808,385 results match your criteria human mouse

MicroRNA-based host response to toxicant exposure is influenced by the presence of gut microbial populations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;797:149130. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Electronic address:

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and Bacteroides fragilis are known to interact with the host immune response through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental toxicant and a high-affinity Ahr ligand has the potential to modify the effect of SFB and B. fragilis. Read More

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Tissue-specific reduction in MLH1 expression induces microsatellite instability in intestine of Mlh1 mice.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jul 9;106:103178. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Systems Oncology (ONCOSYS) Research Program, Research Programs Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Biochemistry and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Tumors of Lynch syndrome (LS) patients display high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI), which results from complete loss of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), in line with Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. Why some organs, in particular those of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are prone to tumorigenesis in LS remains unknown. We hypothesized that MMR is haploinsufficient in certain tissues, compromising microsatellite stability in a tissue-specific manner before tumorigenesis. Read More

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LncRNA OIP5-AS1 reduces renal epithelial cell apoptosis in cisplatin-induced AKI by regulating the miR-144-5p/PKM2 axis.

Biomed J 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of SICU, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, 450001, PR. China. Electronic address:

Background: The abnormal expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Opa-interacting protein 5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) has been observed in many human cancers and the underlying mechanisms have been well studied. However, the function of OIP5-AS1 in acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear.

Material And Methods: To explore the role of OIP5-AS1 in the progression of AKI, the cisplatin-induced AKI mouse and cell model were established. Read More

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Corneal lymphangiogenesis in dry eye disease is regulated by substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor system through controlling expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Cornea, External Disease & Refractive Surgery, HanGil Eye Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea; Department of Ophthalmology, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung-si, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the role of substance P (SP)/neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) system in the regulation of pathologic corneal lymphangiogenesis in dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: Immunocytochemistry, angiogenesis assay, and western blot analysis of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) were conducted to assess the involvement of SP/NK1R system in lymphangiogenesis. DED was induced in wild-type C57BL/6J mice using controlled-environment chamber without scopolamine. Read More

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ANGPTL4 accelerates KRAS-Induced acinar to ductal metaplasia and pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Sciences & Engineering, Inha University, 366, Seohae-daero, Jung-gu, Incheon, 22332, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oncogenic KRAS induces neoplastic transformation of pancreatic acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and drives pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to be involved in the regulation of cancer growth and metastasis. However, whether ANGPTL4 affects KRAS-mediated ADM and early PDAC intervention remains unknown. Read More

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Silk fibroin nanoparticles enhance quercetin immunomodulatory properties in DSS-induced mouse colitis.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 23:120935. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Departamento de Biotecnología, Genómica y Mejora Vegetal, Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Medioambiental, 30150-La Alberca (Murcia); Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria (IMIB)-Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and idiopathic inflammatory disorder affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacological treatments used currently for its treatment lack efficacy, so new therapeutic strategies should be developed. In this context, flavonoids loaded in biopolymeric nanoparticles can be considered as novel promising candidates. Read More

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CLEC12B decreases melanoma proliferation by repressing STAT3.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Université Nice Côte d'Azur, INSERM, U1065, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire (C3M), team 12, Nice, France; Université Nice Côte d'Azur, CHU Nice, Department of Dermatology, Nice, France. Electronic address:

The potential role of CLEC12B, a gene predominantly expressed by skin melanocytes discovered through transcriptomic analysis, in melanoma is unknown. Here we show that CLEC12B expression is lower in melanoma and melanoma metastases than in melanocytes and benign melanocytic lesions, and that its decrease correlates with a poor prognosis. We further show that CLEC12B recruits SHP2 phosphatase through its ITIM domain, inactivates STAT1/3/5, increases p53/p21/p27 expression/activity and modulates melanoma cell proliferation. Read More

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Interferon regulatory factor 6 regulates the delivery of E-cadherin to the plasma membrane.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Iowa, IA, 52242. Electronic address:

Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is a transcription factor that is required for craniofacial development and epidermal morphogenesis. Specifically, Irf6-deficient mice lack the terminally differentiated epidermal layers, leading to the absence of barrier function. This phenotype also includes intraoral adhesions due to the abscence of the oral periderm, leading to the mislocalization of E-cadherin and other cell-cell adhesion proteins of the oral epithelium. Read More

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Heparan sulfate promotes differentiation of white adipocytes to maintain insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 23:101006. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Heparan sulfate (HS), a highly sulfated linear polysaccharide, is involved in diverse biological functions in various tissues. Although previous studies have suggested a possible contribution of HS to the differentiation of white adipocytes, there has been no direct evidence supporting this. Here, we inhibited the synthesis of HS chains in 3T3-L1 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, resulting in impaired differentiation of adipocytes with attenuated BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4)/FGF1 (fibroblast growth factor 1) signaling pathways. Read More

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Conserved and context-dependent roles for pdgfrb signaling during zebrafish vascular mural cell development.

Dev Biol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular, Cell, and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01650, United States. Electronic address:

Platelet derived growth factor beta and its receptor, Pdgfrb, play essential roles in the development of vascular mural cells, including pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. To determine if this role was conserved in zebrafish, we analyzed pdgfb and pdgfrb mutant lines. Similar to mouse, pdgfb and pdgfrb mutant zebrafish lack brain pericytes and exhibit anatomically selective loss of vascular smooth muscle coverage. Read More

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pre-erythrocytic vaccine antigens enhance sterile protection in mice induced by circumsporozoite protein.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0016521. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP. However, in phase III clinical trials, RTS,S conferred partial protection with limited durability, indicating a need to improve CSP-based vaccination. Read More

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Immunogenicity and efficacy of live-attenuated murium vaccine candidate CVD 1926 in a rhesus macaque model of gastroenteritis.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0008721. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

murium are a common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, and a less frequent but important cause of invasive disease, especially in developing countries. In our previous work, we showed that a live-attenuated murium vaccine (CVD 1921) was safe and immunogenic in rhesus macaques, although shed for an unacceptably long period (10 days) post-immunization. Consequently, we engineered a new strain, CVD 1926, which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in mice, as well as less reactogenic in mice and human cell-derived organoids than CVD 1921. Read More

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Histone-deacetylase 8 drives the immune response and the growth of glioma.

Glia 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Many epigenetic modifications occur in glioma, in particular the histone-deacetylase class proteins play a pivotal role in glioma development, driving the proliferation rate and the invasiveness of tumor cells, and modulating the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated the role of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 in the regulation of the immune response in glioma and tumor growth. We found that inhibition of HDAC8 by the specific inhibitor PCI-34051 reduces tumor volume in glioma mouse models. Read More

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Combined mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation is associated with prolonged recurrence-free survival following surgery for colorectal cancer.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background And Objectives: Recent studies suggest that bacteria influence the pathogenesis of primary colorectal cancer (CRC), yet their role in recurrence after resection is largely unknown. We have discovered that collagenase-producing bacteria promote cancer recurrence in mice, and that antibiotic bowel decontamination decreases colonization of these same organisms in humans. We hypothesized that preoperative combined mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation would improve disease-free survival (DFS) in patients undergoing surgery for CRC. Read More

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Adaptive selection of a prion strain conformer corresponding to established North American CWD during propagation of novel emergent Norwegian strains in mice expressing elk or deer prion protein.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009748. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Prion Research Center (PRC), the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Prions are infectious proteins causing fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases of animals and humans. Replication involves template-directed refolding of host encoded prion protein, PrPC, by its infectious conformation, PrPSc. Following its discovery in captive Colorado deer in 1967, uncontrollable contagious transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) led to an expanded geographic range in increasing numbers of free-ranging and captive North American (NA) cervids. Read More

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DENV NS1 and MMP-9 cooperate to induce vascular leakage by altering endothelial cell adhesion and tight junction.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1008603. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes a spectrum of diseases including life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Vascular leakage is a common clinical crisis in DHF/DSS patients and highly associated with increased endothelial permeability. The presence of vascular leakage causes hypotension, circulatory failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation as the disease progresses of DHF/DSS patients, which can lead to the death of patients. Read More

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Expression and role of lumican in acute aortic dissection: A human and mouse study.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0255238. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Introduction: Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening emergency, and lumican (LUM) is a potential Biomarker for AD diagnosis. We investigated LUM expression patterns in patients with AD and explored the molecular functions of Lum in AD mice model.

Methods: LUM expression patterns were analyzed using aortic tissues of AD patients, and serum soluble LUM (s-LUM) levels were compared between patients with acute AD (AAD) and chronic AD (CAD). Read More

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Rapid tumor-labeling kinetics with a site-specific near-infrared anti-CEA nanobody in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse model of colon cancer.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Background/objectives: Nanobodies are the smallest biologic antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid-derived antibodies. Nanobodies effect a peak tumor signal within minutes of injection and present a novel opportunity for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). The present study demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-CEA nanobody conjugated to near-infrared fluorophore LICOR-IRDye800CW for rapid intraoperative tumor labeling of colon cancer. Read More

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Assessment of MUSASHI 1 and MUSASHI 2 expression in spermatozoa and testicular tissue.

Andrologia 2021 Jul 26:e14187. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

MUSASHI (MSI) family plays the main role in the spermatogenesis process. The purpose of this study was the assessment of sperm MSI1 and MSI2, and sperm functional tests in infertile men (n = 30) with varicocele and fertile men (n = 30). Furthermore, MSI1 and MSI2 proteins were assessed in testicular tissue of azoospermic men (n = 9) as well as epididymal spermatozoa and testis of mice. Read More

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Low oxygen-levels decrease adaptive immune responses and ameliorate experimental asthma in mice.

Allergy 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz, Austria.

Background: High altitude therapy has been used as add-on treatment for allergic asthma with considerable success. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In order to investigate the possible therapeutic effects of high altitude therapy on allergic asthma, we utilised a new in vivo mouse model. Read More

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"Unboxing Dendritic cells: Tales of Multi-faceted Biology and Function".

Immunology 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Often referred to as the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that constitute a unique, yet complex cell system. Among other antigen presenting cells, DCs display the unique property of inducing protective immune responses against invading microbes, or cancer cells, while safeguarding the proper homeostatic equilibrium of the immune system and maintaining self-tolerance. Unsurprisingly, DCs play a role in many diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, infectious disease, and cancer. Read More

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HOXC13 promotes cervical cancer proliferation, invasion and Warburg effect through β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), NO.1, banshangdong Road, Gongshu District, 310000, Hangzhou, China.

Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common malignancy and is the second leading cause of death in gynecologic malignancies worldwide. The homeobox transcription factor homeobox C13 (HOXC13) has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in various cancers. However, its function in CC remains to be addressed. Read More

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A glutaminyl cyclase-catalyzed α-synuclein modification identified in human synucleinopathies.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 19, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is neuropathologically characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and formation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites composed of aggregated α-synuclein. Proteolysis of α-synuclein by matrix metalloproteinases was shown to facilitate its aggregation and to affect cell viability. One of the proteolysed fragments, Gln79-α-synuclein, possesses a glutamine residue at its N-terminus. Read More

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Antitumor efficacy of CHMFL-KIT-110 solid dispersion in mouse xenograft models of human gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, China.

Purpose: CHMFL-KIT-110, a selective c-KIT kinase inhibitor for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), possesses a poorly water-soluble, limiting the further development of the drug. This study was to investigate the antitumor efficacy of CHMFL-KIT-110 and CHMFL-KIT-110 solid dispersion (laboratory code: HYGT-110 SD) in GIST tumor xenograft models and to explore the PK/PD relationship of HYGT-110 SD.

Methods: Plasma concentrations of HYGT-110 and HYGT-110 SD were determined by LC-MS/MS in KM mice. Read More

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A Behavioral Screen for Heat-Induced Seizures in Mouse Models of Epilepsy.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 12(173). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California;

Transgenic mouse models have proved to be powerful tools in studying various aspects of human neurological disorders, including epilepsy. The SCN1A-associated genetic epilepsies comprise a wide spectrum of seizure disorders with incomplete penetrance and clinical variability. SCN1A mutations can result in a large variety of seizure phenotype ranging from simple, self-limited fever-associated febrile seizures (FS), moderate-level genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) to more severe Dravet Syndrome (DS). Read More

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Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Models for Pathophysiology and Regenerative Therapy -Benefits and Limitations.

J Invest Surg 2021 Jul 26:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, P.R. China.

This review summarized the recent intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) models and described their advantages and potential disadvantages, aiming to provide an overview for the current condition of IDD model establishment and new ideas for new strategies development of the treatment and prevention of IDD.The database of PubMed was searched up to May 2021 with the following search terms: nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, cartilage endplate, intervertebral disc(IVD), intervertebral disc degeneration, animal model, organ culture, bioreactor, inflammatory reaction, mechanical stress, pathophysiology, epidemiology. Any IDD model-related articles were collected and summarized. Read More

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Limited Expansion of Human Hepatocytes in FAH/RAG2-Deficient Swine.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mayo Clinic Minnesota, 4352, Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota, United States;

Background: The mammalian liver's regenerative ability has led researchers to engineer animals as incubators for expansion of human hepatocytes. The expansion properties of human hepatocytes in immunodeficient mice are well known. However, little has been reported about larger animals that are more scalable and practical for clinical purposes. Read More

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Endochondral Bone Tissue Engineering Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe, Japan;

There has been great interest in the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in bone regenerative strategies for bone defects. In the present study, we investigated whether the implantation of chondrogenically differentiated iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) could lead to the successful regeneration of bone defects in nude mice. Two clones of human iPSCs (201B7 and 454E2) were used. Read More

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Type II fatty acid synthesis pathway and cyclopropane ring formation are dispensable during systemic infection.

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0022121. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Université de Paris, Institut Cochin, INSERM, CNRS, F-75014 Paris, France.

, a multi-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacterium, has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen. Here, we used a genetic approach to characterize the strategies used by to fulfill its requirements for endogenous fatty acid (FA) synthesis and . The FA synthesis (FASII) pathway is encoded by two operons and two monocistronic genes. Read More

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The impact of hindlimb disuse on sepsis-induced myopathy in mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jul;9(14):e14979

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Sepsis induces a myopathy characterized by loss of muscle mass and weakness. Septic patients undergo prolonged periods of limb muscle disuse due to bed rest. The contribution of limb muscle disuse to the myopathy phenotype remains poorly described. Read More

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