378,866 results match your criteria hormone levels


Do Women Need Androgens Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle? A Review of the Literature and Clinical Guidelines.

Clin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

E Stewart Taylor Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine Department of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado.

Biopotent androgens such as testosterone circulate in low levels in women. However, androgen precursors, such as dehyroepiandrosterone, are among the most abundant hormones produced in both men and women. While testosterone exerts obvious phenotypic effects in men and is essential for male sexual function, considerable debate and controversy abounds over the role of androgens in women and whether androgens exert an analogous role in women as they do in men. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of maternal behavior, social isolation responses, and postpartum estrus by steroid hormones and vaginocervical stimulation in sheep.

Horm Behav 2021 Sep 21;136:105061. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Animal, CINVESTAV-Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Mexico.

Periparturient ewes display several activities in addition to maternal behavior per se. They isolate themselves from the flock and, contrary to other mammals, do not show postpartum estrus. We investigated the possibility of a common hormonal control of maternal behavior, prepartum social isolation responses, and absence of postpartum estrus. Read More

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September 2021

The Influence of Estradiol and Progesterone on Neurocognition During Three Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Modulating Factors.

Authors:
A Bernal D Paolieri

Behav Brain Res 2021 Sep 21:113593. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Granada (Spain); Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC).

Estradiol is an ovarian steroid hormone that peaks shortly before ovulation and significantly affects various brain regions and neurotransmitter systems, with similar and differential effects with progesterone, another ovarian hormone. Studies investigating the neurocognitive processes during the menstrual cycle have focused on the early follicular phase (EFP) characterized by low estradiol and progesterone levels and the mid-luteal phase (MLP) with high estradiol and progesterone levels. However, most studies have failed to include the ovulatory phase, characterized by high estradiol and low progesterone levels. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic performance of the calcium/phosphate ratio for primary hyperparathyroidism in southwest China.

Endocr Connect 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

G Li, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains a challenge because of increased asymptomatic PHPT or patients with normocalcaemic PHPT (NPHPT). In addition, some primary hospitals in China have no equipment to measure PTH levels. Therefore, an additional, simple, and inexpensive laboratory biochemical marker is urgently needed. Read More

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September 2021

Tissue-Specific Regulation of Ferroportin in Wild-Type and Hjv-/- Mice Following Dietary Iron Manipulations.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Hepcidin is a liver-derived peptide hormone that limits iron egress from tissues to the bloodstream. It operates by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin, which blocks iron transport and tags ferroportin for degradation. Genetic hepcidin inactivation leads to hereditary hemochromatosis, a disease of iron overload. Read More

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The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Sep 24:e23684. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

Objectives: The 2D:4D ratio is influenced by prenatal testosterone (PT) and estrogen (PE) exposure in utero. This study sought to determine whether evidence of Manning's hypothesis can still be observed even in the postpartum period. We hypothesize that the offspring 2D:4D ratios will be inversely correlated with maternal postpartum circulating testosterone but positively correlated with estradiol. Read More

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September 2021

The FSHR G-29A variant is not associated with the ovarian response to exogenous FSH stimulation.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technologies), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

A common genetic variant in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR) 5`-untranslated region has been previously reported to influence FSHR gene expression. However, studies on the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of variants at positions -29 of the FSHR gene with the ovarian response to exogenous FSH stimulation in Chinese women. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical Applications of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Measurements in Both Males and Females: An Update.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Feb 9;2(1):100091. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, P.R. China.

Infertility is one of the most common non-communicable diseases, affecting both men and women equally. Ovarian reserve, the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries is believed to be the most important determinants for female fertility. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secreted from granulosa cells of growing follicles is recognized as the most important biomarker for ovarian reserve. Read More

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February 2021

Reinterpreting patterns of variation in human thyroid function: An evolutionary ecology perspective.

Evol Med Public Health 2021 10;9(1):93-112. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

School of Anthropology & Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Two hundred million people worldwide experience some form of thyroid disorder, with women being especially at risk. However, why human thyroid function varies between populations, individuals, and across the lifespan has attracted little research to date. This limits our ability to evaluate the conditions under which patterns of variation in thyroid function are best understood as 'normal' or 'pathological'. Read More

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November 2020

Transcriptome and Oxylipin Profiling Joint Analysis Reveals Opposite Roles of 9-Oxylipins and Jasmonic Acid in Maize Resistance to Gibberella Stalk Rot.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:699146. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Gibberella stalk rot caused by is one of the devastating diseases of maize that causes significant yield losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms regulating defense against this pathogen remain poorly understood. According to recent studies, a major oxylipin hormone produced by 13-lipoxygenases (LOX) namely jasmonic acid (JA) has been associated with maize susceptibility to GSR. Read More

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September 2021

Levothyroxine Sodium Oral Solution Normalizes Thyroid Function in a Patient with Hashimoto's Disease, Gastritis, Diabetic Gastroparesis, and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 16;14:627-632. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Charleston Thyroid Center, Mount Pleasant, SC, USA.

Background: Levothyroxine (L-T4) is used as a standard-of-care treatment in patients with hypothyroidism. L-T4 is absorbed throughout the small intestine, and consistent drug absorption is required for successful treatment. Patients with Hashimoto's disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) often have food and medication sensitivities, as well as comorbid gastrointestinal (GI) disorders detrimental to L-T4 absorption. Read More

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September 2021

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Obese Patients Post Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 16;14:4059-4066. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Surgery, Colorectal Research Chair, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Bariatric surgery provides an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. Several studies have investigated the association between bariatric surgery and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). This study aims to compare the levels of blood biomarkers, specifically, calcium (Ca), vitamin D, and phosphate (PO4), and their association with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels pre- and post-bariatric surgery. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic Utility of Mean Peak Systolic Velocity of Superior Thyroid Artery in Differentiating Graves' Disease from Thyroiditis.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Apr 27;31(2):311-317. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Srirama Chandra Bhanja Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Differentiating Graves' disease from thyroiditis can be at times clinically challenging. The gold standard test (thyroid nuclear imaging scan) is expensive, not routinely available, and has radiation exposure. Color Doppler ultrasonography of thyroid represents a suitable alternate which can be used for differentiating these conditions by studying thyroid blood flow parameters. Read More

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Serum metabolomic biomarkers of perceptual speed in cognitively normal and mildly impaired subjects with fasting state stratification.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18964. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

West Coast Metabolomics Center, Genome Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Cognitive decline is associated with both normal aging and early pathologies leading to dementia. Here we used quantitative profiling of metabolites involved in the regulation of inflammation, vascular function, neuronal function and energy metabolism, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, bile acids, and steroid hormones to identify metabolic biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Serum samples (n = 212) were obtained from subjects with or without MCI opportunistically collected with incomplete fasting state information. Read More

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September 2021

Growth hormone promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis by enhancing BTG2-YY1 signaling pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18999. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Research Institute of Aging and Metabolism, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

Growth hormone (GH) is one of the critical factors in maintaining glucose metabolism. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) and yin yang 1 (YY1) are key regulators of diverse metabolic processes. In this study, we investigated the link between GH and BTG2-YY1 signaling pathway in glucose metabolism. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical outcomes of 34 patients with resistance to thyroid hormone beta: a twenty-year experience in Japan.

Endocr J 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan.

Resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ) caused by germline mutations in genes encoding thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ) is a rare disorder. Little information is available regarding the clinical experience of this syndrome in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 34 patients with RTHβ (21 adult females and 13 adult males) with positive TRβ mutations identified at our division between 2000 and 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluating the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin on pain and function among individuals who experience chronic pain: a protocol for a multisite, placebo-controlled, blinded, sequential, within-subjects crossover trial.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 23;11(9):e055039. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Introduction: Current treatments for chronic pain (eg, opioids) can have adverse side effects and rarely result in resolution of pain. As such, there is a need for adjuvant analgesics that are non-addictive, have few adverse side effects and are effective for pain management across several chronic pain conditions. Oxytocin is a naturally occurring hormone that has gained attention for its potential analgesic properties. Read More

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September 2021

Soluble Klotho and Incident Hypertension.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas

Background And Objectives: Hypertension is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite effective antihypertensive therapies. Soluble klotho is a circulating protein that in preclinical studies is protective against the development of hypertension. There are limited studies of klotho and blood pressure in humans. Read More

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September 2021

Endocrine Therapy With or Without CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Women With Hormone-receptor Positive Breast Cancer: What do we Know About the Effects on Cognition?

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) is the cornerstone of treatment for hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. Recently, ET is increasingly combined with "cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6'' (CDK4/6) inhibitors. Given the importance of estrogens in neural processes and the role of cyclin D in hippocampal cell proliferation, it is plausible that these therapies affect cognition, but studies on these potential cognitive effects are sparse. Read More

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Concomitant familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and single parathyroid adenoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Sep 24;15(1):471. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Endocrinology & Diabetes and Bone-metabolic Research Unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder and the most frequent benign cause of hypercalcemia. PHPT is characterized by autonomous hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), regardless of serum calcium levels. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a rare, benign syndrome only affecting the regulation of calcium metabolism. Read More

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September 2021

Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the assessment of bone mineral density in anti-TNF-treated rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 23;22(1):817. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei str. 98, Debrecen, 4032, Hungary.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are associated with osteoporosis. There have not been many peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) studies in patients receiving biologics. We assessed volumetric and areal bone mineral density (BMD) by forearm QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively in addition to laboratory biomarkers in these arthritides. Read More

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September 2021

[Menopausal Hormone Therapy in women with other underlying diseases: how to proceed?]

Ther Umsch 2021 ;78(8):483-485

Universität Bern.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy in women with other underlying diseases: how to proceed? Postmenopausal women frequently suffer, in addition to classical climacteric symptoms, from other diseases. Therefore, it is important to know when, in which form, and with which dosage menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may be prescribed with regard to the underlying chronic disease. All women's health specialists have to know when MHT is contraindicated. Read More

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January 2021

Quantitative proteomics of plasma and liver reveals the mechanism of turmeric in preventing hyperlipidemia in mice.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Tongji School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Hyperlipidemia is manifested by abnormal levels of circulating lipids and may lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Studies have demonstrated that turmeric supplemented in food can effectively prevent hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study is to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary chromium modulates glucose homeostasis and induces oxidative stress in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Sep 14;240:105967. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Fish and Shellfish Nutrition, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. Electronic address:

While chromium (Cr) has been recognized as an essential nutrient for all animals, and dietary supplementation can be beneficial, it can also be toxic. The present study aimed to investigate the contrasting effects of dietary chromium in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain Cr at levels of 0. Read More

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September 2021

In utero exposure to mixed PAHs causes heart mass reduction in adult male mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 21;225:112804. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiac diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of prenatal exposure to a mixed PAHs on heart and the underlying mechanism. Pregnant mice were orally administered with a mixture of 8 kinds of PAHs (0, 5, 50, 500 μg/kg body weight) once every 2 days for a total of 8 dosages. Read More

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September 2021

Sexually dimorphic expression of sexual differentiation genes in the internal genital organs of Japanese quail embryos.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Sep 20:113917. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Research Office for Environmental Risk Science, Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan.

Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is an avian model used to evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of chemicals. The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan established a strain of Japanese quail, NIES-L, which may be a better model because of its highly inbred characteristics. To understand sexual differentiation of the reproductive organs and the value of using NIES-L quails for avian toxicity assessment, we profiled estradiol and androgen plasma levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; the mRNA levels of estrogen receptor-α (ERα), ERβ, and androgen receptor (AR) in the gonads, Müllerian ducts, Wolffian ducts; and the mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450), 17α-hydroxylase/C lyase (P450), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and aromatase (P450), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2) in the gonads of NIES-L Japanese quails on embryonic days 9, 12, and 15 using a real-time quantitative PCR method. Read More

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September 2021

Neurosteroids and steroid hormones are allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Sep 20:108798. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Physiology Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The membrane cholesterol was found to bind and modulate the function of several G-protein coupled receptors including muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. We investigated the binding of 20 steroidal compounds including neurosteroids and steroid hormones to muscarinic receptors. Corticosterone, progesterone and some neurosteroids bound to muscarinic receptors with the affinity of 100 nM or greater. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of sex and gonadectomy on brain MPTP toxicity and response to dutasteride treatment in mice.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Sep 20:108784. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, Axe Neurosciences, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, (Québec), G1V4G2, Canada; Faculté de Pharmacie, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, avenue de la Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, (Québec) G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address:

The maisn neuropathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is degeneration of dopamine neurons (DA) in the substantia nigra (SN); PD prevalence is higher in men, suggesting a role of sex hormones in neuroprotection. This study sought the effects of sex hormones in the brain in a mouse model of PD and modulation of steroid metabolism/synthesis with the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride shown to protect MPTP male mice. Male and female mice were gonadectomized (GDX) or SHAM operated. Read More

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September 2021

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated OsMIR168a knockout reveals its pleiotropy in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Center for Informational Biology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

MicroRNA168 (MIR168) is a key miRNA that targets the main RNA-induced silencing complex component Argonaute 1 (AGO1) to regulate plant growth and environmental stress responses. However, the regulatory functions of MIR168 need to be further elucidated in rice. In this paper, we generated clean OsMIR168a deletion mutants by CRISPR-Cas9 strategy. Read More

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September 2021

Intranasal application of PACAP and β-cyclodextrin before the "critical period of proestrous stage" can block ovulation.

Biol Futur 2019 Jan 16;70(1):62-70. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Tuzolto u. 58., H-1094, Budapest, Hungary.

Introduction: It was previously shown that intracerebroventricular administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) prior to GnRH mobilization in proestrus prevents ovulation in rats. In this study, we examined whether PACAP given intranasally could influence luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) surges and ovulation.

Methods: On the day of proestrus PACAP, p-cyclodextrin (modifier of blood-brain barrier) or PACAP + p-cyclodextrin was applied intranasally between 12:30 and 13:00. Read More

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January 2019