354,041 results match your criteria human fetal

Caffeine disrupts ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene-related pathways and exacerbates acetaminophen toxicity in human fetal immortalized hepatocytes.

Toxicology 2021 May 7:152811. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, USA; Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, USA; Department of Pathology, USA; Diabetes Center, USA; Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, USA; Irwin S. and Sylvia Chanin Institute for Cancer Research, USA; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Preterm infants are at greater risk for adverse drug effects due to hepatic immaturity. Multiple interventions during intensive care increases potential for drug interactions. In this setting, high-dose caffeine used for apnea in premature infants may increase acetaminophen toxicity by inhibiting ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene activity during DNA damage response. Read More

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Associations of treated and untreated human papillomavirus infection with preterm delivery and neonatal mortality: A Swedish population-based study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 10;18(5):e1003641. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD) although the exact pathomechanism is not yet understood. Women with untreated CIN also seem to have an increased risk of PTD. It is unclear whether this is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or other factors. Read More

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Mendelian randomization suggests that head circumference, but not birth weight and length, associates with intelligence.

Brain Behav 2021 May 10:e02183. Epub 2021 May 10.

Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Introduction: Birth parameters have long been reported to have a role in human intelligence. However, the causalities reported in previous observational studies were controversial. Our study aims to provide an unbiased investigation of the causal associations between birth parameters and human intelligence using the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Read More

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The added value of third trimester fetal brain MRI in cases of isolated ventriculomegaly.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-5. Epub 2021 May 9.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: To assess the added value of third trimester fetal brain MRI, performed in one tertiary referral center, in cases of isolated ventriculomegaly as established by a dedicated multiplanar neurosonography.

Methods: Fetal brain MRI scans performed in a single tertiary center during a 3-year period were assessed for possible inclusion. Only cases diagnosed with ventriculomegaly without additional findings in a neurosonography preceding the MRI were included. Read More

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Early human milk lactoferrin during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-4. Epub 2021 May 9.

Third Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University General Hospital "ATTIKON", Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Early human milk provides protection against viral infections due to its high nutritional value, abundance of maternal antibodies and the specific role of lactoferrin (Lf). Lf blocks the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells by binding to specific cell receptors and has been proposed as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. This preliminary report aimed to investigate concentrations of Lf in early milk of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers versus non-infected controls. Read More

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Pre-existing hypertension and pregnancy induced hypertension reveal molecular differences in placental proteome in rodents.

Physiol Genomics 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Scotlandgrid.8756.c.

Pre-existing or new onset of hypertension affects pregnancy and is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In certain cases, it also leads to long term maternal cardiovascular complications. The placenta is a key player in the pathogenesis of complicated hypertensive pregnancies, however the pathomechanisms leading to an abnormal placenta are poorly understood. Read More

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Congenital bilateral cryptorchidism in an infant conceived after maternal breast cancer treatment: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(12):2923-2929

Department of Internal Medicine, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100026, China.

Background: The incidence of breast cancer among women of reproductive age is increasing, as well as the desire for children at late childbearing age. Identifying factors that may be associated with fetal malformation and maternal and fetal prognosis has gained importance. We describe a 32-year-old woman with breast cancer who gave birth to a son with congenital bilateral cryptorchidism after treatment, with a literature review performed. Read More

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Single-Cell RNA-seq Reveals Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 Expression in TROP2 Liver Progenitor Cells: Implications in Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Liver Dysfunction.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:603374. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore.

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. COVID-19 was first reported in China (December 2019) and is now prevalent across the globe. Entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into mammalian cells requires the binding of viral Spike (S) proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Read More

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The significance of an integrated management mode of prenatal diagnosis-postnatal treatment for critical congenital heart disease in newborns.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):447-456

Department of NICU, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital defect in human beings. The purpose of this article is to investigate impact of an integrated management mode of 'prenatal diagnosis-postnatal treatment' on birth, surgery, prognosis and complications associated with critical CHD (CCHD) in newborns.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of newborns diagnosed with CCHD were divided into two groups: prenatal diagnosis and postnatal diagnosis. Read More

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Factors Predicting the Presence of Maternal Cells in Cord Blood and Associated Changes in Immune Cell Composition.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:651399. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

INSERM UMRs 1097 Arthrites Autoimmunes, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Background: Cord blood (CB) samples are increasingly used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells in transplantation settings. Maternal cells have been detected in CB samples and their presence is associated with a better graft outcome. However, we still do not know what influences the presence of maternal microchimerism (MMc) in CB samples and whether their presence influences CB hematopoietic cell composition. Read More

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Significance and effects of prenatal and postnatal microbiome in the period of early individual development and options for interventional treatment

Orv Hetil 2021 05 9;162(19):731-740. Epub 2021 May 9.

3 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, I. Gyermekgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest.

Összefoglaló. A humán mikrobiom az emberi szervezetben és az emberi testfelszínen élő mikrobaközösségek összessége, amelyek többsége a gyomor-bél rendszerben él. Ezek a mikrobaközösségek számos és sokféle baktériumot tartalmaznak, gombákat, vírusokat, archeákat és protozoonokat. Read More

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Two-Thirds of Preterm Parents Would Participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Double Doses of Steroids to a Single Dose and Placebo.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Animal research strongly suggests that a single dose of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) is as effective as a double dose to mature preterm lungs; however, a human randomized controlled trial (RCT) is urgently needed. From August to November 2020, we conducted an online survey of Canadian parents of preterm infants. Survey respondents watched a parent-to-parent video introducing an RCT to study whether the standard double dose of ACS is non-inferior to a single dose (and matching placebo). Read More

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Decidualization modulates the mesenchymal stromal/stem cell and pericyte characteristics of human decidual stromal cells. Effects on antigen expression, chemotactic activity on monocytes and antitumoral activity.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 May 1;145:103326. Epub 2021 May 1.

Instituto de Biopatología y Medicina Regenerativa, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Universidad de Granada, Armilla, Granada, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular III e Inmunología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain; Unidad de Gestión Clínica Laboratorios, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are the most abundant cellular component of human decidua and play a central role in maternal-fetal immune tolerance. Antigen phenotyping and functional studies recently confirmed the relationship of DSCs with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and pericytes, the latter two cell types being closely related or identical. The present study investigated the effect of decidualization, a process of cell differentiation driven by progesterone (P4) and other pregnancy hormones, on the MSC/pericyte characteristics of DSCs. Read More

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Selective elimination of tumorigenic hepatic stem cells using hybrid liposomes.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan. Electronic address:

To avoid the risk of tumorigenesis after cell transplantation, tumorigenic stem cells should be selectively eliminated from induced pluripotent cells, embryonic stem cells, and somatic stem cells. We previously reported the presence of tumorigenic stem cells in human fetal hepatocyte-induced hepatoblasts after sodium butyrate (SB) treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the selective elimination of tumorigenic stem cells in human hepatoblasts using hybrid liposomes (HLs) prepared by sonicating a mixture of 90 mol% l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and 10 mol% polyoxyethylene (n) dodecyl ether (C (EO), n = 23) in a buffer solution. Read More

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Impact of the exposome on the development and function of pancreatic β-cells.

David J Hill

Mol Aspects Med 2021 May 5:100965. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, St Joseph Health Care, 268 Grosvenor St, London, ON, N6A 4V2, Canada. Electronic address:

The development and plasticity of the endocrine pancreas responds to both the intrauterine and postnatal exposome in a constant attempt to predict and respond to alterations in nutritional availability and metabolic requirements. Both under- and over-nutrition in utero, or exposure to adverse environmental pollutants or maternal behaviors, can each lead to altered β-cell or function at birth, and a subsequent mismatch in pancreatic hormonal demands and secretory capacity postnatally. This can be further exacerbated by metabolic stress postnatally such as from obesity or pregnancy, resulting in an increased risk of gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and even type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Counter-directed leucine gradient promotes amino acid transfer across the human placenta.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 May 5:108760. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) TransCure, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The developing fetus is highly vulnerable to imbalances in the supply of essential amino acids (AA). Transplacental AA transfer depends on complex interactions between accumulative transporters, exchangers and facilitators, which maintain both intra-extracellular and materno-fetal substrate gradients. We determined physiological AA gradients between maternal and fetal blood and assessed their importance by studying maternal-fetal leucine transfer in human trophoblasts. Read More

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Dysregulation of the ESRP2-NF2-YAP/TAZ axis promotes hepatobiliary carcinogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Hepatol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the hepatic correlate of the metabolic syndrome, is a major risk factor for hepatobiliary cancer (HBC). Although chronic inflammation is thought to be the root cause of all these diseases, the mechanism whereby it promotes HBC in NAFLD remains poorly understood. Here we aim to evaluate the hypothesis that inflammation-related dysregulation of the ESRP2-NF2-YAP/TAZ axis promotes HB carcinogenesis. Read More

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Fetal MRI assessment of posterior fossa anomalies: A review.

J Neuroimaging 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Edward B. Singleton Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Prenatal ultrasound (US) is the first prenatal imaging tool for screening and evaluation of posterior fossa malformations since it is noninvasive, widely available, and safe for both mother and child. Fetal MRI is a widely used secondary technique to confirm, correct, or complement questionable US findings and plays an essential role in evaluating fetuses with suspected US findings and /or positive family history. The main sequences of fetal MRI consist of T2-weighted (T2w) ultrafast, single-shot sequences. Read More

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White matter abnormalities and iron deposition in prenatal mucolipidosis IV- fetal imaging and pathology.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV; OMIM 252,650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in MCOLN1. MLIV causes psychomotor impairment and progressive vision loss. The major hallmarks of postnatal brain MRI are hypomyelination and thin corpus callosum. Read More

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The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May 5;87:106994. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: There is concern that maternal anesthesia during pregnancy impairs brain development of the human fetus. Xenon is neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in neonates. It is not known if xenon also protects the developing fetal brain when administered in addition to maternal sevoflurane-anesthesia during pregnancy. Read More

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Hepatitis E: an update on One Health and clinical medicine.

Liver Int 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Wilhelmstrasse 27, 72074, Tübingen, Germany.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis and the de facto global burden is underestimated. HEV-related clinical complications are often undetected and are not considered in the differential diagnosis. Convincing findings from studies suggest that HEV is clinically relevant not only in developing countries but also in industrialized countries. Read More

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Chromatin Imbalance as the Vertex Between Fetal Valproate Syndrome and Chromatinopathies.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:654467. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Prenatal exposure to valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, has been associated with fetal valproate spectrum disorders (FVSD), a clinical condition including congenital malformations, developmental delay, intellectual disability as well as autism spectrum disorder, together with a distinctive facial appearance. VPA is a known inhibitor of histone deacetylase which regulates the chromatin state. Interestingly, perturbations of this epigenetic balance are associated with chromatinopathies, a heterogeneous group of Mendelian disorders arising from mutations in components of the epigenetic machinery. Read More

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Defined MSC exosome with high yield and purity to improve regenerative activity.

J Tissue Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;12:20417314211008626. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea.

Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied as vital components of regenerative medicine. Typically, various isolation methods of exosomes from cell culture medium have been developed to increase the isolation yield of exosomes. Moreover, the exosome-depletion process of serum has been considered to result in clinically active and highly purified exosomes from the cell culture medium. Read More

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Fibroblast Growth Factor Type 2 (FGF2) Administration Attenuated the Clinical Manifestations of Preeclampsia in a Murine Model Induced by L-NAME.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:663044. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Unidad Academica de Medicina Humana y C.S, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

In preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, the poor remodeling of spiral arteries leads to placental hypoperfusion and ischemia, provoking generalized maternal endothelial dysfunction and, in severe cases, death. Endothelial and placental remodeling is important for correct pregnancy evolution and is mediated by cytokines and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF2). In this study, we evaluated the effect of human recombinant FGF2 (rhFGF2) administration in a murine model of PE induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to test if rhFGF2 administration can lessen the clinical manifestations of PE. Read More

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Single-nucleotide-level mapping of DNA regulatory elements that control fetal hemoglobin expression.

Nat Genet 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Pinpointing functional noncoding DNA sequences and defining their contributions to health-related traits is a major challenge for modern genetics. We developed a high-throughput framework to map noncoding DNA functions with single-nucleotide resolution in four loci that control erythroid fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression, a genetically determined trait that modifies sickle cell disease (SCD) phenotypes. Specifically, we used the adenine base editor ABEmax to introduce 10,156 separate A•T to G•C conversions in 307 predicted regulatory elements and quantified the effects on erythroid HbF expression. Read More

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Calcium-sensing receptor and CPAP-induced neonatal airway hyperreactivity in mice.

Pediatr Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants is initially beneficial, but animal models suggest longer term detrimental airway effects towards asthma. We used a neonatal CPAP mouse model and human fetal airway smooth muscle (ASM) to investigate the role of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in these effects.

Methods: Newborn wild type and smooth muscle-specific CaSR mice were given CPAP for 7 days via a custom device (mimicking CPAP in premature infants), and recovered in normoxia for another 14 days (representing infants at 3-4 years). Read More

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The coding and long noncoding single-cell atlas of the developing human fetal striatum.

Science 2021 05;372(6542)

Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Deciphering how the human striatum develops is necessary for understanding the diseases that affect this region. To decode the transcriptional modules that regulate this structure during development, we compiled a catalog of 1116 long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) identified de novo and then profiled 96,789 single cells from the early human fetal striatum. We found that D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (D1- and D2-MSNs) arise from a common progenitor and that lineage commitment is established during the postmitotic transition, across a pre-MSN phase that exhibits a continuous spectrum of fate determinants. Read More

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Metformin perturbs pancreatic differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

Diabetes 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Stem Cells and Diabetes Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138673, Singapore

Metformin is becoming a popular treatment before and during pregnancy but current literature on exposure to metformin lacks long-term clinical trials and mechanistic studies. Current literature on the effects of metformin on mature pancreatic β cells highlighted its dual, opposing, protective or inhibitory, effects depending on metabolic environments. However, the impact of metformin on developing human pancreatic β cells remains unknown. Read More

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A crossroad between placental and tumor biology: What have we learnt?

Placenta 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Westernat Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A5C1, Canada. Electronic address:

Placenta in certain species including the human has evolved as a highly invasive tumor-like organ invading the uterus aned its vasculature to derive oxygen and nutrients for the fetus and exchange waste products. While several excellent reviews have been written comparing hemochorial placentation with tumors, no comprehensive review is available dealing with mechanistic insights into what makes them different, and what tumor biologists can learn from placental biologists, and vice versa. In this review, we analyze the structure-function relationship of the human placenta, emphasizing the functional need of the spatio-temporally orchestrated trophoblast invasiveness for fetal development and growth, and pathological consequences of aberrant invasiveness for fetal and maternal health. Read More

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Placental structural abnormalities in gestational diabetes and when they develop: A scoping review.

Placenta 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as diabetes with onset or first recognition during gestation. It is a common complication of pregnancy that has become more prevalent over the past few decades. Abnormalities in fetal growth, including increased incidence of both large and small for gestational age babies, suggest placental dysfunction. Read More

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