17,996 results match your criteria human conjunctiva

Characteristics and recurrence of pterygium in Saudi Arabia: a single center study with a long follow-up.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 11;21(1):207. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: This study described the clinical features of patients with pterygium and analyzed the recurrence rate of conjunctival autografting alone, conjunctival autografting combined with intraoperative mitomycin C, and amniotic membrane grafting.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of primary pterygium was conducted between January 2017 and February 2020. Factors associated with pterygium severity and recurrence were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression models. Read More

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The genetic diversity of human papillomavirus types from the species Gammapapillomavirus 15: HPV135, HPV146, and HPV179.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0249829. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, viral load, tissue tropism, and genetic variability of novel human papillomavirus (HPV) type 179, which is etiologically associated with sporadic cases of common warts in immunocompromised patients, and phylogenetically related HPV types 135 and 146.

Methods: The representative collection of 850 HPV-associated clinical samples (oral/nasopharyngeal/anal, archival specimens of oral/oropharyngeal/conjunctival/cervical/skin cancer, benign lesions of the larynx/conjunctiva/skin, and eyebrows), obtained from immunocompetent individuals, was tested for the presence of HPV179, HPV135, and HPV146 using type-specific real-time PCRs. To assess the genetic diversity of the HPVs investigated in the non-coding long control region (LCR), several highly sensitive nested PCR protocols were developed for each HPV type. Read More

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Comparative analysis of ocular surface tissue microbiome in human, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 28;207:108609. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Animal models are a critical element of ocular surface research for investigating therapeutic drops, surgical implants, and infection research. This study was a comparative analysis of the microbial communities on conjunctival tissue samples from humans compared to several commonly used laboratory animals (BALB/c mice, New Zealand white rabbits and IMVS colored stock guinea pigs). Microbial communities were analyzed by extracting total DNA from conjunctival tissue and sequencing the 16 S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Read More

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Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria from Conjunctival Flora in an Eye Infection Prone Breed (Saint Bernard).

Molecules 2021 Apr 12;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

The conjunctival bacterial resident and opportunistic flora of dogs may represent a major source of dissemination of pathogens throughout the environment or to other animals and humans. Nevertheless, contamination with bacteria from external sources is common. In this context, the study of the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern may represent an indicator of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains exchange. Read More

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[Clinical and pathological analysis of ocular adnexal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;57(5):366-371

Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nankai University Affiliated Eye Hospital, Clinical College of Ophthalmology of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Eye Institute, Tianjin 300020, China.

To summarize the clinical and pathological characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of ocular adnexal (OA-DLBCL). A retrospective case series study. Twenty-three cases of OA-DLBCL were collected in Tianjin Eye Hospital from January 2005 to December 2018. Read More

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Gene therapy in the anterior eye segment.

Curr Gene Ther 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Eye Program, Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

This review provides comprehensive information about the advances in gene therapy in the anterior segment of the eye including cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, and trabecular meshwork. We discuss gene delivery systems including viral and non-viral vectors as well as gene editing techniques, mainly CRISPR-Cas9, and epigenetic treatments including antisense and siRNA therapeutics. We also provide a detailed analysis of various anterior segment diseases where gene therapy has been tested with corresponding outcomes. Read More

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Identification of differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways in human conjunctiva and reproductive tract infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

Hum Genomics 2021 Apr 19;15(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China.

Background: Currently, Chlamydia trachomatis-specific host defense mechanisms in humans remain poorly defined. To study the characteristics of host cells infected early with Chlamydia trachomatis, we used bioinformatics methods to analyze the RNA transcription profiles of the conjunctiva, fallopian tubes, and endometrium in humans infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

Method: The gene expression profiles of GSE20430, GSE20436, GSE26692, and GSE41075 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Synthesis (GEO) database. Read More

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A single cell atlas of human cornea that defines its development, limbal progenitor cells and their interactions with the immune cells.

Ocul Surf 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biosciences Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: Single cell (sc) analyses of key embryonic, fetal and adult stages were performed to generate a comprehensive single cell atlas of all the corneal and adjacent conjunctival cell types from development to adulthood.

Methods: Four human adult and seventeen embryonic and fetal corneas from 10 to 21 post conception week (PCW) specimens were dissociated to single cells and subjected to scRNA- and/or ATAC-Seq using the 10x Genomics platform. These were embedded using Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) and clustered using Seurat graph-based clustering. Read More

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Kawasaki disease shock syndrome complicated by coronary aneurysms: a case report.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 18;38:52. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Taher Sfar University Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia.

Kawasaki disease is a generalized systemic vasculitis, which primarily affects medium-sized arteries. Kawasaki disease shock syndrome is a rare but severe presentation of this disease. This report describes a case of delayed diagnosis of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome in a 13-year-old boy who presented with cervical adenophlegmon, persistent fever, injected conjunctiva, rash, and hypotension. Read More

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Candidatus Dirofilaria Hongkongensis Infections in Humans During 2005 to 2020, in Kerala, India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

3Center for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Amrita University, Cochin, Kerala 682041, India.

We tried to determine the epidemiology and species of human dirofilariasis observed at two tertiary care hospitals in Kerala. We searched the hospital database to identify cases of dirofilariosis from January 2005 to March 2020. Along with human isolates, one dog Dirofilaria isolate was also subjected to PCR and sequencing of pan filarial primers cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 12S rDNA. Read More

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Oncolytic HSV-1 G207 Immunovirotherapy for Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas.

N Engl J Med 2021 04 10;384(17):1613-1622. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

From the Department of Pediatrics, Divisions of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (G.K.F., K.K., L.N., K.-D.K., S.T., C.S., A.M.-S.), Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (T.P.A.), and Pediatric Infectious Disease (R.J.W.), and the Departments of Neurosurgery (G.K.F., J.M.J., J.M.M., G.Y.G.), Pathology (R.L.), Biostatistics (I.A.), and Radiation Oncology (J.B.F.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Children's of Alabama (G.K.F., J.M.J., R.L., K.K., A.M.-S., T.P.A., R.J.W.) - both in Birmingham; the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis (A.K.B.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (D.P.) - both in Tennessee; the Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (J.D.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (A.M.M.), and the Departments of Pediatrics (S.F.S., Y.K., M.A.K.) and Neurology (Y.K.), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center - both in New York; the Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (R.M.-K.); the Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplant (K.W., D.S.O., M.S.A.) and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery (J.L.), Nationwide Children's Hospital, and the Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (J.D.P.) - both in Columbus; and the Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplant, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (M.S.A.).

Background: Outcomes in children and adolescents with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma are poor, with a historical median overall survival of 5.6 months. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are largely immunologically silent or "cold," with few tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Read More

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Postoperative intralesional 5-fluorouracil therapy for early recurrence management of pterygium.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;84(2):191-192

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

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Ocular thelaziosis: A case report of an emerging zoonosis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 25;22:101045. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Tropical Medicine and International Health Research Unit, Parasitology Service, National Center of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, 28222, Spain.

Purpose: To describe an unusual case of ocular thelaziosis due to , an underdiagnosed and emerging zoonosis.

Observations: We report an 81-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with a week long history of bilateral redness and tearing that had not improved despite antibiotics and corticosteroid topical treatment. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed signs of bilateral conjunctivitis and mucopurulent discharge in fornices. Read More

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Tracking Eye Movements During Sleep in Mice.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:616760. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Eye movement is not only for adjusting the visual field and maintaining the stability of visual information on the retina, but also provides an external manifestation of the cognitive status of the brain. Recent studies showed similarity in eye movement patterns between wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, indicating that the brain status of REM sleep likely resembles that of awake status. REM sleep in humans could be divided into phasic REM and tonic REM sleep according to the difference in eye movement frequencies. Read More

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February 2021

In the eye of the storm: SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication at the ocular surface?

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Biosciences Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in December 2019 and spread quickly causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Recent single cell RNA-Seq analyses have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in the human corneal, limbal, and conjunctival superficial epithelium, leading to suggestions that the human ocular surface may serve as an additional entry gateway and infection hub for SARS-CoV-2. In this article, we review the ocular clinical presentations of COVID-19 and the features of the ocular surface that may underline the overall low ocular SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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[Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) : A simple technique for the treatment of unilateral complete limbal stem cell deficiency. Video article].

Ophthalmologe 2021 Apr 8;118(4):404-412. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074, Aachen, Deutschland.

Objective: The aim of simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is the regeneration of the corneal surface in unilateral complete limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD).

Indications: SLET is indicated for unilateral complete LSCD.

Contraindications: Contraindications include bilateral LSCD, severe corneal thinning, pronounced keratoconjunctivitis sicca, chronic inflammatory condition of the ocular surface, malposition of the eyelids and pronounced adhesions of the conjunctiva with trichiasis. Read More

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The micronucleus cytome assay - A fast tool for DNA damage screening in human conjunctival epithelial cells.

Ocul Surf 2021 Apr 4;20:195-198. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Laboratory of the Biology and Pathology of the Eye, Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To assess whether the micronucleus cytome assay (MCyt) reliably detects DNA damage occurring in control and pathological superficial epithelial cells from human conjunctiva.

Methods: Impression cytology samples from the bulbar conjunctiva of 33 healthy controls, eight patients with conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and eight with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) were examined using the MCyt modified for the ocular surface.

Results: The mean number of micronuclei (MNi) in control samples was 0. Read More

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Molecular Identification of New Cases of Human Dirofilariosis () in Italy.

Pathogens 2021 Feb 23;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy.

(1) Dirofilariosis is a vector-borne parasitic disease mainly in domestic and wild carnivores caused by () , which is endemic in many countries of the Old World, and , which has a worldwide distribution. In recent years, an increase in the number of human cases has been reported, suggesting that dirofilariosis is an emergent zoonosis. Here, we describe further cases (N = 8), observed in Central Italy during the years 2018-2019. Read More

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February 2021

Material Characterisation and Stratification of Conjunctival Epithelial Cells on Electrospun Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Fibres Loaded with Decellularised Tissue Matrices.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 28;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Eye and Vision Science, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L7 8TX, UK.

The conjunctiva, an under-researched yet incredibly important tissue, plays key roles in providing protection to the eye and maintaining homeostasis of its ocular surface. Multiple diseases can impair conjunctival function leading to severe consequences that require surgical intervention. Small conjunctival defects can be repaired relatively easily, but larger defects rely on tissue grafts which generally do not provide adequate healing. Read More

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February 2021

Co-expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in healthy human conjunctiva.

Exp Eye Res 2021 04 2;205:108527. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Health Sciences, Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Oncology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in an immortalized human conjunctival epithelial cell line and in healthy human conjunctiva excised during ocular surgery, using Western blot, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The Western blot showed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins were expressed in human immortalized conjunctival cells, and this was confirmed by confocal microscopy images, that demonstrated a marked cellular expression of the viral receptors and their co-localization on the cell membranes. Healthy conjunctival samples from 11 adult patients were excised during retinal detachment surgery. Read More

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Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum alleviate dry eye in mice with exorbital lacrimal gland excision by modulating gut inflammation and microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 3;12(6):2489-2497. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea.

In order to understand the efficacy of probiotics against dry eye syndrome, we selected anti-inflammatory probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum NK151 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NK175, which increased the ratio of IL-10 to TNF-α expression, from the human gut bacteria collection and examined their effects on tear secretion and cornea/conjunctiva inflammation in mice with excision of the unilateral exorbital lacrimal gland and 1% atropine and 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution (ELA)-induced dry eye. Exposure to ELA significantly reduced tear secretion in mice, assessed by the phenol red thread tear test. Read More

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SARS-COV-2 and Ocular Surface: From Physiology to Pathology, a Route to Understand Transmission and Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 12;12:612319. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Coronaviruses gained public attention during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in East Asia in 2003 and spread of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012. Direct human-to-human contact and droplet are the main methods of transmission. Viral stability in aerosols on different surfaces supports evidence on indirect viral acquisition from fomites through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and eyes. Read More

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February 2021

Primary conjunctival sporotrichosis in three cats from Northeastern Brazil.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 19;24(2):209-215. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brasil.

Introduction: Classically, sporotrichosis occurs as a chronic granulomatous lymphocutaneous infection. The extracutaneous form is uncommon and may affect the eye without cutaneous involvement. The most frequent form of ocular sporotrichosis reported in humans is a granulomatous conjunctivitis. Read More

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Topical interferon alpha-2b for a giant ocular surface squamous neoplasia: 7 years of follow-up after complete remission.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 19;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Ophthalmology, Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia.

A man with a history of blind eye due to trauma 22 years earlier consulted at 53 years of age with a large conjunctival neoplastic lesion, compromising almost the entire temporal limbus, and reaching a size of approximately 16 mm on its larger diameter, in the conjunctiva. Management was started with topical and subconjunctival chemotherapy (interferon alpha-2b) in order to perform immunoreduction, but a dramatic response with total disappearance of the lesion was observed. In the follow-up time period of more than 7 years, there were no signs of recurrence. Read More

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February 2021

Optical coherence tomography angiography for the diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis with serous retinal detachment: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(7):e24789

Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Rationale: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. GPA affects multiple ocular tissues, most commonly the orbit, conjunctiva, cornea, and sclera. Retinal and choroidal manifestations are rare in GPA, but they often include choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Read More

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February 2021

A rare case of primary sinonasal tuberculosis presented with phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in a pediatric patient: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(7):e24787

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok.

Rationale: Tuberculosis is a common cause of phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, especially for patients who live in a high endemic area of tuberculosis. We report a rare case of pediatric phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis associated with primary sinonasal tuberculosis.

Patient Concerns: A 7-year-old boy presented with a 5-month history of redness of the left eye accompanied by mild visual impairment. Read More

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February 2021

High expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in human conjunctival goblet cells.

Exp Eye Res 2021 04 15;205:108501. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Fudan Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai, China; Laboratory of Myopia, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor has been proved for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry after auxiliary cellular protease priming by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), but the co-effect of this molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, single-cell sequencing was performed with human conjunctiva and the results have shown that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were highly co-expressed in the goblet cells with genes involved in immunity process. This identification of conjunctival cell types which are permissive to virus entry would help to understand the process by which SARS-CoV-2 infection was established. Read More

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Arerugi 2021 ;70(1):26-32

Department of Ophthalmology, Kochi Medical School.

Background/purpose: In a method evaluating conjunctival hyperemia using rabbits, it is common to visually grade the degree of vasodilation. However, this method is limited in evaluating consecutive value and in reproducibility. We quantified the degree of conjunctival hyperemia in rabbits as the area ratio of blood vessels by image analysis, and compared the vascular area percentage calculated by image analysis with the hyperemia score. Read More

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February 2021

Carboxylesterase Activities and Protein Expression in Rabbit and Pig Ocular Tissues.

Mol Pharm 2021 03 17;18(3):1305-1316. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1 C, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.

Hydrolytic reactions constitute an important pathway of drug metabolism and a significant route of prodrug activation. Many ophthalmic drugs and prodrugs contain ester groups that greatly enhance their permeation across several hydrophobic barriers in the eye before the drugs are either metabolized or released, respectively, hydrolysis. Thus, the development of ophthalmic drug therapy requires the thorough profiling of substrate specificities, activities, and expression levels of ocular esterases. Read More

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[Ocular thelaziosis in a dog in Germany - an autochthonous case?]

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2021 Feb 15;49(1):55-59. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

AniCura Bielefeld GmbH.

is a vector-borne nematode transmitted by (fruit flies) and one of the causes of mild to severe conjunctivitis and keratitis in dogs, cats, rabbits and humans. It has been formerly known as the oriental eye worm based on its geographic occurrence. By now, it has been shown to be endemic in several southern and eastern European countries as well as extending its geographic distribution further throughout Europe. Read More

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February 2021