18,942 results match your criteria horses clinical


Species variations in tenocytes' response to inflammation require careful selection of animal models for tendon research.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12451. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Companion Animals and Horses, Equine Surgery Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, VETERM, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

For research on tendon injury, many different animal models are utilized; however, the extent to which these species simulate the clinical condition and disease pathophysiology has not yet been critically evaluated. Considering the importance of inflammation in tendon disease, this study compared the cellular and molecular features of inflammation in tenocytes of humans and four common model species (mouse, rat, sheep, and horse). While mouse and rat tenocytes most closely equalled human tenocytes' low proliferation capacity and the negligible effect of inflammation on proliferation, the wound closure speed of humans was best approximated by rats and horses. Read More

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Differences in the genome, methylome, and transcriptome do not differentiate isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi from horses with acute clinical signs from isolates of inapparent carriers.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0252804. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (SEE) is a host-restricted bacterium that causes the common infectious upper respiratory disease known as strangles in horses. Perpetuation of SEE infection appears attributable to inapparent carrier horses because it neither persists long-term in the environment nor infects other host mammals or vectors, and infection results in short-lived immunity. Read More

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Equine "Idiopathic" and Infundibular Caries-Related Cheek Teeth Fractures: A Long-Term Study of 486 Fractured Teeth in 300 Horses.

Front Vet Sci 2021 28;8:646870. Epub 2021 May 28.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Limited objective information is available on the prevalence of non-traumatic equine cheek teeth fractures, the signalment of affected horses, and the clinical features and treatment of these fractures. This study aims to document patterns of idiopathic and infundibular caries-related cheek teeth fractures in a referral population and evaluate associations between fracture patterns and horse age, Triadan position of affected teeth, clinical signs, and deemed necessity for treatment. A retrospective case review. Read More

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Ophthalmic Emergencies in the Field.

Authors:
Ann E Dwyer

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Genesee Valley Equine Clinic, 925 Chili Scottsville Road, Scottsville, NY 14546, USA. Electronic address:

Ophthalmic problems account for up to 20% of emergencies in equine practice. Presenting problems may involve the periocular region, adnexa, or globe. Practitioners must have the experience to restrain horses with painful ocular conditions and the knowledge of how to perform a thorough eye examination. Read More

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Treatments for Endometritis in Mares Caused by Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus: A Structured Literature Review.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 24;102:103430. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agriculture University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Bacterial infections are the main causes of endometritis in mares. It is well known that the most common bacterial pathogen is Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ). This structured review was completed according to the PRISMA procedure to search endometritis treatment protocols published between 1990 and 2020 it was our intent to evaluate the actual effects of different treatment protocols for endometritis caused by SEZ. Read More

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Comparison of Four Different Allergy Tests in Equine Asthma Affected Horses and Allergen Inhalation Provocation Test.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 17;102:103433. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Free University of Berlin, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Equine Clinic, Surgery and Radiology, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Potential triggers for equine asthma are allergens from hay and straw dusts, mold spores and storage mites. The contribution of these environmental trigger factors to equine asthma is still largely uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare results of four allergy tests from healthy and asthma-affected horses, and to evaluate the clinical relevance of allergens tested positive via specific inhalation provocation test. Read More

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Gastric and Large Colon Impactions Combined With Aggressive Enteral Fluid Therapy May Predispose to Large Colon Volvulus: 4 Cases.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 18;102:103617. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Italy.

To resolve large colon impactions, frequent enteral administration of large volumes of water (8-10 liters in a 500 kg horse) has been suggested. Furthermore, in large colon volvulus, the simultaneous presence of gastric impaction has been described as a possible predisposing factor. To describe the clinical and surgical features of horses with large colon volvulus associated with aggressive enteral fluid therapy performed to resolve an initial large colon impaction. Read More

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Retrospective analysis of horses with ultrasound evaluation of the sacroiliac region and response to local corticosteroid injection: 42 cases.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 29;102:103634. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Gail Holmes Equine Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO; Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins, CO.

Local injection of corticosteroids is commonly performed in horses with sacroiliac (SI) region pain and/or dysfunction, ,and ultrasound findings of normal horses and those with SI pain have also been well described. However, no studies have been performed that have evaluated if ultrasound findings, injection technique, or medications injected affect prognosis for return to function. The objectives of the current study are to determine if findings on ultrasound, injection technique, or medications injected are predictive of return to function in horses with SI region pain and/or dysfunction. Read More

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Electrolytes and pH of Mammary Gland Secretions Assessments to Detect Impending Parturition and Associations With Placental and Neonate Features in Donkeys.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 28;102:103636. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign, Urbana IL. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the usefulness of serial assessment of mammary gland electrolytes concentrations and correspondent pH to detect impending parturition in jennies; and (ii2) the associations between mammary gland secretions, and gestation length, foal sex, maternal, placental, and foal birth weights. Multiparous jennies (n = 37) were monitored daily from 350 to 355 days of gestation until parturition. The pH of mammary gland secretions was assessed daily with a hand-held device. Read More

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Outcomes Following Transcorneal Diode Laser Ablation of Uveal Cysts: 48 Horses (2006-2020).

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 28;102:103640. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA. Electronic address:

Uveal cysts can lead to undesirable behaviors and poor performance in horses. Transcorneal laser ablation has been proposed as a safe and effective treatment for uveal cysts suspected of causing behavioral changes but outcomes have been reported in only a small number of horses. In this retrospective study, records were identified for horses who had undergone transcorneal cyst ablation using a diode laser. Read More

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Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein Functions as a Dual Regulator of Neutrophil Activity in Horses.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Jul 16;102:103620. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cooperative Major in Advanced Health Science, Graduate School of Bio-Applications and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; Laboratory of Comparative Animal Medicine, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein that has been identified in most mammals. We first identified whole genome sequence of equine HRG (eHRG) and succeeded to purify eHRG from plasma of horses. Since HRG interacts with various ligands, this protein is thought to be involved in immune response, coagulation, and angiogenesis. Read More

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Pathological findings in horses with lumbosacral region pain.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Centre for Equine Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, UK.

Background: There is a lack of understanding of the pathological and/or physiological nature of lumbosacral region pain.

Objectives: To describe the gross variations of the osseous and soft tissues of the lumbosacral region and report the histological findings of sections of nerve tissue in affected and control horses.

Study Design: Descriptive post-mortem case series. Read More

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Avian extremity reconstruction via osseointegrated leg-prosthesis for intuitive embodiment.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12360. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

For large avians such as vultures, limb loss leads to loss of ambulation and eventually death from malnutrition. Prosthetic devices may replace the limb, however, conventional prosthetic sockets are not feasible in feathered limbs and the extreme stress and strain of unreflected daily use in animals. Osseointegration is a novel technique, where external prosthetic parts are connected directly to a bone anchor to provide a solid skeletal-attachment. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Printed Training Model to Teach Ultrasound-Guided Injections of the Cervical Articular Process Joints in Horses.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 Jun 11:e20200137. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Intra-articular injections are routinely performed to alleviate pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in horses. Intra-articular injections require accurate needle placement to optimize clinical outcomes and minimize complications. This study's objectives were to develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) printed model of an equine cervical articular process joint to teach ultrasound-guided injections. Read More

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Comparison of equine synovial sepsis rate following intrasynovial injection in ambulatory versus hospital settings.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, USA.

Background: Frequency of synovial sepsis in horses following intrasynovial injection has been reported, but not compared with respect to environment in which the injection was performed.

Objectives: To describe occurrence of synovial sepsis following intrasynovial injections performed in ambulatory versus hospital settings.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Limited added value of negative pressure wound therapy compared to calcium alginate dressings for second intention healing in a non-contaminated and contaminated equine distal limb wound model.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: Distal limb wounds in horses often show aberrant healing due to a slow inflammatory response. In human medicine, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used for treatment of chronic wounds with a similar inflammatory response.

Objectives: To compare the effect of NPWT to calcium alginate dressings on the healing of (non-) contaminated equine distal limb wounds. Read More

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Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic profiling identifies aberrant gene and protein expression in the sarcomere, mitochondrial complex I, and the extracellular matrix in Warmblood horses with myofibrillar myopathy.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 11;22(1):438. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 784 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Myofibrillar myopathy in humans causes protein aggregation, degeneration, and weakness of skeletal muscle. In horses, myofibrillar myopathy is a late-onset disease of unknown origin characterized by poor performance, atrophy, myofibrillar disarray, and desmin aggregation in skeletal muscle. This study evaluated molecular and ultrastructural signatures of myofibrillar myopathy in Warmblood horses through gluteal muscle tandem-mass-tag quantitative proteomics (5 affected, 4 control), mRNA-sequencing (8 affected, 8 control), amalgamated gene ontology analyses, and immunofluorescent and electron microscopy. Read More

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Evaluation of the combined glucose-insulin and intravenous glucose tolerance tests for insulin dysregulation diagnosis in donkeys.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Cordoba, Campus Rabanales, Road Madrid-Cadiz km 396, 14104, Cordoba, Spain.

Background: Insulin dysregulation (ID) and donkey metabolic syndrome (DMS) are common in this species. Contrary to horses, diagnostic guidelines compiling insulin cut-offs values and dynamic testing interpretations have not been reported for this species.

Objectives: To evaluate resting serum insulin concentrations, the combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) and the glucose intravenous tolerance test (IVGTT) for the diagnosis of DMS with ID suspicion. Read More

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Computed tomographic guidance for internal fixation of type II distal phalangeal fractures in 51 horses.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Sciences, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Type II distal phalanx (P3) fractures are a well-described cause of lameness in horses. Reports on outcome following internal fixation of type II P3 fractures are lacking, and with little emphasis on complications.

Objective: To describe a technique for internal fixation of type II P3 fractures, and evaluate whether specific variables influenced postoperative complications or a horse's ability to return to work. Read More

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Associations of plasma sphingolipid profiles with insulin response during oral glucose testing in Icelandic horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Clinic for Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hanover, Germany.

Background: Sphingolipids modulate insulin sensitivity in mammals. Increased synthesis of ceramides is linked to decreased insulin sensitivity of tissues. Conversely, activation of the insulin signaling pathway can downregulate ceramide synthesis. Read More

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Challenges in the Management of an Echis coloratus Adult Snakebite Victim at a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 9;22:e931532. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND The World Health Organization has set clear guidelines for the management of snakebite envenomation. However, challenges have been reported in the clinical application of guidelines, such as identification of the biting snake, hypersensitivity reactions to the antivenom, and influence of repeated antivenom administration during hospital stay. This report aims to discuss how these challenges can affect patient management and to highlight improvement opportunities. Read More

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Equine Parvovirus Hepatitis.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

University Equine Clinic - Internal Medicine, Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H) was first described in 2018 in a fatal case of Theiler's disease which followed the administration of an equine-origin biological product. The virus has since been frequently identified in serum and liver tissue of horses affected by Theiler's disease - an acute, severe hepatitis characterised by fulminant hepatic necrosis with a fatal outcome in most cases. EqPV-H is hepatotropic, appears to be associated with subclinical to severe hepatitis in horses, and is a likely cause of Theiler's disease. Read More

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A randomised, controlled trial to determine the effect of levothyroxine on Standardbred racehorses.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, Indiana, 47907, USA.

Background: The use of thyroid supplement is pervasive in athletic horses although its effects on measures of performance are not known.

Objectives: One purpose of this study was to determine whether supra-physiologic doses of levothyroxine affect the velocities at which blood lactate was greater than 4 mmol/L (V ) and heart rate was over 150 (V ) and 200 (V ) beats per minute respectively. Additionally, a survey of post-race blood samples was also conducted to determine whether high thyroxine concentrations were common in racehorses. Read More

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Longitudinal tendon healing assessed with multi-modality advanced imaging and tissue analysis.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Orthopaedic Research Center at the C. Wayne McIlwraith Translational Medicine Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.

Background: The range of diagnostic modalities available to evaluate superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). Direct, comprehensive comparison of multi-modality imaging characteristics to end-point data has not previously been performed using a model of tendinopathy but is required to obtain a better understanding of each modality's diagnostic capabilities.

Objective: To compare CT, MRI, and US evaluation to outcome measures for histologic, biochemical and biomechanical parameters using an equine surgical model of tendinopathy. Read More

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Outcome analysis of 95 harness racehorses with confirmed dorsal displacement of the soft palate treated with laryngeal tie-forward surgery.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Companion Animal Clinical Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The laryngeal tie-forward (LTF) procedure is commonly used to treat intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (iDDSP). There is a wide range in reported efficacy of treating horses with and without a definitive diagnosis of iDDSP.

Objectives: To evaluate racing performance of harness racehorses in which iDDSP had been definitely diagnosed and treated solely with the LTF procedure. Read More

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An Oligosaccharide Rich Diet Increases spp. Bacteria in the Equine Microbiota.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:666039. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Some oligosaccharides induce growth of anti-inflammatory bacterial species and induce regulatory immunity in humans as well as animals. We have shown that the equine gut microbiota and the immune-microbial homeostasis largely stabilize within the first 50 days of life. Furthermore, we have previously established that certain bacterial species in the equine gut correlated with regulatory immunity. Read More

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The application of laboratory-based analytical tools and techniques for the quality assessment and improvement of commercial antivenoms used in the treatment of snakebite envenomation.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur, 784028, Assam, India.

Snakebite envenomation is a public health problem of high impact, particularly for the developing world. Antivenom, that contains whole or protease-digested immunoglobulin G, purified from the plasma of hyper-immunized animals (mainly horses), is the mainstay for the treatment of snakebite envenomation. The success of antivenom therapy depends upon its ability to abrogate or reduce the local and systemic toxicity of envenomation. Read More

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Rater agreement for assessment of equine back mobility at walk and trot compared to quantitative gait analysis.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252536. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Equine Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Lameness assessment in horses is still predominantly performed using subjective methods. Visual assessment is known to have moderate to good intra-rater agreement but relatively poor inter-rater agreement. Little is known about inter- and intra-rater agreement on the evaluation of back motion, for which no objective measurement technique in a clinical setting is available thus far. Read More

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New insights into preoperative insulin and fasting protocols for diabetic dogs.

Vet Rec 2021 06;188(11):426-428

Clinical Department for Small Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

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Prophylactic Efficacy of Equine Immunoglobulin F(ab') Fragments Against Feline Parvovirus.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, 530001, China.

Feline parvovirus (FPV), a type of parvovirus prevalent worldwide, can cause foetal death and acute enteritis in adult cats with severe leukopenia, and yet there are no effective drugs to prevent or treat FPV. Here, the immune effects of two FPV vaccines on horses were compared. IgG was extracted from FPV-immunized horse sera. Read More

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