47,578 results match your criteria human guinea


Development and Characterization of a Biomimetic Totally Implantable Artificial Basilar Membrane System.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:693849. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sensory Organ Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Cochlear implants (CIs) have become the standard treatment for severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Conventional CIs have some challenges, such as the use of extracorporeal devices, and high power consumption for frequency analysis. To overcome these, artificial basilar membranes (ABMs) made of piezoelectric materials have been studied. Read More

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What is the gold standard model for Alzheimer's Disease drug discovery and development?

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

International Center of Neuroscience and Genomic Medicine, EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, 15165 Bergondo, Corunna, Spain.

Introduction: . Alzheimer's disease models (ADMs) are currently used for drug development (DD). More than 20,000 molecules were screened for AD treatment over decades, with only one drug (Aducanumab)FDA-approved over the past 18 years. Read More

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Outcomes of blended learning for capacity strengthening of health professionals in Guinea.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jul 28;21(1):406. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Quality human resources constitute an essential pillar of an effective health system. This paper analyzes the outcomes of blended learning for post-Ebola capacity strengthening of health professionals in Guinea.

Methods: Two courses lasting 3 months each (7-8 modules) were developed and implemented: one in Primary Health Care (eSSP) and the other in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services Management (eSSR). Read More

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An open dataset of genome variation in 7,000 worldwide samples.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 13;6:42. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Banjul, The Gambia.

MalariaGEN is a data-sharing network that enables groups around the world to work together on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. Here we describe a new release of curated genome variation data on 7,000 samples from MalariaGEN partner studies in 28 malaria-endemic countries. High-quality genotype calls on 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short indels were produced using a standardised analysis pipeline. Read More

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Coating small-diameter ePTFE vascular grafts with tunable poly(diol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) elastomers to reduce neointimal hyperplasia.

Biomater Sci 2021 Aug 6;9(15):5160-5174. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4001 Burnett-Womack Building, CB #7050, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7050, USA.

Lack of long-term patency has hindered the clinical use of small-diameter prosthetic vascular grafts with the majority of these failures due to the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Previous studies by our laboratory revealed that small-diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts coated with antioxidant elastomers are a promising localized therapy to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia. This work is focused on the development of poly(diol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) (POCA) elastomers with tunable properties for coating ePTFE vascular grafts. Read More

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Linked surveillance and genetic data uncovers programmatically relevant geographic scale of Guinea worm transmission in Chad.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 26;15(7):e0009609. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute for Disease Modeling, Global Health Division of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Background: Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) was detected in Chad in 2010 after a supposed ten-year absence, posing a challenge to the global eradication effort. Initiation of a village-based surveillance system in 2012 revealed a substantial number of dogs infected with Guinea worm, raising questions about paratenic hosts and cross-species transmission.

Methodology/principal Findings: We coupled genomic and surveillance case data from 2012-2018 to investigate the modes of transmission between dog and human hosts and the geographic connectivity of worms. Read More

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Zwitterionic Photografted Coatings of Cochlear Implant Biomaterials Reduce Friction and Insertion Forces.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Iowa iotaMotion, Inc, Iowa City, Iowa.

Hypothesis: Application of photografted zwitterionic coatings to cochlear implant (CI) biomaterials will reduce friction and insertion forces.

Background: Strategies to minimize intracochlear trauma during implantation of an electrode array are critical to optimize outcomes including preservation of residual hearing. To this end, advances in thin-film zwitterionic hydrogel coatings on relevant biomaterials may show promise, in addition to the potential of these materials for decreasing the intracochlear foreign body response. Read More

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High-throughput detection of eukaryotic parasites and arboviruses in mosquitoes.

Biol Open 2021 Jul 19;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute for Genome Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Vector-borne pathogens cause many human infectious diseases and are responsible for high mortality and morbidity throughout the world. They can also cause livestock epidemics with dramatic social and economic consequences. Due to its high costs, vector-borne disease surveillance is often limited to current threats, and the investigation of emerging pathogens typically occurs after the reports of clinical cases. Read More

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Effect of probiotics administration at different levels on the productive parameters of guinea pigs for fattening ().

Open Vet J 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):222-227. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

Background: For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used to maintain animal welfare and improve efficiency. Recently, antibiotics were found in the muscle, liver, and kidney of guinea pig carcasses put up for sale and human consumption, which is a public health issue. Probiotics are supplements of live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate doses, could replace growth-promoting antibiotics. Read More

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Mammals fail to regenerate organs when wound contraction drives scar formation.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Jul 22;6(1):39. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

To understand why mammals generally do not regenerate injured organs, we considered the exceptional case of spontaneous skin regeneration in the early lamb fetus. Whereas during the early fetal stage skin wounds heal by regeneration, in the late fetal stage, and after birth, skin wounds close instead by scar formation. We review independent evidence that this switch in wound healing response coincides with the onset of wound contraction, which is also enabled during late fetal gestation. Read More

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Phenotypic differences between highlanders and lowlanders in Papua New Guinea.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0253921. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique (EDB UMR5174), Université de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, CNRS, IRD, UPS, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: Altitude is one of the most demanding environmental pressures for human populations. Highlanders from Asia, America and Africa have been shown to exhibit different biological adaptations, but Oceanian populations remain understudied [Woolcock et al., 1972; Cotes et al. Read More

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Antibiotic Use in a Municipal Veterinary Clinic in Ghana.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Jul 20;6(3). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo North Municipality, Kintampo P.O. Box 200, Ghana.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to public health, impacting both human and animal health as well as the economy. This study sought to describe antibiotic prescription practices and use in the Kintampo North Municipal Veterinary Clinic in Ghana using routinely collected data. Of the 513 animals presented for care between 2013 and 2019, the most common animals were dogs (71. Read More

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The potential economic benefits of controlling trypanosomiasis using waterbuck repellent blend in sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(7):e0254558. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Country Coordinators of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis (T&T) Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) for Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia, respectively.

Trypanosomiasis is a significant productivity-limiting livestock disease in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to poverty and food insecurity. In this paper, we estimate the potential economic gains from adopting Waterbuck Repellent Blend (WRB). The WRB is a new technology that pushes trypanosomiasis-transmitting tsetse fly away from animals, improving animals' health and increasing meat and milk productivity. Read More

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Antileukotrienes for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in very preterm newborns: a systematic review.

Respir Res 2021 Jul 17;22(1):208. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Cochrane Sweden, Dept. Research and Development, Skåne University Hospital, Clinical Science Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Very preterm infants are at high risk of developing chronic lung disease, which requires respiratory support and might have long-term sequelae. As lung inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis, antileukotrienes have been explored in both clinical and animal studies. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of antileukotrienes for the prevention and treatment of respiratory morbidity and mortality in very preterm newborns. Read More

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A delayed treatment model for the evaluation of scopolamine for VX nerve agent intoxication.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jul 14:115650. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

TNO Defence, Safety and Security, CBRN Protection, Rijswijk, the Netherlands.

Most research on medical countermeasures for nerve agent exposure assumes a military scenario, in which (autoinjector) treatment is envisaged to be immediately available. In a civilian setting however, treatment is delayed until arrival of first-aid responders. This may significantly affect treatment efficacy and the requirements for secondary intensive care. Read More

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The pathogenicity and transmission of live bird market H2N2 avian influenza viruses in chickens, Pekin ducks, and guinea fowl.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jul 7;260:109180. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, US National Poultry Research Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605, USA. Electronic address:

H2N2 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have persisted in live bird markets (LBMs) in the Northeastern United States since 2014. Although unrelated to the 1957 pandemic H2N2 lineage, there is concern that the virus could have animal and public health consequences because of high contact with humans and numerous species in the LBM system. The pathogenicity, infectivity, and transmissibility of six LBM H2N2 viruses isolated from three avian species in LBMs were examined in chickens. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Highly Thermotolerant, Trimeric SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain Derivative.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong 3220, Victoria, Australia.

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We designed a trimeric, highly thermotolerant glycan engineered RBD by fusion to a heterologous, poorly immunogenic disulfide linked trimerization domain derived from cartilage matrix protein. The protein expressed at a yield of ∼80-100 mg/L in transiently transfected Expi293 cells, as well as CHO and HEK293 stable cell lines and formed homogeneous disulfide-linked trimers. Read More

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Efficacy assessment of a triple anthrax chimeric antigen as a vaccine candidate in guinea pigs: challenge test with 17 JB strain spores.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 Aug 14;43(4):495-502. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Context: secretes a tripartite toxin comprising protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). The human anthrax vaccine is mainly composed of the anthrax protective antigen (PA). Considerable efforts are being directed towards improving the efficacy of vaccines because the use of commercial anthrax vaccines (human/veterinary) is associated with several limitations. Read More

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Forensic Implications of Anatomical Education and Surgical Training With Cadavers.

Front Surg 2021 23;8:641581. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosciences, Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Anatomical education and surgical training with cadavers are usually considered an appropriate method of teaching, above all for all surgeons at various levels. Indeed, in such a way they put into practice and exercise a procedure before performing it live, reducing the learning curve in a safe environment and the risks for the patients. Really, up to now it is not clear if the nonuse of the cadavers for anatomical education and surgical training can have also forensic implications. Read More

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Alternative transmission pathways for guinea worm in dogs: implications for outbreak risk and control.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; Center for the Ecology of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) has exerted a high human health burden in parts of Africa. Complete eradication of Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) may be delayed by the circulation of the parasite in domestic dogs. As with humans, dogs acquire the parasite by directly ingesting infected copepods, and recent evidence suggests that consuming frogs that ingested infected copepods as tadpoles may be a viable transmission route (paratenic route). Read More

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The connexin 43 carboxyl terminal mimetic peptide αCT1 prompts differentiation of a collagen scar matrix in humans resembling unwounded skin.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21762

Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, Center for Vascular and Heart Research, Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Phase II clinical trials have reported that acute treatment of surgical skin wounds with the therapeutic peptide alpha Connexin Carboxy-Terminus 1 (αCT1) improves cutaneous scar appearance by 47% 9-month postsurgery. While Cx43 and ZO-1 have been identified as molecular targets of αCT1, the mode-of-action of the peptide in scar mitigation at cellular and tissue levels remains to be further characterized. Scar histoarchitecture in αCT1 and vehicle-control treated skin wounds within the same patient were compared using biopsies from a Phase I clinical trial at 29-day postwounding. Read More

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A Broadly Applicable Method for Characterizing the Slope of the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential Amplitude Growth Function.

Ear Hear 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands 3University Medical Center Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA 5Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA 6Department of Audiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Objectives: Amplitudes of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) as a function of the stimulation level constitute the eCAP amplitude growth function (AGF). The slope of the eCAP AGF (i.e. Read More

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Fibropapillomatosis and the Chelonid Alphaherpesvirus 5 in Green Turtles from West Africa.

Ecohealth 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 34, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal.

Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a tumorigenic panzootic disease of sea turtles, most common in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP is linked to the chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChAHV5) and to degraded habitats and, though benign, large tumours can hinder vital functions, causing death. We analyse 108 green turtles, captured in 2018 and 2019, at key foraging grounds in Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania, West Africa, for the presence of FP, and use real-time PCR to detect ChAHV5 DNA, in 76 individuals. Read More

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Acceleration of age-induced proteolysis in the guinea pig lens nucleus by in vivo exposure to hyperbaric oxygen: A mass spectrometry analysis.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jul 4;210:108697. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Mass Spectrometry Research Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37242, USA. Electronic address:

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of animals or ocular lenses in culture recapitulates many molecular changes observed in human age-related nuclear cataract. The guinea pig HBO model has been one of the best examples of such treatment leading to dose-dependent development of lens nuclear opacities. In this study, complimentary mass spectrometry methods were employed to examine protein truncation after HBO treatment of aged guinea pigs. Read More

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Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in surface seawater of the West Pacific.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 2;170:112691. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Ministry of Natural Resources Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, China. Electronic address:

Twenty-eight samples of surface seawater were collected from the West Pacific Ocean during 2019 using a high-volume solid-phase extraction with high-throughput organic analysis (Hi-throat/Hi-volume SPE) method, and concentrations of 10 organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) were determined. The total OPE concentration in the samples was 3.02-48. Read More

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The Antigenicity of Epidemic SARS-CoV-2 Variants in the United Kingdom.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:687869. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-Transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) and WHO Collaborating Center for Standardization and Evaluation of Biologicals, Beijing, China.

To determine whether the neutralization activity of monoclonal antibodies, convalescent sera and vaccine-elicited sera was affected by the top five epidemic SARS-CoV-2 variants in the UK, including D614G+L18F+A222V, D614G+A222V, D614G+S477N, VOC-202012/01(B.1.1. Read More

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Eugenol interacts with cardiac sodium channel and reduces heart excitability and arrhythmias.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 1;282:119761. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Laboratório de Biofísica e Farmacologia do Coração, Departamento de Educação (Campus XII), Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Guanambi, Bahia, Brazil; Laboratório de Cardiobiologia, Departamento de Biofísica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: Eugenol is a natural compound found in the essential oils of many aromatic plants. The compound is used as a local anesthetic because of its inhibitory effect on the voltage-gated Na channels (Na), which are expressed in the nociceptive neurons. Eugenol has shown wide range of activities in the cardiovascular system; most of these activities are attributed to the modulation of voltage-sensitive Ca channels. Read More

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Characterization of a novel transitional group species ( sp. nov.) from the western black-legged tick, .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jul;71(7)

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30329, USA.

A previously unrecognized species was isolated in 1976 from a pool of ticks collected in 1967 from Tillamook County, Oregon, USA. The isolate produced low fever and mild scrotal oedema following intraperitoneal injection into male guinea pigs (). Subsequent serotyping characterized this isolate as distinct from recognized typhus and spotted fever group species; nonetheless, the isolate remained unevaluated by molecular techniques and was not identified to species level for the subsequent 30 years. Read More

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The Placental Response to Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus Depends Upon the Timing of Maternal Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:686415. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects the placenta, and these placental infections can cause fetal injury and/or demise. The timing of maternal HCMV infection during pregnancy is a determinant of fetal outcomes, but how development affects the placenta's susceptibility to infection, the likelihood of placental injury post-infection, and the frequency of transplacental HCMV transmission remains unclear. In this study, guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was used to model primary maternal infection and compare the effects of infection at two different times on the placenta. Read More

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Differential Laboratory Diagnosis of Acute Fever in Guinea: Preparedness for the Threat of Hemorrhagic Fevers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 3;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Pasteur Institute, Federal Service on Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Well-Being Surveillance, 197101 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Acute febrile illnesses occur frequently in Guinea. Acute fever itself is not a unique, hallmark indication (pathognomonic sign) of any one illness or disease. In the infectious disease context, fever's underlying cause can be a wide range of viral or bacterial pathogens, including the Ebola virus. Read More

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