509,814 results match your criteria host

Could metabolomics drive the fate of COVID-19 pandemic? A narrative review on lights and shadows.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy.

Human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection activates a complex interaction host/virus, leading to the reprogramming of the host metabolism aimed at the energy supply for viral replication. Alterations of the host metabolic homeostasis strongly influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, forming the basis of a wide range of outcomes, from the asymptomatic infection to the onset of COVID-19 and up to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome, vascular dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and death. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms associated with the individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection calls for a system biology approach; this strategy can address multiple goals, including which patients will respond effectively to the therapeutic treatment. Read More

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Adenosine synthase A contributes to recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection by dampening protective immunity.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 28;70:103505. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China; The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen capable of causing diverse illnesses with possible recurrent infections. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of cellular immunity in recurrent infections, the mechanism by which S. aureus evades host responses remains largely unexplored. Read More

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TRP channels, the missing link for Ca tuning by a unicellular eukaryotic parasite?

Cell Calcium 2021 Jul 25;98:102449. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Sensing and responding to changes in the cellular environments are essential for the diverse family of Apicomplexan parasites, which undergo complex life cycles comprised of both extracellular and obligate intracellular stages. Despite evidence of paramount roles for Ca, the molecular players behind how parasites sense Ca and initiate Ca signaling cascades have remained enigmatic. In a recent publication, Marquez-Nogueras et al. Read More

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Biofilm patterns in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jul 23;251:126829. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are attributable to matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilms are root cause of industrial biofouling and characterized by antimicrobial resistance during infections. Many biofilm studies examine specific Gram type cultures, whereas nearly all biofilm communities in nature comprise both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Read More

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Single and combined effects of microplastics, pyrethroid and food resources on the life-history traits and microbiome of Chironomus riparius.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 26;289:117848. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, Section of Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.

There is growing evidence of widespread contamination of freshwater ecosystems with microplastics. However, the effects of chronic microplastic ingestion and its interaction with other pollutants and stress factors on the life-history traits and the host-microbiome of aquatic invertebrates are not well understood. This study investigates the effects of exposure to sediment spiked with 1 μm polystyrene-based latex microplastic spheres, an environmentally realistic concentration of a pyrethroid pesticide (esfenvalerate), and a combination of both treatments on the life-history traits of the benthic-dwelling invertebrate, Chironomus riparius and its microbial community. Read More

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Frequent Eczematous Dermatitis in Unrelated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients Compared to Other Donor Types.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Electronic address:

Background: We have consistently noticed in our clinical practice eczematous dermatitis (EcD) without other pathologic findings of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in recipients of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT). We hypothesized that the incidence of EcD was higher in CBT compared to other donor types.

Objective: To compare the frequency, clinical course, and response to therapy of EcD among CBT and non-CBT recipients. Read More

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Proteomics, lipidomics, metabolomics and 16S DNA sequencing of dental plaque from patients with diabetes and periodontal disease.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jul 28:100126. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison, WI 53715, USA; Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA; National Center for Quantitative Biology of Complex Systems, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Oral microbiome influences human health, specifically pre- and type 2 diabetes (Pre-DM/DM) and periodontal diseases (PD), through complex microbial interactions. To explore these relations, we performed 16S rDNA sequencing, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics analyses on supragingival dental plaque collected from individuals with Pre-DM/DM (n=39), Pre-DM/DM and PD (n=37), PD alone (n=11), or neither (n=10). We identified on average 2,790 operational taxonomic units and 2,025 microbial and host proteins per sample and quantified 110 metabolites and 415 lipids. Read More

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New findings of spinturnicid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Spinturnicidae) from the Caucasus.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jul 28:102429. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Tyumen State Medical University, Tyumen, Russia; Tyumen State Medical University, Tyumen, Russia.

The Caucasus is a large region in Eurasia consisting of four countries: Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. Although it is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, the bat ectoparasite fauna has been poorly studied. To promotionally fill in the gaps regarding bat ectoparasites, we conducted five field surveys on bats and their ectoparasites at nine localities within the region between April 2016 and March 2021. Read More

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Immunometabolism in human brucellosis: An emerging field of investigation.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 28:105115. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Electronic address:

In recent years, extreme attention has been focused on the role of immunometabolism in the regulation of immune cell responses in healthy individuals during infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. In the infection biology area, it has been shown that there is a close relationship between the immune system and the host metabolic changes. Brucella species is an intracellular coccobacillus that infects humans and mammals, which led to brucellosis. Read More

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Elimination of vision-guided target attraction in Aedes aegypti using CRISPR.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Electronic address:

Blood-feeding insects, such as the mosquito, Aedes (Ae.) aegypti, use multiple senses to seek out and bite humans. Upon exposure to the odor of CO, the attention of female mosquitoes to potential targets is greatly increased. Read More

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Phylogenetic analysis of lice infested chicken (Gallus gallus domisticus) with new records in Kurdistan of Iraq.

Ann Parasitol 2021 ;67(2):161-168

Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

The domestic chickens are the most important protein sources of human populations in every part of the world; many parasites' species may affect birds. Ectoparasites can be found practically in all birds. They feed on their body components like blood, feathers. Read More

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January 2021

Light and scanning electron microscopy of an ischnoceran louse, Felicola rohani, and an amblyceran louse, Heterodoxus spiniger (Phthiraptera: Insecta) from the Indian grey mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii.

Ann Parasitol 2021 ;67(2):151-159

Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, India.

The ischnoceran louse, Felicola rohani Werneck, 1956 is reported for the first time from India on the Indian grey mongoose - Herpestes edwardsii (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818) and the amblyceran louse, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909) is recorded for the first time from that host species. The lice were collected from freshly accidentally killed specimen of the host, preserved and kept at the Museum of Estuarine Biology Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur-on-sea, Ganjam Odisha. Detailed morphological descriptions of the lice, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, are presented in this paper. Read More

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January 2021

Single-stage tracheal transplantation-From bench to bedside.

Am J Transplant 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

We read with great interest and admiration the manuscript by Genden and colleagues titled "Single-stage long-segment tracheal transplantation" (1). In adult patients, the general limits of safe tracheal resection and direct end to end re-anastomosis has always been considered to be a maximum of 5-6 cm. Long-segment tracheal resection and replacement is a challenge and has led to a century-long search for a means of tracheal replacement. Read More

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Ticks on wild boar in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) are infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Wildlife Ecology & Health group and Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Travessera dels Turons s/n, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193, Spain.

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) constitute an emerging public health concern favoured by multidimensional global changes. Amongst these, increase and spread of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are of special concern, since this species can act as reservoir of zoonotic pathogens and promote tick abundance. Thus, we aimed to make a first assessment of the risk by TBPs resulting from wild boar and ticks in the vicinity of a highly populated area. Read More

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Atypical porcine pestivirus - a widespread virus in the swedish wild boar population.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Section of virology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7028, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden.

The recently identified causative agent of congenital tremor in domestic piglets, atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), was detected in serum from Swedish wild boar. A previous study from Sweden described APPV in domestic piglets suffering from congenital tremor, but the APPV situation in the wild boar population was unknown. In the present study, 595 serum samples from wild boar originating from 13 counties in the south and central parts of Sweden, collected between 2000 and 2018, were analysed for the presence of the APPV-genome and for antibodies against the APPV-glycoprotein E . Read More

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Endpoints and new options for treatment of chronic hepatitis D.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Italy.

Therapy of chronic hepatitis D still relies on interferon alfa. However, efficacy is limited and better therapies are needed. Disruption of the interactions of HDV with the helper HBV or with the host is providing a new therapeutic paradigm and new treatment options are investigated. Read More

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Reduced infiltration of T-regulatory cells in tumours from mice fed daily with gamma-tocotrienol supplementation.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Pathology Division, School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) is an analogue of vitamin E with beneficial effects on the immune system, including immune-modulatory properties. This study reports the immune-modulatory effects of daily supplementation of γT3 on host T-helper (Th) and T-regulatory (Treg) populations in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were fed with either γT3 or vehicle (soy oil) for 2-weeks via oral gavage before they were inoculated with syngeneic 4T1 mouse mammary cancer cells (4T1 cells). Read More

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Ventral calcification in the common femoral artery: A risk factor for major transcatheter aortic valve intervention access site complications.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University Hospital Freiburg and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objectives: We aimed to identify risk factors for major transcatheter aortic valve intervention (TAVI) access site complications based on detailed analysis of the preprocedural computed tomography angiogram (CTA).

Background: Transfemoral TAVI has become the treatment of choice for severe aortic stenosis in elderly patients, especially with increased perioperative risk. Frailty, however, favors complications at the vascular access site due to the large bore vascular sheath devices necessary for valve deployment. Read More

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Antibacterial Activity of Curcumin Against Periodontal Pathogens: A Systematic Review.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:239-249

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of the supporting structures of teeth caused by development of dental plaques and accumulation of microorganism around the gingival tissue. Curcumin has been shown to improve clinical parameters in periodontal diseases. However, the efficacy of curcumin in the elimination of periodontal pathogens is not clearly defined. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of Curcumin and Its Analogues on Infectious Diseases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:75-101

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Infectious diseases (IDs) are life-threatening illnesses, which result from the spread of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. IDs are a major challenge for the healthcare systems around the world, leading to a wide variety of clinical manifestations and complications. Despite the capability of frontline-approved medications to partially prevent or mitigate the invasion and subsequent damage of IDs to host tissues and cells, problems such as drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, unpleasant side effects, and high expenses stand in the way of their beneficial applications. Read More

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January 2021

Capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen by engineered Escherichia coli: hydrogen-dependent CO reduction to formate.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Molecular Microbiology & Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60439, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

In times of global climate change and the fear of dwindling resources, we are facing different considerable challenges such as the replacement of fossil fuel-based energy carriers with the coincident maintenance of the increasing energy supply of our growing world population. Therefore, CO capturing and H storing solutions are urgently needed. In this study, we demonstrate the production of a functional and biotechnological interesting enzyme complex from acetogenic bacteria, the hydrogen-dependent CO reductase (HDCR), in the well-known model organism Escherichia coli. Read More

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Surgical Outcome of Treatment of Tracheobronchial Foreign Bodies in Children: A Retrospective Analysis.

West Afr J Med 2021 Jul;38(7):684-688

Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Background: Foreign body aspiration is an important cause of morbidity and potential mortality in children. The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration may be difficult in children as they are unable to give a history and the condition mimics a host of other childhood illnesses. In this study, we present our experience with foreign body aspiration in children. Read More

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GroEL protein from the potential biocontrol agent Rhodopseudomonas palustris enhances resistance to rice blast disease.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice and Institute of Plant Protection, Changsha, 410125, China.

Background: GroEL, which is a chaperone, plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis and, among other functions, serves to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation. In addition, the GroEL protein also has a significant effect on enhancing plant resistance and inhibiting plant diseases. However, the function of the GroEL protein in the inhibition of rice blast remains unknown. Read More

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Know your enemy or find your friend?-Induction of IgA at mucosal surfaces.

Immunol Rev 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Most antibodies produced in the body are of the IgA class. The dominant cell population producing them are plasma cells within the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, but many IgA-producing cells are also found in the airways, within mammary tissues, the urogenital tract and inside the bone marrow. Most IgA antibodies are transported into the lumen by epithelial cells as part of the mucosal secretions, but they are also present in serum and other body fluids. Read More

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Strategies for Multiplexed Biosensor Imaging to Study Intracellular Signaling Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2350:1-20

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Signal transduction processes are a necessary component of multicellular life, and their dysregulation is the basis for a host of syndromes and diseases. Thus, it is imperative that we discover the complex details of how signal transduction processes result in specific cellular outcomes. One of the primary mechanisms of regulation over signaling pathways is through spatiotemporal control. Read More

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January 2021

Characterization of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) infecting cormorants in south-eastern Australia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera, NSW, 2700, Australia.

Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) is a cosmopolitan, zoonotic genus of fluke that has been poorly studied in an Australian setting. Following previous reports of reservoir fish in Australian fish ponds being heavily infected with Clinostomum metacercaria, the current study was conducted to determine the specific identity of Clinostomum sp. in inland Australia, by examining and characterizing parasites collected from a potential definitive host, cormorants. Read More

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Demodex folliculorum (Trombidiformes: Demodicidae) and Demodex brevis Prevalence in an Extreme Environment of Chile.

J Med Entomol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Molecular Parasitology Unit, Medical Technology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Antofagasta, Avenida Universidad de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta, Chile.

The prevalence of mites of the genus Demodex and their associations with host age, gender, workplace, and comorbid skin and ocular conditions were studied in participants in Antofagasta, Chile, which is in a region with an extreme environment. We examined 680 participants aged 18-88 yr using standardized surface skin biopsies. Among them, Demodex had a prevalence of 13. Read More

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A synthetic nanobody targeting RBD protects hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4635. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

University of CAS, Beijing, China.

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, features a receptor-binding domain (RBD) for binding to the host cell ACE2 protein. Neutralizing antibodies that block RBD-ACE2 interaction are candidates for the development of targeted therapeutics. Llama-derived single-domain antibodies (nanobodies, ~15 kDa) offer advantages in bioavailability, amenability, and production and storage owing to their small sizes and high stability. Read More

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Microbiota-derived metabolites inhibit virulent subpopulation development by acting on single-cell behaviors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8092, Switzerland.

spp. express pathogenicity island 1 Type III Secretion System 1 (T3SS-1) genes to mediate the initial phase of interaction with their host. Prior studies indicate short-chain fatty acids, microbial metabolites at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, limit population-level T3SS-1 gene expression. Read More

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Morphogenesis and cell ordering in confined bacterial biofilms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511;

Biofilms are aggregates of bacterial cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. Much progress has been made in studying biofilm growth on solid substrates; however, little is known about the biophysical mechanisms underlying biofilm development in three-dimensional confined environments in which the biofilm-dwelling cells must push against and even damage the surrounding environment to proliferate. Here, combining single-cell imaging, mutagenesis, and rheological measurement, we reveal the key morphogenesis steps of biofilms embedded in hydrogels as they grow by four orders of magnitude from their initial size. Read More

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