101,067 results match your criteria host immune

The diverse roles of myeloid derived suppressor cells in mucosal immunity.

Cell Immunol 2021 Apr 9;365:104361. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Concern Foundation Laboratories at The Lautenberg Center for Immunology and Cancer Research, Israel-Canada Medical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

The mucosal immune system plays a vital role in protecting the host from the external environment. Its major challenge is to balance immune responses against harmful and harmless agents and serve as a 'homeostatic gate keeper'. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells that are characterized by an immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive phenotype. Read More

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Hair of the mouse: A skin bacteria "cocktail" gets follicles back on their feet.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 May;29(5):742-744

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Microbes can boost cutaneous immune defense and skin reparative capacity. However, mechanistic understanding, especially of the latter, remains sparse. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wang et al. Read More

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Coevolution between bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems and their bacteriophages.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 May;29(5):715-725

ESI, Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK. Electronic address:

CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive, heritable immunity against their viruses (bacteriophages and phages) and other parasitic genetic elements. CRISPR-Cas systems are highly diverse, and we are only beginning to understand their relative importance in phage defense. In this review, we will discuss when and why CRISPR-Cas immunity against phages evolves, and how this, in turn, selects for the evolution of immune evasion by phages. Read More

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CRISPR transposons on the move.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 May;29(5):675-677

Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research (HIRI), Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), 97080 Würzburg, Germany; Medical Faculty, University of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

CRISPR transposons (CASTs) represent unique mobile genetic elements that co-opted CRISPR-Cas immune systems for RNA-guided DNA transposition. However, CAST-encoded CRISPR arrays rarely match the CAST's chromosomal location. A recent publication in Cell helps resolve this paradox by revealing CRISPR-array-independent mechanisms of chromosomal homing unique to different CAST types. Read More

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To "Z" or not to "Z": Z-RNA, self-recognition, and the MDA5 helicase.

Alan Herbert

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009513. Epub 2021 May 13.

Discovery, InsideOutBio, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is produced both by virus and host. Its recognition by the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) initiates type I interferon responses. How can a host distinguish self-transcripts from nonself to ensure that responses are targeted correctly? Here, I discuss a role for MDA5 helicase in inducing Z-RNA formation by Alu inverted repeat (AIR) elements. Read More

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Predicting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Severe Blunt Trauma: The Utility of Interleukin-18.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco-East Bay, Oakland, California, USA.

In trauma, direct pulmonary injury and innate immune response activation primes the lungs for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The inflammasome-dependent release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) was recently identified as a key mediator in ARDS pathogenesis, leading us to hypothesize that plasma IL-18 is a diagnostic predictor of ARDS in severe blunt trauma. Secondary analysis of the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury database was performed on plasma cytokines collected within 12 hours of severe blunt trauma. Read More

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HDL-small RNA Export, Transport, and Functional Delivery in Atherosclerosis.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2021 May 13;23(7):38. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2220 Pierce Ave. 312 Preston Research Building, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review highlights recent advances on the mechanisms and impact of HDL-small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) on intercellular communication in atherosclerosis.

Recent Findings: Studies demonstrate that HDL-microRNAs (miRNA) are significantly altered in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and are responsive to diet, obesity, and diabetes. Immune cells, pancreatic beta cells, and neurons are shown to export miRNAs to HDL. Read More

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Protective effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome against infectious bursal disease virus replication in DF-1 cells.

Arch Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory for Veterinary Biologics and Chemical Drugs of the Ministry of Agriculture, Zhongmu Institute of China Animal Husbandry Industry Co. Ltd, Haidian District, Beijing, 100095, China.

Inflammatory responses are an important part of the innate immune response during viral infection. Various inflammasome complexes have been identified. The pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a critical role in detecting some RNA viruses, such as influenza virus. Read More

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Too much of a good thing: Overproduction of virulence factors impairs cryptococcal pathogenicity.

Microb Cell 2021 Apr 20;8(5):108-110. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Molecular Biology of Pathogens Laboratory, Biotechnology Center, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The regulation of virulence factor production and deployment is crucial for the establishment of microbial infection and subsequent pathogenesis. If these processes are not properly coordinated, the infecting pathogen is less likely to both survive the immune response and cause damage to the host. One key virulence factor of the opportunistic fungal pathogen , which kills almost 200,000 people each year worldwide, is a polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the cell wall; this structure helps the fungal cells resist engulfment and elimination by host phagocytes. Read More

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Host-bacteria metabolic crosstalk drives biofilm.

Microb Cell 2021 Apr 19;8(5):106-107. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

is a prominent pathogen that can cause intractable lung infections in humans. persists in the airway despite inflammation and immune cell recruitment by adapting to host-derived antimicrobial factors. A key component of the immune response to infection are host metabolites that regulate inflammation and bacterial survival. Read More

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Fluticasone Propionate Suppresses Poly(I:C)-Induced ACE2 in Primary Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:655666. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: From the first detection in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 infections have spread rapidly worldwide and have been proven to cause an urgent and important health problem. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on two proteins present on the surface of host cells, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). The nasal cavity is thought to be one of the initial sites of infection and a possible reservoir for dissemination within and between individuals. Read More

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Secretory Mevalonate Kinase Regulates Host Immune Response and Facilitates Phagocytosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:641985. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular Biology, ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.

secretes over 151 proteins during cultivation. Cellular functions of one such novel protein: mevalonate kinase is discussed here; signifying its importance in infection. Visceral Leishmaniasis is a persistent infection, caused by in Indian subcontinent. Read More

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Typhimurium Triggers Extracellular Traps Release in Murine Macrophages.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:639768. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay.

comprises two species and more than 2500 serovars with marked differences in host specificity, and is responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from localized gastroenteritis to severe life-threatening invasive disease. The initiation of the host inflammatory response, triggered by many Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) that possesses, recruits innate immune cells in order to restrain the infection at the local site. Neutrophils are known for killing bacteria through oxidative burst, amid other mechanisms. Read More

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infection in different mammalian species in Brazil.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 20;15:58-69. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratório de Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

a monoxenous trypanosomatid considered restricted to insects, was recently reported to infect a bat. Herein, has been demonstrated to have a wider range of vertebrate hosts and distribution in Brazilian biomes than once thought. Parasites isolated from haemocultures were characterized using V7V8 SSU rDNA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. Read More

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PMN-MDSC Frequency Discriminates Active Versus Latent Tuberculosis and Could Play a Role in Counteracting the Immune-Mediated Lung Damage in Active Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:594376. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology and Pharmacology, National Institute for infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Tuberculosis (TB), due to infection, is still the principal cause of death caused by a single infectious agent. The balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms reflects the different manifestations of the pathology. Factors defining this variety are unclear and likely involve both mycobacterial and immunological components. Read More

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Nanoparticles of Chitosan/Poly(D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Enhanced the Immune Responses of HCA59 Antigen in Model Mice.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 4;16:3125-3139. Epub 2021 May 4.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigen 59 (HCA59) from excretory/secretory products of is known to have the ability to modulate the functions of host cells. However, its immunogenicities using different nanoparticles adjuvants remain poorly understood.

Purpose: The study aimed to select an efficient nanoparticle antigen delivery system, which could enhance the immune responses of HCA59 in mice. Read More

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Thymic development of gut-microbiota-specific T cells.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Humans and their microbiota have coevolved a mutually beneficial relationship in which the human host provides a hospitable environment for the microorganisms and the microbiota provides many advantages for the host, including nutritional benefits and protection from pathogen infection. Maintaining this relationship requires a careful immune balance to contain commensal microorganisms within the lumen while limiting inflammatory anti-commensal responses. Antigen-specific recognition of intestinal microorganisms by T cells has previously been described. Read More

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Development and Characterization of a Highly Sensitive NanoLuciferase-Based Immunoprecipitation System for the Detection of Anti-Influenza Virus HA Antibodies.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan

Antibody detection is crucial for monitoring host immune responses to specific pathogen antigens (Ags) and evaluating vaccine efficacies. The luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) was developed for sensitive detection of Ag-specific antibodies in sera from various species. In this study, we describe NanoLIPS, an improved LIPS assay based on NanoLuciferase (NLuc), and employ the assay for monitoring antibody responses following influenza virus infection or vaccination. Read More

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Scorpion Venom Antimicrobial Peptides Induce Siderophore Biosynthesis and Oxidative Stress Responses in Escherichia coli.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

The increasing development of microbial resistance to classical antimicrobial agents has led to the search for novel antimicrobials. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from scorpion and snake venoms offer an attractive source for the development of novel therapeutics. Smp24 (24 amino acids [aa]) and Smp43 (43 aa) are broad-spectrum AMPs that have been identified from the venom gland of the Egyptian scorpion and subsequently characterized. Read More

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MafF is an antiviral host factor that suppresses transcription from Hepatitis B Virus core promoter.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a stealth virus that exhibits only minimal induction of the interferon system that is required for both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, 90% of acutely infected adults can clear the virus, suggesting the presence of additional mechanisms that facilitate viral clearance. Herein, we report that Maf bZIP transcription factor F (MafF) promotes host defense against infection with HBV. Read More

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Inhibition of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus L through Interaction with N-terminal Domain of Swine RNase L.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. To survive in the host, FMDV has evolved multiple strategies to antagonize host innate immune responses. In this study, we showed that the leader protease (L) of FMDV, a papain-like proteinase, promoted viral replication by evading the antiviral interferon response through counteracting the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L system. Read More

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DNGR-1 limits Flt3L-mediated antitumor immunity by restraining tumor-infiltrating type I conventional dendritic cells.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain

Background: Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are central to antitumor immunity and their presence in the tumor microenvironment associates with improved outcomes in patients with cancer. DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) is a dead cell-sensing receptor highly restricted to cDC1s. DNGR-1 has been involved in both cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens and processes of disease tolerance, but its role in antitumor immunity has not been clarified yet. Read More

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The gut microbiota as a versatile immunomodulator in obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 1:101542. Epub 2021 May 1.

Microbial Ecology, Nutrition & Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with chronic-low-grade inflammation and metabolic morbidities. Energy-dense diets and a sedentary lifestyle are determinants of obesity. The gut microbiome is a novel biological factor involved in obesity via interactions with the host and the diet. Read More

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A Combined Molecular Docking and Density Functional Theory Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Trans-Dehydrocrotonin Interacting with COVID-19 Main Protease and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 3C-Like Protease.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 11;21(11):5399-5407

Departament of Chemistry, Federal University of Jataí, Jataí-GO - 75801-615, Brasil.

For the development of drugs that treat SARS-CoV-2, the fastest way is to find potential molecules from drugs already on the market. Unfortunately, there is currently no specific drug or treatment for COVID-19. Among all structural proteins in SARS-CoV, the spike protein is the main antigenic component responsible for inducing host immune responses, neutralizing antibodies, and/or protecting immunity against virus infection. Read More

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November 2021

Integrative genomics of the mammalian alveolar macrophage response to intracellular mycobacteria.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 12;22(1):343. Epub 2021 May 12.

Animal Genomics Laboratory, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, UCD College of Health and Agricultural Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, D04 V1W8, Ireland.

Background: Bovine TB (bTB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting global cattle production. The key innate immune cell that first encounters the pathogen is the alveolar macrophage, previously shown to be substantially reprogrammed during intracellular infection by the pathogen. Here we use differential expression, and correlation- and interaction-based network approaches to analyse the host response to infection with M. Read More

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Deletion of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidases alters the host immune response to infection.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1227-1238

Cape Town Component, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, South Africa.

Peptidoglycan (PG), a heteropolysaccharide component of the mycobacterial cell wall can be shed during tuberculosis infection with immunomodulatory consequences. As such, changes in PG structure are expected to have important implications on disease progression and host responses during infection with . Mycobacterial amidases have important roles in remodeling of PG during cell division and are implicated in susceptibility to antibiotics. Read More

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December 2021

Reinforcing our defense or weakening the enemy? A comparative overview of defensive and offensive strategies developed to confront COVID-19.

Drug Metab Rev 2021 May 12:1-83. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Lahijan, Guilan, Iran.

Developing effective strategies to confront coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the greatest concerns of the scientific community. In addition to the vast number of global mortalities due to COVID-19, since its outbreak, almost every aspect of human lives has changed one way or another. In the present review, various defensive and offensive strategies developed to confront COVID-19 are illustrated. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 uses a multipronged strategy to impede host protein synthesis.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. Coronaviruses developed varied mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNAs and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response. Although different SARS-CoV-2 proteins are implicated in host expression shutoff, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Read More

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Incoming HIV virion-derived Gag Spacer Peptide 2 (p1) is a target of effective CD8 T cell antiviral responses.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109103

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK; National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX4 2PG, UK; Immunocore Ltd, Milton, Abingdon OX14 4RY, UK; Research In Viral Eradication of Reservoirs (RIVER) trial study group. Electronic address:

Persistence of HIV through integration into host DNA in CD4 T cells presents a major barrier to virus eradication. Viral integration may be curtailed when CD8 T cells are triggered to kill infected CD4 T cells through recognition of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-bound peptides derived from incoming virions. However, this has been reported only in individuals with "beneficial" HLA alleles that are associated with superior HIV control. Read More

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Efficient generation of isogenic primary human myeloid cells using CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109105

J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA 94129, USA; UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Genome engineering of primary human cells with CRISPR-Cas9 has revolutionized experimental and therapeutic approaches to cell biology, but human myeloid-lineage cells have remained largely genetically intractable. We present a method for the delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes by nucleofection directly into CD14 human monocytes purified from peripheral blood, leading to high rates of precise gene knockout. These cells can be efficiently differentiated into monocyte-derived macrophages or dendritic cells. Read More

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