J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.
Laboratory of Bioregenerative Medicine & Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States of America; Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States of America. Electronic address:
Introduction: Nipple reconstruction is the essential last step of breast reconstruction after total mastectomy, resulting in improved general and aesthetic satisfaction. However, most techniques are limited by secondary scar contracture and loss of neo-nipple projection leading to patient dissatisfaction. Approximately, 16,000 patients undergo autologous flap breast reconstruction annually, during which the excised costal cartilage (CC) is discarded. Read More