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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) based on cystatin C was associated with increased risk of hip and proximal humerus fractures in women and decreased risk of hip fracture in men, whereas eGFR based on creatinine was not associated with fracture risk in both sexes: The Tromsø Study.

Bone 2021 Apr 14:115960. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Women's Health and Perinatalogy Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre for Women's Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Purpose: Patients with end-stage kidney disease have an increased fracture risk. Whether mild to moderate reductions in kidney function is associated with increased fracture risk is uncertain. Results from previous studies may be confounded by muscle mass because of the use of creatinine-based estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcre). Read More

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Endogenous hormones and risk of invasive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women: findings from the UK Biobank.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Some endogenous hormones have been associated with breast cancer risk, but the nature of these relationships is not fully understood.

Methods: UK Biobank was used. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum collected in 2006-2010, and in a repeat subsample (N ~ 5000) in 2012-13. Read More

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Prediagnostic use of estrogen-only therapy is associated with improved colorectal cancer survival in menopausal women: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

Acta Oncol 2021 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Centre for Translational Microbiome Reseaarch (CTMR), Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reduces the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), yet it is largely unclear whether it could also influence survival in women with CRC. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of prediagnostic MHT use on CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in women with CRC.

Methods: This nationwide nested cohort study, within a large population-based matched cohort, included all women diagnosed with incident CRC between January 2006 and December 2012 (N = 7814). Read More

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Association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and colorectal cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Big Data Research Center, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Purpose: Several studies have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the presented scientific results are highly debatable. This study examined the longitudinal association between GERD and CRC in an Asian population.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Read More

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Potato Consumption and Risk of Site-Specific Cancers in Adults: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The etiology of cancer type may vary significantly due to anatomy, embryology, and physiology of the cancer site. Although the association between potato consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) was summarized in a 2018 meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, to the best of our knowledge, no meta-analysis has evaluated potato consumption in relation to multiple cancer sites in adults. Medline/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for relevant publications through August 2020. Read More

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Body mass index and risk of all-cause mortality in normotensive and hypertensive adults: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Study Team of Shenzhen's Sanming Project, The Affiliated Luohu Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI-mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI-mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.

Design: In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status. Read More

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Self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking and increased risk of incident hearing loss.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8103. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 29 Saemunan-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03181, Republic of Korea.

We examined the associations of smoking status and urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of smoking, with the development of new-onset HL. This cohort study was performed in 293,991 Korean adults free of HL who underwent a comprehensive screening examination and were followed for up to 8.8 years. Read More

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Current smoking status as a predictor of cerebral infarction in men: a retrospective cohort study in South Korea.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 14;11(4):e042317. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea

Objectives: We examined the relationship between duration (pack-year) of smoking and the risk of developing cerebral infarction in Korean men.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in Korea. Read More

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Dietary selenium intake and risk of hospitalization for type 2 diabetes in the Moli-sani study cohort.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, IS, Italy; Department of Medicine and Surgery, Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, Varese-Como, Italy.

Background And Aims: Experimental and non-experimental human studies have consistently shown a positive association between exposure to the trace element selenium, which occurs primarily through diet, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plausible biological mechanisms include adverse effects of selenium and selenium-containing proteins on glucose metabolism. However, the levels of exposure above which risk increases are uncertain. Read More

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February 2021

Soft drink and juice consumption and renal cell carcinoma incidence and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Public Health, Imperial College London.

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 80% of kidney cancers in adults and obesity is a known risk factor. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to obesity and several chronic diseases including some types of cancer. It is uncertain whether soft drink and juice consumption is associated with risk of RCC. Read More

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Early onset of hyperuricemia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Medical School of Chinese PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Background: Hyperuricemia is associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the association of the age at hyperuricemia onset with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality is still unclear.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of hyperuricemia onset age with CVD and all-cause mortality.

Methods: A total of 82,219 participants free of hyperuricemia and CVD from 2006 to 2015 in the Kailuan study were included. Read More

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Association between antihypertensive medications and risk of skin cancer in people older than 65 years: a population-based study.

CMAJ 2021 Apr;193(15):E508-E516

Divisions of Dermatology (Drucker, Chan) and Cardiology (Abdel-Qadir), Department of Medicine, University of Toronto; Department of Medicine and Women's College Research Institute (Drucker, Abdel-Qadir, Chan), Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Dermatology (Drucker, Weinstock, Li), Brown University, Providence, RI; Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (Hollestein), Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Research (Hollestein), Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Center (IKNL), Utrecht, The Netherlands; ICES Central (Drucker, Abdel-Qadir) and ICES University of Toronto (Na, Chan), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Cancer Epidemiology (Li), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, China

Background: The risk of skin cancer associated with antihypertensive medication use is unclear, although thiazides have been implicated in regulatory safety warnings. We aimed to assess whether use of thiazides and other antihypertensives is associated with increased rates of keratinocyte carcinoma and melanoma.

Methods: We conducted a population-based inception cohort study using linked administrative health data from Ontario, 1998-2017. Read More

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Associations of behaviors, biological phenotypes and cardiovascular health with risks of stroke and stroke subtypes: A prospective cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Mar 18;33:100791. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Although many cardiovascular risk factors for stroke have been reported before, it has not been investigated comprehensively for all major stroke types in large datasets. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of healthy behaviors, biological phenotypes and cardiovascular health (CVH) with long-term risks of strokes events, overall and stroke subtypes (ischemic stroke [IS], intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH], and unspecified stroke).

Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 354,976 participants (age 40-70 years) in the UK Biobank free of stroke and coronary heart disease were examined and thereafter followed up to 2020. Read More

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Effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with cancer associated venous thromboembolism.

Thromb Res 2021 Mar 29;202:128-133. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Division of General Internal Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Real-world evidence on the effects of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with cancer associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is limited. Thus, our population-based cohort study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of DOACs compared to the standard of care low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in this vulnerable population.

Materials And Methods: Using linked administrative healthcare databases from the province of Québec, Canada, we identified patients with incident VTE from 2012 to 2015 and a cancer diagnosis in the year before the VTE, who initiated treatment with anticoagulants within 30 days after the VTE. Read More

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White Blood Cell Count as a Predictor of Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Non-Obese Adults: A Longitudinal 10-Year Analysis of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

J Inflamm Res 2021 1;14:1235-1242. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Limited evidence is available on whether the white blood cell (WBC) count is a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-obese individuals. This study aimed to determine whether WBC count could be used as an indicator for the prediction of incident T2DM among non-obese individuals using a large, community-based Korean cohort that was observed over 10 years.

Patients And Methods: A total of 4211 non-obese adults without diabetes aged 40-69 years were selected from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Read More

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Endogenous progestogens and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute.

Background: The role of progestogens in colorectal cancer development are poorly characterized. To address this, our group developed a highly sensitive assay to measure concentrations of seven markers of endogenous progestogen metabolism among postmenopausal women.

Methods: The markers were measured in baseline serum collected from postmenopausal women in a case-cohort study within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B~FIT). Read More

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Cumulative burden of lipid profiles predict future incidence of ischaemic stroke and residual risk.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Objectives: Incident ischaemic stroke (IS) risk may increase not only with lipids concentration but also with longer duration of exposure. This study aimed to investigate the impact of cumulative burden of lipid profiles on risk of incident IS.

Methods: A total of 43 836 participants were enrolled who participated in four surveys during 2006-2013. Read More

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Association between CVDs and initiation and adherence to statin treatment in patients with newly diagnosed hypercholesterolaemia: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 7;11(4):e045375. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Jongno-gu, Korea (the Republic of)

Objectives: To evaluate the association between incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and initiation and adherence to statin treatment for primary prevention of CVD in patients with newly diagnosed hypercholesterolaemia.

Design: A population-based retrospective cohort study.

Setting: This study used National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) from Republic of Korea. Read More

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Association of Carotid Artery Plaque With Cardiovascular Events and Incident Coronary Artery Calcium in Individuals With Absent Coronary Calcification: The MESA.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 8:CIRCIMAGING120011701. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (M.C.T., J.H.S.).

Background: Absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) identifies asymptomatic individuals at low cardiovascular disease risk. Carotid artery plaque is a marker of increased risk, but its association with cardiovascular risk and incident CAC in people without CAC is unclear.

Methods: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants with CAC score of 0 at enrollment who also underwent carotid plaque measurement using B-mode ultrasonography were prospectively followed for incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease events, and CAC (score >0 on up to 3 serial computed tomography scans). Read More

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Risk of peripheral artery disease according to race and sex: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Mar 29;324:52-57. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background And Aims: Previous community-based studies have demonstrated sex and race-based disparities in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the association of sex and race with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD-) and critical limb ischemia (CLI-) related hospitalizations.

Methods: In 13,451 Black and White ARIC participants without prevalent PAD at baseline (1987-89), we estimated the cumulative incidence of PAD- and CLI-related hospitalization over a median follow-up of 26 years. Read More

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Associations of Dietary Patterns with Incident Depression: The Maastricht Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 23;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Our aim was to assess the association between defined dietary patterns and incident depressive symptoms. We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study ( = 2646, mean (SD) age 59.9 (8. Read More

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Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum and subsequent risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Danish women: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Apr 2;18(4):e1003486. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Research Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: One-fourth of women experience substantially higher weight years after childbirth. We examined weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum according to subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods And Findings: We conducted a cohort study of 47,966 women with a live-born singleton within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1997-2002). Read More

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Attenuated Risk of Pneumonia Due to Inflammation by Frequent Sauna Baths: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

National Institute for Health Research Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol, and Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Translational Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, England (Dr Kunutsor); Department of Sport Science, University of Seoul, Seoul, South Korea (Dr Jae); and Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, and Central Finland Health Care District Hospital District, Department of Medicine, Jyväskylä, Finland (Dr Laukkanen).

Purpose: Inflammatory pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Frequent sauna sessions may reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections including pneumonia independent of inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the independent and joint associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) with risk of pneumonia in a prospective cohort study. Read More

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Association of Diabetic Retinopathy With Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:626996. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Evidence-Based Medicine Centre, School of Basic Medical Sciences of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

The population-based studies conducted thus far do not provide conclusive evidence of the link between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and stroke. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine whether DR is specifically associated with stroke. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched from their inception to July 31, 2020. Read More

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Joint Effect of Hepatic Steatosis and Alanine Aminotransferase Within the Normal Range on Incident Ischemic Heart Disease: A Prospective Study in Koreans.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 22;16:513-523. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Family Medicine, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16995, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Hepatic steatosis has been associated with some cardiovascular risks. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was suggested to be linked to endothelial dysfunction. We prospectively investigated the joint effect of hepatic steatosis and elevated ALT within the normal range on incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk as an extrahepatic complication. Read More

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Chronic Kidney Disease Risk of Isolated Systolic or Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults: A Nationwide Sample Based-Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 31;10(7):e019764. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Internal Medicine Chonnam National University Medical School Gwangju Korea.

Background Hypertension among young adults is common. However, the effect of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), or systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) among young adults on chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is unknown. Methods and Results From a nationwide health screening database, we included 3 030 884 participants aged 20 to 39 years who were not taking antihypertensives at baseline examination in 2009 to 2010. Read More

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Educational disparities in ischaemic heart disease among 0.5 million Chinese adults: a cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.

Background: The relationship between educational attainment and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is limited in evidence in middle-income countries like China. Exploring lifestyle-related mediators, which might be not universal between socioeconomic status and health outcomes in diverse regions, can contribute to interventions targeted at the Chinese to narrow the educational gap in IHD.

Methods: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank of 489 594 participants aged 30-79 years who did not have heart disease or stroke at baseline, this study examined the association of educational attainment with IHD. Read More

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Metabolically Healthy/Unhealthy Overweight/Obesity Associations With Incident Heart Failure in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Mar 29:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007297. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, UC Irvine School of Medicine, University of California. (A.R.C.H., N.D.W.).

Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF); however, how metabolic weight groups relate to HF risk, especially in postmenopausal women, has not been demonstrated.

Methods: We included 19 412 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 without cardiovascular disease from the Women's Health Initiative. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index ≥18. Read More

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Systemic immune-inflammation index and incident cardiovascular diseases among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: The Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Feb 20;323:20-29. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, And State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) has been recently investigated as a novel inflammatory and prognostic marker. SII may be used as an indicator reflecting the progressive inflammatory process in atherosclerosis, although its link to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been examined in previous studies. This study aims to prospectively assess the association of SII with incident CVD and its main subtypes in Chinese adults. Read More

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February 2021