermal conditions. Various characterizations of the obtained nanoscale oxide particles verified the uniform dispersion of Mg-Al metal oxides on the filter paper fiber, which had a size of 2-20 nm and a highest specific surface area (SSA) of 178.84 m/g. Read More

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November 2021

Facile synthesis of hexagonal α-Co(OH) nanosheets and their superior activity in the selective reduction of nitro compounds.

Dalton Trans 2021 Dec 14;50(48):18061-18068. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241002, China.

Novel hexagonal α-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets are synthesized through a 2-methylimidazole-induced hydrolysis strategy with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. The weak alkaline environment provides favorable conditions for the formation of metastable α-Co(OH), while the same raw material will produce β-Co(OH) when a strong alkali solution is used. CTAB plays a vital role not only in hexagonal oriented growth, but also in the formation of the hydrotalcite-like structure of α-Co(OH) with high crystallinity. Read More

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December 2021

Cell Volume Regulation Mechanisms in Differentiated Astrocytes.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Nov;55(S1):196-212

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività (ISOF), Bologna, Italy,

Background/aims: The ability of astrocytes to control extracellular volume homeostasis is critical for brain function and pathology. Uncovering the mechanisms of cell volume regulation by astrocytes will be important for identifying novel therapeutic targets for neurological conditions, such as those characterized by imbalances to hydro saline challenges (as in edema) or by altered cell volume regulation (as in glioma). One major challenge in studying the astroglial membrane channels involved in volume homeostasis in cell culture model systems is that the expression patterns of these membrane channels do not resemble those observed in vivo. Read More

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November 2021

Recovering metal ions from oxalic acid leaching palygorskite-rich clay wastewater to fabricate layered mixed metal oxide/carbon composites for high-efficient removing Congo red.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 12;290:132543. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory of Clay Mineral Applied Research of Gansu Province, Center of Eco-material and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China; Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

This study developed a sustainable way to transform metallic residues in wastewater and spent adsorbents that adsorbed organic pollutants into novel high-efficiency adsorbents to treat water pollution again. The metal ions recovered from oxalic acid leaching palygorskite-rich clay wastewater was used to construct the hydrotalcite-like composites, after adsorbing organic pollutants, which was calcined and carbonized to convert into the mixed metal oxide/carbon composites (MMO/Cs). The fabricated MMO/Cs showed outstanding adsorption performance for the anionic azo dye Congo Red (CR). Read More

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Zn Promoted Mg-Al Mixed Oxides-Supported Gold Nanoclusters for Direct Oxidative Esterification of Aldehyde to Ester.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 12;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Hangzhou Institute of Advanced Studies, Zhejiang Normal University, 1108 Gengwen Road, Hangzhou 311231, China.

The synthesis of ester compounds is one of the most important chemical processes. In this work, Zn-Mg-Al mixed oxides with different Zn/Mg molar ratios were prepared via co-precipitation method and supported gold nanoclusters to study the direct oxidative esterification of aldehyde and alcohol in the presence of molecular oxygen. Various characterization techniques such as N-physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CO temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were utilized to analyze the structural and electronic properties. Read More

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Synthesis of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Hydrotalcite-Like Materials Intercalated with Duplex Herbicides: The Characterization and Simultaneous Release Properties.

Molecules 2021 Aug 22;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, Kuala Pilah 72000, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

In this study, a controlled-release formulation of duplex herbicides, namely, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxybutyric acid (TBA) and 3,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (3,4D), was simultaneously embedded into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The resulting nanohybrid Zinc-Aluminium-3,4D-TBA (ZADTX) was composed of a well-ordered crystalline layered structure with increasing basal spacing from 8.9 Å to 20. Read More

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Hydrotalcite-Embedded Magnetite Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia-Triggered Chemotherapy.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

A magnetic nanocomposite, consisting of FeO nanoparticles embedded into a Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) matrix, was developed for cancer multimodal therapy, based on the combination of local magnetic hyperthermia and thermally induced drug delivery. The synthesis procedure involves the sequential hydrolysis of iron salts (Fe, Fe) and Mg/Al nitrates in a carbonate-rich mild alkaline environment followed by the loading of 5-fluorouracil, an anionic anticancer drug, in the interlayer LDH space. Magnetite nanoparticles with a diameter around 30 nm, dispersed in water, constitute the hyperthermia-active phase able to generate a specific loss of power of around 500 W/g-Fe in an alternating current (AC) magnetic field of 24 kA/m and 300 kHz as determined by AC magnetometry and calorimetric measurements. Read More

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Facile Synthesis of Electrically Conductive and Heatable Nanoparticle/Nanocarbon Hybrid Aerogels.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 22;13(30):36201-36212. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, U.K.

Joule heating studies on nanoparticle/nanocarbon hybrid aerogels have been reported, but systematic investigations on hydrotalcite-derived catalysts supported onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels are rare. In this study, hydrotalcite-derived Cu-AlO nanoparticles were incorporated into a porous and multifunctional rGO aerogel support for fabricating electrically conducting Cu-AlO/rGO hybrid aerogels, and their properties were investigated in detail. The hybridization of Cu-AlO with a 3D nanocarbon support network imparts additional functionalities to the widely used functional inorganic nanoparticles, such as direct electrical framework heating and easy regeneration and separation of spent nanoparticles, with well-spaced nanoparticle segregation. Read More

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Anthocyanin Hybrid Nanopigments from Pomegranate Waste: Colour, Thermomechanical Stability and Environmental Impact of Polyester-Based Bionanocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 14;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition & Food Sciences, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, ES-03690 Alicante, Spain.

In the present work, anthocyanin (ACN) hybrid nanopigments were synthetized by using a natural pomegranate dye (PD) and calcined hydrotalcite (HT) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays. A wide colour gamut was obtained with MMT-based nanopigments ranging from reddish to bluish hues caused by structural transformations of ACNs at different pH values. However, a buffer effect was observed with HT obtaining samples a similar final colour regardless of the synthesis conditions. Read More

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Elucidating the effect of solid base on the hydrogenation of C5 and C6 sugars over Pt-Sn bimetallic catalyst at room temperature.

Carbohydr Res 2021 Jul 9;505:108341. Epub 2021 May 9.

Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune, 411 008, India. Electronic address:

Conversion of sugars into sugar alcohols at room temperature with exceedingly high yields are achieved over Pt-Sn/γ-AlO catalyst in the presence of calcined hydrotalcite. pH of the reaction mixture significantly affects the conversion and selectivity for sugar alcohols. Selection of a suitable base is the key to achieve optimum yields. Read More

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A Novel Green Approach to Synthesize Curcuminoid-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids: Adroit Biomaterials for Future Antimicrobial Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 30;6(14):9600-9608. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Soratha Mawatha, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka.

Thermal instability, photodegradation, and poor bioavailability of natural active ingredients are major drawbacks in developing effective natural product-based antimicrobial formulations. These inherited issues could be fruitfully mitigated by the introduction of natural active ingredients into various nanostructures. This study focuses on the development of a novel green mechanochemical synthetic route to incorporate curcuminoids into Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides. Read More

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Electron Donor-Acceptor Effect-Induced Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrids with Low Energy Gap for Highly Efficient Photothermal Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 7;13(15):17920-17930. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, 11 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, P. R. China.

For the design and optimization of near-infrared photothermal nanohybrids, tailoring the energy gap of nanohybrids plays a crucial role in attaining a satisfactory photothermal therapeutic efficacy for cancer and remains a challenge. Herein, we report an electron donor-acceptor effect-induced organic/inorganic nanohybrid with a low energy gap (denoted as ICG/Ag/LDH) by the deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto the CoAl-LDH surface, followed by the coupling of ICG. A combination study verifies that the supported Ag nanoparticles as the electron donor (D) push electrons into the conjugated system of ICG by the electronic interaction between ICG and Ag, while OH groups of LDHs as the electron acceptor (A) pull electrons from the conjugated system of ICG by hydrogen bonding (NH-O). Read More

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Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Coatings Containing Flame Retardant Additives from Suspensions in Water-2-Propanol.

Molecules 2021 Mar 31;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L7, Canada.

A dip-coating technique is designed for deposition of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from water/2-propanol mixture, avoiding the use of traditional toxic solvents. Solutions of PMMA macromolecules with high molecular weight (M) are obtained for a water/2-propanol ratio of 0.15-0. Read More

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Effect of Preparation Method on the Catalytic Property of Calcined Ca-Al Hydrotalcite for the Synthesis of Ethyl Methyl Carbonate.

Xi Zhou Chao Zhang

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 10;6(7):5056-5060. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Food and Chemical Engineering, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422000, Hunan, P. R. China.

Calcined Ca-Al hydrotalcites were prepared by a clean method (CaAl-1) and coprecipitation (CaAl-2), respectively. Effects of preparation methods on the structure and catalytic property of calcined Ca-Al hydrotalcites were investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG), CO-programmed temperature desorption method (CO-TPD), low-temperature N adsorption-desorption, and the Hammett indicator method. Read More

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February 2021

Nitrogen-doped nanoporous graphene induced by a multiple confinement strategy for membrane separation of rare earth.

iScience 2021 Jan 10;24(1):101920. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Rare earth separation is still a major challenge in membrane science. Nitrogen-doped nanoporous graphene (NDNG) is a promising material for membrane separation, but it has not yet been tested for rare earth separation, and it is limited by multi-complex synthesis. Herein, we developed a one-step, facile, and scalable approach to synthesize NDNG with tunable pore size and controlled nitrogen content using confinement combustion. Read More

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January 2021

Advanced drug delivery applications of layered double hydroxide.

J Control Release 2021 02 29;330:398-426. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government Medical College, Kozhikode 673008, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as anionic clays or hydrotalcite-like compounds, are a class of nanomaterials that attained great attention as a carrier for drug delivery applications. The lamellar structure of this compound exhibits a high surface-to-volume ratio which enables the intercalation of therapeutic agents and releases them at the target site, thereby reducing the adverse effect. Moreover, the intercalated drug can be released in a sustained manner, and hence the frequency of drug administration can be decreased. Read More

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February 2021

Highly active and efficient Cu-based hydrotalcite-like structured materials as reusable heterogeneous catalysts used for transcarbonation reaction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 20;585:549-559. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 113, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

A series of robust and efficient Cu-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLc) as catalysts were prepared by the simple precipitation method with different Cu/Al molar ratios and investigated for the transcarbonation of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) for glycerol carbonate (GC) synthesis in a batch reactor. The structural and textural properties of the Cu-Al (HTLc) catalysts were analyzed by several methods like N-sorption, SEM-EDX/TEM, XRD, FTIR, CO-TPD, TGA/DTA and ICP-OES. It was found that the transcarbonation of glycerol is directly dependent on the strong basic sites of the catalysts. Read More

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Synthesis of Hydrotalcites from Waste Steel Slag with [Bmim]OH Intercalated for the Transesterification of Glycerol Carbonate.

Molecules 2020 Sep 23;25(19). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

International Joint Research Center of Green Energy Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237, China.

Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcites were prepared by coprecipitation from Type S95 steel slag of Shanghai Baosteel Group as supports of ionic liquid in this paper. Five basic ionic liquids [Bmim][CHCOO], [Bmim][HCOO], [Bmim]OH, [Bmim]Br and ChOH were prepared and their catalytic performance on the synthesis of glycerol carbonate by transesterification between dimethyl carbonate and glycerol was investigated. The characterization results indicated that [Bmim]OH is the best ionic liquid (IL) for the transesterification reaction of glycerol carbonate. Read More

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September 2020

Production of Aromatic Compounds by Catalytic Depolymerization of Technical and Downstream Biorefinery Lignins.

Biomolecules 2020 09 18;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics (InaMat2) and Department of Sciences, Universidad Pública de Navarra, E31006 Pamplona, Spain.

Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternatives to non-renewable fossil sources when producing aromatic compounds. Lignins from . and from industrial wastes and biorefinery effluents were isolated and characterized. Read More

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September 2020

Facile Mechanochemical Approach To Synthesizing Edible Food Preservation Coatings Based On Alginate/Ascorbic Acid-Layered Double Hydroxide Bio-Nanohybrids.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Aug 5;68(33):8962-8975. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

A bionanohybrid based on ascorbic acid-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was synthesized using a facile and novel mechanochemical grinding technique, and its efficacy as an edible food coating is reported. Ascorbic acid-intercalated Mg-Al-LDHs (AA-LDHs) are synthesized using a green water-assisted grinding approach. The successful synthesis of the mechanochemically ground AA-LDHs was confirmed by the shifts observed in the basal peaks of the LDHs based on a powder X-ray diffraction, changes in the positions of vibrational frequencies of ascorbic acid based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and significant changes in the intensity and peak positions of the core-shell bands based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Read More

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Recent innovations in functionalized layered double hydroxides: Fabrication, characterization, and industrial applications.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Sep 30;283:102216. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) are a group of hydrotalcite-like nano-sized materials with cationic layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. The wide range of divalent and trivalent cationic metals and anionic compounds are employed in the synthesis of LDH materials, which have improved their importance among the researchers. Because of their high anion exchange property, memory effect, tunable behavior, bio-friendly, simple preparation, and their affordability, these nano-materials are essentially interested today. Read More

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September 2020

Layered Double Hydroxides Are Promising Nanomaterials for Tissue Bioengineering Application.

Adv Biosyst 2019 07 28;3(7):e1800238. Epub 2019 May 28.

Lab. de Bioensaios e Dinâmica Celular, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus Botucatu, São Paulo, CEP 18618-970, Brazil.

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have emerged as promising nanomaterials for human health and although it has achieved some progress on this matter, their application within bioengineering is not fully addressed. This prompted to subject fibroblasts to two compositions of LDHs (Mg Al-Cl and Zn Al-Cl), considering an acute response. First, LDH particles are addressed by scanning electron microscopy, and no significant effect of the cell culture medium on the shape of LDHs particles is reported although it seems to adsorb some soluble proteins as proposed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Read More

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Synthesis of hydrotalcite-type mixed oxide catalysts from waste steel slag for transesterification of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate.

Sci Rep 2020 06 24;10(1):10273. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

International Joint Research Center of Green Energy Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.

The mixed metal oxides S-CaMgAl MO prepared by acidolysis, coprecipitation and calcination under different temperatures from S95 steel slag of Shanghai Baosteel Co., Ltd. were used to catalyze the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and glycerol for synthesizing glycerol carbonate (GC). Read More

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Sequential hydrotalcite precipitation and biological sulfate reduction for acid mine drainage treatment.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 19;252:126570. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

CSIRO Land and Water, 147 Underwood Avenue, Floreat, Western Australia (WA), 6014, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Nedlands, WA, 6009, Australia. Electronic address:

Hydrotalcite precipitation is a promising technology for the on-site treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). This technology is underpinned by the synthesis of hydrotalcite that can effectively remove various contaminants. However, hydrotalcite precipitation has only limited capacity to facilitate sulfate removal from AMD. Read More

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MgAl monolayer hydrotalcite increases the hypoglycemic effect of berberine by enhancing its oral bioavailability.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jul 5;127:110140. Epub 2020 May 5.

Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Bio-characteristic Profiling for Evaluation of Clinical Rational Drug Use, Beijing, 100038, China. Electronic address:

Berberine (BBR) is a potential novel agent to treat diabetes, but its oral bioavailability is restricted by the poor solubility, which greatly limits its clinical application. Here, a new drug delivery system of BBR-MgAl monolayer hydrotalcite (BBR/MLDH) was prepared to increase the solubility and bioavailability of BBR. The results showed that BBR/MLDH presented as a uniform hexagonal plate-like particle with a loading capacity of 28. Read More

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Mechanochemical synthesis of FeO/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide based on red mud.

J Hazard Mater 2020 07 19;394:122566. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

In this work, using industrial waste red mud (RM) as main starting material, a simple method of mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) was introduced as a green approach to synthesize heterogeneous FeO/Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (F/ZA-LDH), which could be used as a new low-cost catalyst for photo-Fenton reaction. The optimum preparation conditions of F/ZA-LDH were as follows: mass ratio of Zn(NO)·6HO to RM (m:m) 2:1, dry milling time 6 h, HO dosage 2 mL, ball-to-powder mass ratio 50:1, and milling speed 250 rpm. The effects of the synthesis conditions on the crystal structure and catalytic activity of F/ZA-LDH were analyzed. Read More

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Adsorption of Phosphate Ions on Novel Mg/Fe/Al Hydroxides (MFA) Prepared at Different Mg/Fe/Al Ratios.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2020 ;68(4):339-344

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University.

In this study, we prepared novel Mg/Fe/Al hydroxides (MFA series: denoted by MFA1, MFA2, MF, and MA) and investigated their properties using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, the specific surface area, and amount of hydroxyl groups. Additionally, the phosphate adsorption capabilities of the MFA series or Fe-Mg type hydrotalcites (FHT3.0 and FHT5. Read More

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December 2020

Cellulose Mediated Reduction and Immobilization of Cr(VI) in Chromite Ore Processing Residue.

J Hazard Mater 2020 07 20;394:122538. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P.R. China.

It is a great challenge to find an effective method for the treatment of chromite ore processing residue (COPR), due to the highly toxic and mobile characteristic of Cr(VI) in the sludge. This work reported a facile strategy to thoroughly reduce and immobilize Cr(VI) that was encapsulated in COPR by biomass-assistant hydrothermal treatment. After hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 180 min, the leaching of Cr(VI) in COPR decreased from 138. Read More

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Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate with different adsorbents to improve the fermentative process.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Mar 4;36(3):43. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

Second generation ethanol has the prospect of becoming an important bioenergy alternative. The development of this technology is associated with the lignocellulosic materials' use, with emphasis on agricultural and agroindustrial by-products from which fermentable sugar can be produced. The acid hydrolysis depolymerizes the hemicellulose releasing mainly xylose. Read More

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