3,303,436 results match your criteria human tumors

Urban green spaces and childhood leukemia incidence: A population-based case-control study in Madrid.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19;202:111723. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Epidemiology Centre, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública - CIBERESP), Spain; European and Latin American Environment, Survival and Childhood Cancer Network (ENSUCHICA), Spain.

Background: Childhood leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. To date, few risk factors related to predisposition have been identified; therefore, new hypotheses should be considered.

Objective: To explore the possible relationship of residential proximity to urban green spaces on childhood leukemia. Read More

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Collagen XVII inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and growth through deactivation of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255179. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Collagen XVII (COL17), a cell-matrix adhesion protein, has been found to be suppressed in breast cancer. Our previous data demonstrated a preventive role of COL17 in breast cancer invasiveness. The present study used the stable COL17-overexpressing MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to reveal an anti-proliferative effect of COL17 on breast cancer cell through mTOR deactivation. Read More

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Constitutive activation of NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) in the mesenchymal lineage using Osterix (Sp7)- or Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (S100a4)-Cre drives spontaneous soft tissue sarcoma.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254426. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Aberrant NF-κB signaling fuels tumor growth in multiple human cancer types including both hematologic and solid malignancies. Chronic elevated alternative NF-κB signaling can be modeled in transgenic mice upon activation of a conditional NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) allele lacking the regulatory TRAF3 binding domain (NT3). Here, we report that expression of NT3 in the mesenchymal lineage with Osterix (Osx/Sp7)-Cre or Fibroblast-Specific Protein 1 (FSP1)-Cre caused subcutaneous, soft tissue tumors. Read More

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Active surveillance characterizes human intratumoral T cell exhaustion.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, United States of America.

Intratumoral T cells that might otherwise control tumors are often identified in an 'exhausted' state, defined by specific epigenetic modifications and upregulation of genes such as CD38, CTLA-4 and PD-1. While the term might imply inactivity, there has been little study of this state at the phenotypic level in tumors to understand the extent of their incapacitation. Starting with the observation that T cells move more quickly through mouse tumors as residence time increases and they progress towards exhaustion, we elaborated a non-stimulatory live-biopsy method for real-time study of T cell behaviors within individual patient tumors. Read More

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Exosomal miRNA-205 promotes breast cancer chemoresistance and tumorigenesis through E2F1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 22;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Thyroid and Breast III, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China.

Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignant tumor in females. The challenge in treating BC is overcoming chemoresistance. Exosome-mediated transfer of miRNAs is a molecule-shuttle in intercellular communication. Read More

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AID overexpression leads to aggressive murine CLL and nonimmunoglobulin mutations that mirror human neoplasms.

Blood 2021 Jul;138(3):246-258

Research Laboratory on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Most cancers become more dangerous by the outgrowth of malignant subclones with additional DNA mutations that favor proliferation or survival. Using chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease that exemplifies this process and is a model for neoplasms in general, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), which has a normal function of inducing DNA mutations in B lymphocytes. AID not only allows normal B lymphocytes to develop more effective immunoglobulin-mediated immunity, but is also able to mutate nonimmunoglobulin genes, predisposing to cancer. Read More

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Identification of rare nonsense variant causing orofacial cleft in a Chinese family and an up-to-date genotype-phenotype analysis.

Genes Dis 2021 Sep 8;8(5):689-697. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, 100081, PR China.

The Patched 1 () gene encodes a membrane receptor involved in the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, an abnormal state of which may result in congenital defects or human tumors. In this study, we conducted whole-exome sequencing on a three-generation Chinese family characterized with variable penetrance of orofacial clefts. A rare heterozygous variant in the gene (c. Read More

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September 2021

LncRNA LINC00944 Promotes Tumorigenesis but Suppresses Akt Phosphorylation in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 5;8:697962. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Urology, The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNA that possesses longer than 200 nucleotides and lacks protein coding function. It was recognized as a junk sequence for a long time. Recent studies have found that lncRNAs are actively functioning in almost every aspect of cell biology and involved in a variety of biological functions. Read More

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Fundamental and Essential Knowledge for Pathologists Engaged in the Research and Practice of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:679095. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan.

Extensive research over 100 years has demonstrated that tumors can be eliminated by the autologous immune system. Without doubt, immunotherapy is now a standard treatment along with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy; however, the field of cancer immunotherapy is continuing to develop. The current challenges for the use of immunotherapy are to enhance its clinical efficacy, reduce side effects, and develop predictive biomarkers. Read More

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Impact of Tenascin-C on Radiotherapy in a Novel Syngeneic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model With Spontaneous Dissemination to the Lymph Nodes.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:636108. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

INSERM U1109-MN3T, The Microenvironmental Niche in Tumorigenesis and Targeted Therapy, Strasbourg, France.

Radiotherapy, the most frequent treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) besides surgery is employed to kill tumor cells but, radiotherapy may also promote tumor relapse where the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) could be instrumental. We established a novel syngeneic grafting model from a carcinogen-induced tongue tumor, OSCC13, to address the impact of radiotherapy on OSCC. This model revealed similarities with human OSCC, recapitulating carcinogen-induced mutations found in smoking associated human tongue tumors, abundant tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TIL) and, spontaneous tumor cell dissemination to the local lymph nodes. Read More

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The Toll Route to Structural Brain Plasticity.

Front Physiol 2021 5;12:679766. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Plasticity and Regeneration Lab, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The human brain can change throughout life as we learn, adapt and age. A balance between structural brain plasticity and homeostasis characterizes the healthy brain, and the breakdown of this balance accompanies brain tumors, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the link between circuit modifications, brain function, and behavior remains unclear. Read More

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Chloroacetanilide herbicide-induced rat enterochromaffin cell tumors: a case study within the context of the IPCS framework, for analyzing the relevance of a cancer mode of action for humans.

Midori Yoshida

J Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jul 2;34(3):213-222. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Food Safety Commission, Cabinet Office of Japan, Akasaka Park Bld 22F, 5-2-20 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6122, Japan.

The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) framework for analyzing the relevance of a cancer mode of action (MoA) for humans (IPCS cancer-HRF) is an application to assess human relevance of tumorigenic hazards found through rodent bioassays. The chloroacetanilide herbicides, butachlor and alachlor, induced enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell tumors in rat stomachs, at the highest doses. This study analyzed the human relevance of this tumor by applying the IPCS cancer-HRF using published data. Read More

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Transcriptional programs of neoantigen-specific TIL in anti-PD-1-treated lung cancers.

Nature 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.

PD-1 blockade unleashes CD8 T cells, including those specific for mutation-associated neoantigens (MANA), but factors in the tumour microenvironment can inhibit these T cell responses. Single-cell transcriptomics have revealed global T cell dysfunction programs in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). However, the majority of TIL do not recognize tumour antigens, and little is known about transcriptional programs of MANA-specific TIL. Read More

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Phenotype, specificity and avidity of antitumour CD8 T cells in melanoma.

Nature 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and their cognate tumour antigens are central to antitumour immune responses; however, the relationship between phenotypic characteristics and TCR properties is not well elucidated. Here we show, by linking the antigenic specificity of TCRs and the cellular phenotype of melanoma-infiltrating lymphocytes at single-cell resolution, that tumour specificity shapes the expression state of intratumoural CD8 T cells. Non-tumour-reactive T cells were enriched for viral specificities and exhibited a non-exhausted memory phenotype, whereas melanoma-reactive lymphocytes predominantly displayed an exhausted state that encompassed diverse levels of differentiation but rarely acquired memory properties. Read More

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Preoperative clinical and tumor genomic features associated with pathologic lymph node metastasis in clinical stage I and II lung adenocarcinoma.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Jul 21;5(1):70. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Thoracic Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

While next-generation sequencing (NGS) is used to guide therapy in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), use of NGS to determine pathologic LN metastasis prior to surgery has not been assessed. To bridge this knowledge gap, we performed NGS using MSK-IMPACT in 426 treatment-naive patients with clinical N2-negative LUAD. A multivariable logistic regression model that considered preoperative clinical and genomic variables was constructed. Read More

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Inflammatory Cell Death, PANoptosis, Mediated by Cytokines in Diverse Cancer Lineages Inhibits Tumor Growth.

Immunohorizons 2021 Jul 21;5(7):568-580. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN

Resistance to cell death is a hallmark of cancer. Immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint blockade therapy, drives immune-mediated cell death and has greatly improved treatment outcomes for some patients with cancer, but it often fails clinically. Its success relies on the cytokines and cytotoxic functions of effector immune cells to bypass the resistance to cell death and eliminate cancer cells. Read More

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Human tumor microenvironment chip evaluates the consequences of platelet extravasation and combinatorial antitumor-antiplatelet therapy in ovarian cancer.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA.

Platelets extravasate from the circulation into tumor microenvironment, enable metastasis, and confer resistance to chemotherapy in several cancers. Therefore, arresting tumor-platelet cross-talk with effective and atoxic antiplatelet agents in combination with anticancer drugs may serve as an effective cancer treatment strategy. To test this concept, we create an ovarian tumor microenvironment chip (OTME-Chip) that consists of a platelet-perfused tumor microenvironment and which recapitulates platelet extravasation and its consequences. Read More

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A small-molecule activator of the unfolded protein response eradicates human breast tumors in mice.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul;13(603)

Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Metastatic estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer is presently incurable. Seeking to target these drug-resistant cancers, we report the discovery of a compound, called ErSO, that activates the anticipatory unfolded protein response (a-UPR) and induces rapid and selective necrosis of ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines in vitro. We then tested ErSO in vivo in several preclinical orthotopic and metastasis mouse models carrying different xenografts of human breast cancer lines or patient-derived breast tumors. Read More

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TGF-β signaling activated by cancer-associated fibroblasts determines the histological signature of lung adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University

Invasive lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) can be classified histologically as lepidic, acinar, papillary, micropapillary, or solid. Most LADC tumors manifest several of these histological subtypes, with heterogeneity being related to therapeutic resistance. We report here that in immunodeficient mice, human LADC cells form tumors with distinct histological features, MUC5AC-expressing solid-type or cytokeratin 7 (CK7)-expressing acinar-type tumors, depending on the site of development, and that a solid-to-acinar transition (SAT) could be induced by the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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[Progress on disability weights in the disease burden of cancer].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Jul;43(7):756-761

Office for Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Cancer, one of the major public health problems in the world, threatens human health seriously, and the burden of disease is heavy. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been increasingly used to estimate the burden of disease worldwide. Disability weights is a key ingredient for estimating DALYs, and its value directly affects the calculation of disease burden. Read More

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[Anatomical controversies involved in radical resection of rectal cancer].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;24(7):633-637

The Second Department of General Surgery, The Fourth Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050001, China Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

The concept of total mesorectal resection provides a quality control standard that can be followed for radical resection of rectal cancer, but some anatomical problems are still controversial. Compared with traditional open surgery, laparoscopic radical rectal surgery has better surgical vision, better neurological protection, better operating space. However, if the surgeon has insufficient understanding of the anatomy, collateral damage may occur, such as uncontrollable bleeding during the operation, postoperative urination and defecation dysfunction and so on. Read More

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Quantitative assessment of HER2 gene amplification of breast cancer using droplet digital PCR.

Pathol Int 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

We previously reported the usefulness of droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) for the assessment of Human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in breast cancer using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. In our previous study, we combined HER2/CEP17 ratio (HER2 gene signals to chromosome 17 signals) with ddPCR and tumor content ratio (TCR) of each sample and determined the HER2 status by adopting a two-dimensional chart. This "ddPCR-TCR method" showed a high concordance with conventional HER2 status. Read More

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Immune mechanisms orchestrate tertiary lymphoid structures in tumors via cancer-associated fibroblasts.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(3):109422

Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address:

Tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLS) are associated with enhanced patient survival and responsiveness to cancer therapies, but the mechanisms underlying their development are unknown. We show here that TA-TLS development in murine melanoma is orchestrated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) with characteristics of lymphoid tissue organizer cells that are induced by tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling. CAF organization into reticular networks is mediated by CD8 T cells, while CAF accumulation and TA-TLS expansion depend on CXCL13-mediated recruitment of B cells expressing lymphotoxin-αβ. Read More

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Role of calcium in hormone independent and resistant breast cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Approximately one-third of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors fail to respond to or become resistant to hormonal therapy. Although the mechanisms responsible for hormone resistance are not completely understood, resistance is associated with alterations in ERα; overexpression of proteins that interact with the receptor; and hormone independent activation of the receptor by growth factor signal transduction pathways. Our previous studies show that in estrogen dependent breast cancer cells, activation of the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway increases intracellular calcium which binds to and activates ERα through sites in the ligand binding domain of the receptor and that treatment with extracellular calcium increases the concentration of intracellular calcium which activates ERα and induces hormone independent cell growth. Read More

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Automatic cell counting from stimulated Raman imaging using deep learning.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254586. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of System Science and Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, United States of America.

In this paper, we propose an automatic cell counting framework for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) images, which can assist tumor tissue characteristic analysis, cancer diagnosis, and surgery planning processes. SRS microscopy has promoted tumor diagnosis and surgery by mapping lipids and proteins from fresh specimens and conducting a fast disclose of fundamental diagnostic hallmarks of tumors with a high resolution. However, cell counting from label-free SRS images has been challenging due to the limited contrast of cells and tissue, along with the heterogeneity of tissue morphology and biochemical compositions. Read More

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The immunosuppressive role of Edn3 over-expression in the melanoma microenvironment.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

Endothelins are cytokines expressed in the microenvironment of several tumors. To identify which stromal cells in the melanoma microenvironment respond to endothelin, we injected murine melanoma cell lines B16F10, YUMM1.7and YUMMER1. Read More

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First-In-Human, First-In-Class, Phase I Trial of the Fucosylation Inhibitor SGN-2FF in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Oncologist 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Lessons Learned: Inhibition of glycoprotein fucosylation, as monotherapy and in combination with immune checkpoint blockade, is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating a broad range of cancers. In this first-in-human, first-in-class, phase I study in advanced solid tumors, SGN-2FF demonstrated dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, evidence of pharmacodynamic target inhibition of glycoprotein fucosylation, and preliminary antitumor activity. SGN-2FF was associated with thromboembolic events that led to study termination. Read More

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Epidemiologic distinctions between base of tongue and tonsil oropharyngeal carcinomas.

Head Neck 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Head and Neck Oncology Program, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsil and base of tongue (BOT) cancers have been considered together. However, important differences may exist.

Methods: Demographic and tumor characteristics, and survival, were compared by oropharyngeal cancer subsite from 2004 to 2016 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Read More

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Evolution and Long-Term Outcomes of Combined Immunodeficiency Due to CARMIL2 Deficiency.

Allergy 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CARMIL2 cause combined immunodeficiency associated with dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and EBV-related smooth muscle tumors. Clinical and immunological characterizations of the disease with long-term follow-up and treatment options have not been previously reported in large cohorts. We sought to determine the clinical and immunological features of CARMIL2 deficiency and long-term efficacy of treatment in controlling different disease manifestations. Read More

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Safety, PK/PD and preliminary anti-tumor activities of pegylated recombinant human arginase 1 (BCT-100) in patients with advanced arginine auxotrophic tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background The study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), and recommended Phase II dose of BCT-100 for arginine auxotrophic tumours in a non-Chinese population. Methods This is a Phase I, 3 + 3 dose-escalation, open-label, multi-centre study in two arginine auxotrophic cancers-Malignant Melanoma (MM) and Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Patients were enrolled to receive weekly intravenous BCT-100. Read More

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