388,830 results match your criteria human immunodeficiency

Curation and Expansion of Human Phenotype Ontology for Defined Groups of Inborn Errors of Immunity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of immunology, Great Ormond Street (GOS) Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Accurate, detailed and standardized phenotypic descriptions are essential to support diagnostic interpretation of genetic variants and to discover new diseases. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), extensively used in rare disease research, provides a rich collection of vocabulary with standardized phenotypic descriptions in a hierarchical structure. However, to date the use of HPO has not yet been widely implemented in the field of inborn errors of immunity (IEIs), mainly due to a lack of comprehensive IEI-related terms. Read More

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High prevalence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and prevention through human papillomavirus vaccination, in young men who have sex with men living with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HPV-related anal cancer. Little is known about the prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and the anal cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), among young MSM living with HIV (MSMLWH). HPV vaccination is recommended in this group but its safety, immunogenicity and protection against vaccine-type HPV infection and associated LSIL/HSIL have not been studied. Read More

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Fracture healing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus in South Africa: a prospective cohort study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Population Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Liverpool University Teaching Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Orthopaedic Research Unit (ORU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Countess of Chester Hospital, Chester, UK University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reduces bone mineral density, mineralisation and turnover, and may impair fracture healing.

Setting: This prospective cohort study in South Africa investigated whether HIV infection was associated with impaired fracture healing following trauma.

Methods: All adults with acute tibia and femur fractures who underwent intermedullary nailing (IM) for fracture fixation between September 2017 and December 2018, at two tertiary hospitals, were followed for a minimum of 12 months post-operatively. Read More

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Factors associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 morbidity in a cohort of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cook County Health, Chicago, IL, USA (V. Sardá, C. Gomez, J. Soria, J. Sarmiento, S. Badri, M. Merçon) Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA (V. Sardá, S. Badri, M. Merçon).

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Analysis of deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 pathogenesis based on single-cell RNA sequencing of monocytes.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by loss-of-function variants in the ADA2 gene. DADA2 typically presents in childhood and is characterized by vasculopathy, stroke, inflammation, immunodeficiency, as well as hematologic manifestations. ADA2 protein is predominantly present in stimulated monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Read More

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Neurological development of children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Widespread use of antiretroviral drugs for pregnant/breastfeeding females with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to declining vertical transmission. Despite being HIV-uninfected, the increasing number of children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected (CHEU) often present with developmental alterations. We review seminal and recent evidence on the neurological development of CHEU and associations with early life HIV/antiretroviral exposure. Read More

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Cryptococcal infection of the colon in a patient without concurrent human immunodeficiency infection: a case report and literature review.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrion, Lima, Peru.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection that is rarely reported in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, especially when the central nervous system (CNS) or pulmonary system is not involved. We report a case of isolated colonic cryptococcosis without disseminated disease in a 64-year-old immunocompetent woman without HIV infection who presented with chronic diarrhea and no episodes of fever or weight loss. The diagnosis was based on histopathology examination. Read More

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In silico design and in vitro expression of novel multiepitope DNA constructs based on HIV-1 proteins and Hsp70 T-cell epitopes.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Epitope-driven vaccines carrying highly conserved and immunodominant epitopes have emerged as promising approaches to overcome human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection.

Methods: Two multiepitope DNA constructs encoding T cell epitopes from HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Env, Nef and Rev proteins alone and/or linked to the immunogenic epitopes derived from heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as an immunostimulatory agent were designed. In silico analyses were applied including MHC-I and MHC-II binding, MHC-I immunogenicity and antigen processing, population coverage, conservancy, allergenicity, toxicity and hemotoxicity. Read More

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HIV, placental pathology and birth outcomes - a brief overview.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Lancet Laboratories, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The spectrum of placental pathology in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is vast. Features observed are not only limited to the effects of the virus itself but may include that of coinfections such as tuberculosis and syphilis. The presence of other comorbidities and changes as a result of antiretroviral therapy may further confound the histologic findings. Read More

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Incapacitating pain from Tenofovir Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia in a Hemophilia Patient - A Case Report.

Can J Pain 2020 Dec 14;4(1):287-291. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Pain in patients with hemophilia is common and usually a result of arthropathy. Clinicians should, however, consider a wide range of etiologies for pain in patients with hemophilia including infection, osteoporotic fractures, arthritis, and osteomalacia. This case demonstrates an instance of poorly localized back and hip pain, severe enough to prevent ambulation, caused by hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to tenofovir treatment for blood transfusion acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a patient with hemophilia A. Read More

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December 2020

Plasma Extracellular Vesicle Subtypes May be Useful as Potential Biomarkers of Immune Activation in People With HIV.

Pathog Immun 2021 14;6(1):1-28. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intercellular messengers with epigenetic potential since they can shuttle microRNA (miRNA). EVs and miRNA play a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection immunopathogenesis. Chronic immune activation and systemic inflammation during HIV infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) comorbidities in people living with HIV (PLWH). Read More

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January 2021

Cleavage of TANK-Binding Kinase 1 by HIV-1 Protease Triggers Viral Innate Immune Evasion.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:643407. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are the innate immune system's principal defense against viral infections. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has evolved several ways to suppress or evade the host's innate immunity in order to survive and replicate to sustain infection. Suppression of IFN-I is one among the multiple escape strategies used by HIV-1 to prevent its clearance. Read More

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Convexal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Infective Endocarditis in a Patient with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): The Culprits and Bystanders.

Am J Case Rep 2021 May 14;22:e931376. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Infectious Disease, Rockledge Regional Medical Center, Rockledge, FL, USA.

BACKGROUND Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH), a rare form of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, is confined to cerebral convexities without extension into basal cisterns or ventricles. Typical presentation includes thunderclap/progressive headache or transient focal neurological symptoms; rare manifestations include seizures, intractable vomiting, or altered mental status. Here, we report the first case of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage and multifocal ischemic lesions caused by infective endocarditis (IE) in a treatment-naïve advanced HIV patient. Read More

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care: A Primary Care Provider's Guide.

Prim Care 2021 Jun 23;48(2):311-328. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Northwestern McGaw Family Medicine Residency Program Humboldt Park, 2750 West North Avenue, Chicago, IL 60647, USA.

This article provides a broad understanding of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and how to provide appropriate care as a primary care provider. One important aspect to this is in understanding the effect that HIV has in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer+ community. Through this article, clinicians will be better equipped to provide appropriate HIV primary care. Read More

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Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in LGBT Communities.

Asa Radix Rona Vail

Prim Care 2021 Jun 22;48(2):299-310. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medicine, Callen-Lorde Community Health Center, 356 West 18th Street, New York, NY 10011, USA.

Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals face the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective evidence-based biomedical intervention to reduce acquisition of HIV infection but uptake has been suboptimal in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. Primary care providers play an integral role in addressing HIV disparities by educating patients and facilitating access to PrEP. Read More

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A Guide to Creating a Gender-Affirming Environment Through a Community Lens Approach.

Prim Care 2021 Jun 22;48(2):227-241. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

UW Internal Medicine Residency Program, Seattle, WA, USA.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex (LGBTQI+) communities continue to experience health care disparities and inequities due to a shortage of trained health care providers, despite increased attention to LGBTQI+ health care. Many settings are starting to integrate gender-affirming health care and focus training on the provision of hormonal therapy, medications to decrease the risk of human immunodeficiency acquisition, and referrals to surgeons for affirming surgical procedures. A vital component to providing inclusive and comprehensive care involves community input, engagement, and buy-in. Read More

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Enabling culturally safe sexual health services in western Sydney: a protocol to improve STI treatment outcomes for Aboriginal young people.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 May 13;7(1):106. Epub 2021 May 13.

Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Western Sydney Local Health District, Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Background: Aboriginal people face challenges on several fronts when it comes to the health and wellbeing of their community, compared to the rest of the Australian population. This is no different in urban areas such as Australia's largest urban Aboriginal community located in Blacktown, NSW, where sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain an issue of concern. Across Australia, rates of infectious syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C infection have increased by 400, 260, and 15% respectively while gonorrhoea decreased 12% in the 5-year period from 2013 to 2017. Read More

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KIF15 is involved in development and progression of Burkitt lymphoma.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 13;21(1):261. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, 651 Dong feng East Road, Guangzhou, 510060, Guangdong, China.

Background: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, fast-growing B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, manifested in several subtypes, including sporadic, endemic, and immunodeficiency-related forms, the mechanism of which is still not clear. Abundant evidence reported that KIF15 was involved in the progression of human cancer. The emphasis of this study is to explore the functions of KIF15 in the development of BL. Read More

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Lymphocyte subset analysis to evaluate the prognosis of HIV-negative patients with pneumocystis pneumonia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 14;21(1):441. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objectives: We analysed the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients infected with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) to determine the relationships between the levels of different types of lymphocytes and the prognosis of patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HIV-negative patients with PCP diagnosed in our department. All the eligible patients underwent lymphocyte subset analysis on admission. Read More

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Hypoactivation in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex during ambiguous decision making in individuals with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 102848, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often have neurocognitive impairment. People with HIV make riskier decisions when the outcome probabilities are known, and have abnormal neural architecture underlying risky decision making. However, ambiguous decision making, when the outcome probabilities are unknown, is more common in daily life, but the neural architecture underlying ambiguous decision making in people with HIV is unknown. Read More

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Use of a slow-release intravitreal clindamycin implant for the management of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 16;22:101093. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Purpose: To report the first patient with ocular toxoplasmosis treated with a slow-release biodegradable intravitreal clindamycin implant.

Observations: A 39-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive woman with recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and vitritis for whom oral medication was medically contraindicated was treated with an intravitreal slow-release clindamycin implant and three monthly intravitreal injections of clindamycin and dexamethasone. Serial ophthalmologic examinations demonstrated gradual, complete resolution of posterior uveitis and healing of the retinochoroidal lesion with cicatricial changes, as well as gradual improvement of cells in the anterior chamber. Read More

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Bictegravir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Accelerated Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 May 16;8(5):ofab077. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is first line for treatment of people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). Emerging data suggest the possibility of adverse metabolic effects of these medications. We describe 3 cases in which PWH developed hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis within months of being switched to bictegravir-based ART. Read More

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Enhanced target cell specificity and uptake of lipid nanoparticles using RNA aptamers and peptides.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2021 26;17:891-907. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) constitute a facile and scalable approach for delivery of payloads to human cells. LNPs are relatively immunologically inert and can be produced in a cost effective and scalable manner. However, targeting and delivery of LNPs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has proven challenging. Read More

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A follicular regulatory Innate Lymphoid Cell population impairs interactions between germinal center Tfh and B cells.

Commun Biol 2021 May 12;4(1):563. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) are immune cells typically found on mucosal surfaces and in secondary lymphoid organs where they regulate the immune response to pathogens. Despite their key role in the immune response, there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of ILCs. Here we report a human ILC population present in the follicles of tonsils and lymph nodes termed follicular regulatory ILCs (ILC) that to our knowledge has not been previously identified. Read More

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Let it go: HIV-1 acting repressive sequences.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Virology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

After human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was identified in the early 1980s, intensive work began to understand the molecular basis of HIV-1 gene expression. Subgenomic HIV-1 RNA regions, spread throughout the viral genome, were described to have a negative impact on the nuclear export of some viral transcripts. These studies revealed an intrinsic RNA code as a new form of nuclear export regulation. Read More

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The CD8 T Cell Noncytotoxic Antiviral Responses.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2021 May 12;85(2). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

SUMMARYThe CD8 T cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) was discovered during studies of asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects more than 30 years ago. In contrast to CD8 T cell cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activity, CNAR suppresses HIV replication without target cell killing. This activity has characteristics of innate immunity: it acts on all retroviruses and thus is neither epitope specific nor HLA restricted. Read More

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Unilateral frosted branch angiitis in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with concurrent COVID-19 infection: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 12;15(1):267. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Sabah, Malaysia.

Background: Frosted branch angiitis (FBA) is an uncommon ocular sign with multiple causes. With the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many cases of ocular manifestation in association with this disease have been reported. However, as yet we have no complete understanding of this condition. Read More

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Lived experiences of people living with HIV: a descriptive qualitative analysis of their perceptions of themselves, their social spheres, healthcare professionals and the challenges they face daily.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 12;21(1):904. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of History of Medicine and Ethics, School of Medicine, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Kayisdagi Cad. No:32, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates have been gradually increasing in Istanbul, Turkey. Many people living with HIV (PLWH) here encounter difficulties, for example, in adapting to the chronic disease and obtaining continuous access to healthcare services. In this study, we aimed to explore the challenges PLWH face in their daily lives and understand their perceptions of themselves, healthcare professionals and services, and their social spheres via their expressed lived experiences in the healthcare setting. Read More

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Non-Hodgkin's Plasmablastic Lymphoma as Initial Presentation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211014689

UCLA at Kern Medical Center, Bakersfield, CA, USA.

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that manifests in patients with the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), more prominently in the head, neck, and oral mucosal region. The diagnosis of this rare lymphoma serves as a concomitant diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The case is of a 33-year-old previously healthy male, with an unknown diagnosis of HIV with a painful right mandibular mass. Read More

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Histopathological changes in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) ovaries after a chronic exposure to a mixture of the HIV drug nevirapine and the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 9;274:129900. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Zoology, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, University of Johannesburg, 2006, South Africa. Electronic address:

The burden of the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) infection has transformed the African continent into a major consumer of antiretrovirals (ARVs) drugs. In addition to HIV burden, the African continent has also a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and has been experiencing recurring outbreaks of several other viral, bacterial, and parasitic epidemic diseases. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2 or Covid-19) pandemic outbreak is adding to the continent's infectious diseases burden as experts are predicting that it will be here for a long time. Read More

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