273,701 results match your criteria host cell

Leishmania infantum strains from cats are similar in biological properties to canine and human strains.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jul 15;298:109531. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHMT), Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (NOVA), 1349-008, Lisbon, Portugal; Medical Parasitology Unit, IHMT/NOVA, 1349-008, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis is a worldwide severe disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a protozoan that has phlebotomine sand flies as vectors and dogs as primary reservoir hosts. Over the last few decades, cats have been regarded as an indisputable piece within the ecological system in which L. infantum is maintained indefinitely. Read More

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"Allogeneic blood or marrow transplant with non-myeloablative conditioning and high dose cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for secondary central nervous system lymphoma".

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287.

Secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare and often fatal complication of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Treatment options include radiation therapy, high-dose systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue, but outcomes remain poor. Allogeneic blood or marrow transplant (alloBMT) is widely used in relapsed/refractory systemic NHL. Read More

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Cloning and sequencing of lsaE efflux pump gene from MDR Enterococci and its role in erythromycin resistance.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 19:105010. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain shams University, Organization of African Unity St. Abbassia, POB: 11566, Cairo, Egypt.

Enterococci are opportunistic members of intestinal microbiota with notable ability to transmit antimicrobial resistance genes. Among the different resistance mechanisms, multidrug efflux is evolving as a huge problem in conferring multidrug resistance to bacterial cells because these pumps extrude a broad range of antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate role of efflux pumps in the development of multi-drug resistance in Enterococci through studying the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococci isolates, phenotypically and genotypically investigating the role of active efflux pumps in development of resistance, in addition to characterizing the most common efflux pump genes. Read More

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Promising potential of boron compounds against Glioblastoma: In Vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer studies.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 19;149:105137. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Centre for Host-Microbiome Interactions, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, SE1 9RT, UK; Science for Life Laboratory, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE-17121, Sweden. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant astrocytoma correlated with poor patient survival. There are no curative treatments for GB, and it becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. Resistance in GB cells is closely related to their states of redox imbalance, and the role of reactive oxygen species and its impact on cancer cell survival is still far from elucidation. Read More

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Shooting yourself in the foot: How immune cells induce antibiotic tolerance in microbial pathogens.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009660. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Antibiotic treatment failure of infection is common and frequently occurs in the absence of genetically encoded antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In such scenarios, the ability of bacteria to enter a phenotypic state that renders them tolerant to the killing activity of multiple antibiotic classes is thought to contribute to antibiotic failure. Phagocytic cells, which specialize in engulfing and destroying invading pathogens, may paradoxically contribute to antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure. Read More

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Miltefosine enhances infectivity of a miltefosine-resistant Leishmania infantum strain by attenuating its innate immune recognition.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 22;15(7):e0009622. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of Antwerp, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), Wilrijk, Belgium.

Background: Miltefosine (MIL) is currently the only oral drug available to treat visceral leishmaniasis but its use as first-line monotherapy has been compromised by an increasing treatment failure. Despite the scarce number of resistant clinical isolates, MIL-resistance by mutations in a single aminophospholipid transporter gene can easily be selected in a laboratory environment. These mutations result in a reduced survival in the mammalian host, which can partially be restored by exposure to MIL, suggesting a kind of drug-dependency. Read More

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Inhalable nanocatchers for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul 2;118(29). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China;

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), presents an urgent health crisis. More recently, an increasing number of mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified globally. Such mutations, especially those on the spike glycoprotein to render its higher binding affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) receptors, not only resulted in higher transmission of SARS-CoV-2 but also raised serious concerns regarding the efficacies of vaccines against mutated viruses. Read More

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DIA-Based Proteome Profiling of Nasopharyngeal Swabs from COVID-19 Patients.

J Proteome Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, United States.

Since the recent outbreak of COVID-19, there have been intense efforts to understand viral pathogenesis and host immune response to combat SARS-CoV-2. It has become evident that different host alterations can be identified in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on whether infected cells, animal models or clinical samples are studied. Although nasopharyngeal swabs are routinely collected for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR testing, host alterations in the nasopharynx at the proteomic level have not been systematically investigated. Read More

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Cyclic, Hydrophobic Hexapeptide Fusahexin Is the Product of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase in .

J Nat Prod 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 7H, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark.

The plant pathogenic fungus is known to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites during plant infection. This includes several nonribosomal peptides. Recently, the fusaoctaxin (/9) and gramilin () gene clusters were shown to be induced by host interactions. Read More

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Molecular detection of Wolbachia endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted Gram-negative endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and arthropods, has a role in the biology of their host; thus it has been exploited for the filariasis treatment in humans. To assess the presence and prevalence of this endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites, blood and tail tissue as well as ticks and mites collected from them were molecularly screened for Wolbachia DNA using two sets of primers targeting partial 16S rRNA and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) genes. Positive samples were screened for the partial 12S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes for filarioids. Read More

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MoCpa1-mediated arginine biosynthesis is crucial for fungal growth, conidiation, and plant infection of Magnaporthe oryzae.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fujian Universities Key Laboratory for Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Arginine is an important amino acid involved in processes such as cell signal transduction, protein synthesis, and sexual reproduction. To understand the biological roles of arginine biosynthesis in pathogenic fungi, we used Cpa1, the carbamoyl phosphate synthase arginine-specific small chain subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a query to identify its ortholog in the Magnaporthe oryzae genome and named it MoCpa1. MoCpa1 is a 471-amino acid protein containing a CPSase_sm_chain domain and a GATase domain. Read More

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Single cell analysis of M. tuberculosis phenotype and macrophage lineages in the infected lung.

J Exp Med 2021 Sep 22;218(9). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

In this study, we detail a novel approach that combines bacterial fitness fluorescent reporter strains with scRNA-seq to simultaneously acquire the host transcriptome, surface marker expression, and bacterial phenotype for each infected cell. This approach facilitates the dissection of the functional heterogeneity of M. tuberculosis-infected alveolar (AMs) and interstitial macrophages (IMs) in vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Inhibition of Measles Viral Fusion Is Enhanced by Targeting Multiple Domains of the Fusion Protein.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Host-Pathogen Interaction, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, United States.

Measles virus (MeV) infection remains a significant public health threat despite ongoing global efforts to increase vaccine coverage. As eradication of MeV stalls, and vulnerable populations expand, effective antivirals against MeV are in high demand. Here, we describe the development of an antiviral peptide that targets the MeV fusion (F) protein. Read More

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T-cell replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation with low dose anti-thymocyte globulin for relapsed/refractory Ewing sarcoma family tumors.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 22:e1519. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Fukushima, Japan.

Background: Despite intensive multimodal therapies, the prognosis of relapsed/ refractory Ewing sarcoma family tumors (RR-ESFTs) is dismal. Some case reports using allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) for RR-ESFTs have been reported, however, the efficacy of allo SCT is yet to be established.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response and toxicity of T-cell replete haploidentical SCT (TCR-haplo-SCT) in RR-ESFTs. Read More

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Near real-time observation reveals increased prevalence of young patients in the ICU during the emerging third SARS-CoV-2 wave in Switzerland.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 07 21;151:w20553. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims Of The Study: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the launch of a large-scale vaccination campaign and virus mutations have hinted at possible changes in transmissibility and the virulence affecting disease progression up to critical illness, and carry potential for future vaccination failure. To monitor disease development over time with respect to critically ill COVID-19 patients, we report near real-time prospective observational data from the RISC-19-ICU registry that indicate changed characteristics of critically ill patients admitted to Swiss intensive care units (ICUs) at the onset of a third pandemic wave.

Methods: 1829 of 3344 critically ill COVID-19 patients enrolled in the international RISC-19-ICU registry as of 31 May 2021 were treated in Switzerland and were included in the present study. Read More

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An SR protein is essential for activating DNA repair in malaria parasites.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, IMRIC, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, replicates within the erythrocytes of its host where it encounters numerous pressures that cause extensive DNA damage, which must be repaired efficiently to ensure parasite survival. Malaria parasites, which lost the NHEJ pathway for repairing DNA double strand breaks, have evolved unique mechanisms that enable them to robustly maintain genome integrity under such harsh conditions. However, the nature of these adaptations is unknown. Read More

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Proliferative Clonal T-Cell Infiltrate Mimicking a Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Arising in Active Regression of Melanoma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Baylor Scott and White Health, Texas A&M Medical CenterTemple, TX; and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract: Complete melanoma regression is an uncommon phenomenon involving a complex interplay of the tumor microenvironment and host immune response. We report a case of an 84-year-old woman with a history of colon and breast cancers who presented with a right forearm tumor, which was found to be a nodular melanoma; focal features of regression were noted in the biopsy. Approximately 6 weeks later, surgical resection of the site revealed no gross evidence of tumor, and histologic sections showed an extensive lymphoid infiltrate with prominent epidermotropism. Read More

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CD34 Staining as a Useful Tool in Disorders of Collagen Degeneration.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Abstract: The human progenitor-cell antigen CD34 is expressed in dermal dendritic cells and is lost in several disorders affecting dermal collagen. The loss of CD34 immunohistochemical staining has been demonstrated to be helpful in the histologic diagnosis of morphea, lichen sclerosus, and the classic pattern of granuloma annulare. This study characterized CD34 expression in 2 sclerosing disorders affecting the subcutis: lipodermatosclerosis (LDS) and the sclerodermoid form of chronic graft-versus-host disease (ScGVHD). Read More

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T-Regulatory Cells in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum: An Immunohistochemical and Image Morphometric Study.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Departments of Pathology and Lab Medicine, and. Dermatology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Abstract: Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) occurs as an immune-inflammatory complication of multibacillary leprosy (MBL), precipitated by an interaction between the host, bacilli, and the environment. This complication often causes significant morbidity due to systemic involvement and needs to be treated aggressively. T-regulatory cells (T-regs) are the immunomodulatory subset of T cells that are hypothesized to play a role in ENL. Read More

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Deletion of AMPK minimizes graft-versus-host disease through an early impact on effector donor T cells.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 22;6(14). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapies, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a viable treatment for multiple hematologic diseases, but its application is often limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where donor T cells attack host tissues in the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we examined the role of the cellular energy sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) in alloreactive T cells during GVHD development. Early posttransplant, AMPK activity increased more than 15-fold in allogeneic T cells, and transplantation of T cells deficient in both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 decreased GVHD severity in multiple disease models. Read More

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Acute pancreatitis following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, 3-35 Michishita-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, 453-8511, Japan.

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potential complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but its incidence and risk factors remain unclear. Thus, we reviewed the cases of 259 consecutive children who received allogeneic HSCT at our institution between January 2000 and December 2017 to determine the incidence and risk factors of AP. Thirteen patients developed AP during a median follow-up period of 4. Read More

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Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction.

Inflammation 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, 101 Woodruff Circle, WMB 308, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Sepsis is a life-threatening clinical condition caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. SAE clinical presentation may range from mild confusion and delirium to severe cognitive impairment and deep coma. Read More

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Cancer: An unknown territory; rethinking before going ahead.

Arun Upadhyay

Genes Dis 2021 Sep 18;8(5):655-661. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Central University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, 305817, India.

Cancer is a disease of altered signaling and metabolism, causing uncontrolled division and survival of transformed cells. A host of molecules, factors, and conditions have been designated as underlying causes for the inception and progression of the disease. An enormous amount of data is available, system-wide interaction networks of the genes and proteins are generated over the years and have now reached up to a level of saturation, where we need to shift our focus to the more advanced and comprehensive methods and approaches of data analysis and visualization. Read More

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September 2021

Keeping Balance Between Genetic Stability and Plasticity at the Telomere and Subtelomere of .

Bibo Li

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:699639. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends, are well-known for their essential roles in genome integrity and chromosome stability. Yet, telomeres and subtelomeres are frequently less stable than chromosome internal regions. Many subtelomeric genes are important for responding to environmental cues, and subtelomeric instability can facilitate organismal adaptation to extracellular changes, which is a common theme in a number of microbial pathogens. Read More

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Impact of Tenascin-C on Radiotherapy in a Novel Syngeneic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model With Spontaneous Dissemination to the Lymph Nodes.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:636108. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

INSERM U1109-MN3T, The Microenvironmental Niche in Tumorigenesis and Targeted Therapy, Strasbourg, France.

Radiotherapy, the most frequent treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) besides surgery is employed to kill tumor cells but, radiotherapy may also promote tumor relapse where the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) could be instrumental. We established a novel syngeneic grafting model from a carcinogen-induced tongue tumor, OSCC13, to address the impact of radiotherapy on OSCC. This model revealed similarities with human OSCC, recapitulating carcinogen-induced mutations found in smoking associated human tongue tumors, abundant tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TIL) and, spontaneous tumor cell dissemination to the local lymph nodes. Read More

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Distinct Human Gut Microbial Taxonomic Signatures Uncovered With Different Sample Processing and Microbial Cell Disruption Methods for Metaproteomic Analysis.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:618566. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The use of metaproteomics for studying the human gut microbiota can shed light on the taxonomic profile and the functional role of the microbial community. Nevertheless, methods for extracting proteins from stool samples continue to evolve, in the pursuit of optimal protocols for moistening and dispersing the stool sample and for disrupting microbial cells, which are two critical steps for ensuring good protein recovery. Here, we evaluated different stool sample processing (SSP) and microbial cell disruption methods (CDMs). Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles as a Means of Viral Immune Evasion, CNS Invasion, and Glia-Induced Neurodegeneration.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 5;15:695899. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Neuroscience Program, Brain Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, membrane-bound vesicles released by cells as a means of intercellular communication. EVs transfer proteins, nucleic acids, and other biologically relevant molecules from one cell to another. In the context of viral infections, EVs can also contain viruses, viral proteins, and viral nucleic acids. Read More

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Targeted delivery of cytotoxic proteins to prostate cancer via conjugation to small molecule urea-based PSMA inhibitors.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14925. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Viragh Building, 201 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Prostate cancer cells are characterized by a remarkably low proliferative rate and the production of high levels of prostate-specific proteases. Protein-based toxins are attractive candidates for prostate cancer therapy because they kill cells via proliferation-independent mechanisms. However, the non-specific cytotoxicity of these potent cytotoxins must be redirected to avoid toxicity to normal tissues. Read More

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Type I hypersensitivity promotes Aedes aegypti blood feeding.

Michael J Conway

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14891. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Foundational Sciences, College of Medicine, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA.

Mosquitoes play a major role in human disease by serving as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. Mosquitoes inject saliva into host skin during the probing process. Mosquito saliva contains a number of proteins that facilitate blood feeding by preventing hemostasis. Read More

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Lipid bilayer degradation induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as revealed by neutron reflectometry.

Sci Rep 2021 07 21;11(1):14867. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 156, 38042, Grenoble, France.

SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins are responsible for the membrane fusion event, which allows the virus to enter the host cell and cause infection. This process starts with the binding of the spike extramembrane domain to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a membrane receptor highly abundant in the lungs. In this study, the extramembrane domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (sSpike) was injected on model membranes formed by supported lipid bilayers in presence and absence of the soluble part of receptor ACE2 (sACE2), and the structural features were studied at sub-nanometer level by neutron reflection. Read More

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