22,122 results match your criteria homologs

Interkingdom Signaling Interference: The Effect of Plant-Derived Small Molecules on Quorum Sensing in Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Israel 7528809; email:

In the battle between bacteria and plants, bacteria often use a population density-dependent regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate virulence gene expression. In response, plants use innate and induced defense mechanisms that include low-molecular-weight compounds, some of which serve as antivirulence agents by interfering with the QS machinery. The best-characterized QS system is driven by the autoinducer -acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which is produced by AHL synthases (LuxI homologs) and perceived by response regulators (LuxR homologs). Read More

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An Arabidopsis AT-hook motif nuclear protein mediates somatic embryogenesis and coinciding genome duplication.

Nat Commun 2021 May 4;12(1):2508. Epub 2021 May 4.

Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Plant somatic cells can be reprogrammed into totipotent embryonic cells that are able to form differentiated embryos in a process called somatic embryogenesis (SE), by hormone treatment or through overexpression of certain transcription factor genes, such as BABY BOOM (BBM). Here we show that overexpression of the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED 15 (AHL15) gene induces formation of somatic embryos on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the absence of hormone treatment. During zygotic embryogenesis, AHL15 expression starts early in embryo development, and AH15 and other AHL genes are required for proper embryo patterning and development beyond the globular stage. Read More

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Viral Evolution Identifies a Critical Residue in the Alphaherpesvirus Fusion Glycoprotein B Ectodomain That Controls gH/gL-Independent Entry.

mBio 2021 May 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany

Herpesvirus entry and spread requires fusion of viral and host cell membranes, which is mediated by the conserved surface glycoprotein B (gB). Upon activation, gB undergoes a major conformational change and transits from a metastable prefusion to a stable postfusion conformation. Although gB is a structural homolog of low-pH-triggered class III fusogens, its fusion activity depends strictly on the presence of the conserved regulatory gH/gL complex and nonconserved receptor binding proteins, which ensure that fusion occurs at the right time and space. Read More

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Characterization of putative tachykinin peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 1;559:197-202. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division for Identification and Analysis of Bioactive Peptides, Department of Bioactive Peptides, Frontier Science Research, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan. Electronic address:

Tachykinin-like peptides, such as substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B, are among the earliest discovered and best-studied neuropeptide families, and research on them has contributed greatly to our understanding of the endocrine control of many physiological processes. However, there are still many orphan tachykinin receptor homologs for which cognate ligands have not yet been identified, especially in small invertebrates, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope cross-react with selective seasonal coronaviruses.

Immunity 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia. Electronic address:

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7 COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. Read More

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EARLY RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 7 Localizes to Lipid Droplets via Its Senescence Domain.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:658961. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Lipid droplets (LDs) are neutral-lipid-containing organelles found in all kingdoms of life and are coated with proteins that carry out a vast array of functions. Compared to mammals and yeast, relatively few LD proteins have been identified in plants, particularly those associated with LDs in vegetative (non-seed) cell types. Thus, to better understand the cellular roles of LDs in plants, a more comprehensive inventory and characterization of LD proteins is required. Read More

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Creation of aromatic maize by CRISPR/Cas.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

College of life sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.

Aroma is an important quality parameter for breeding in rice (Oryza sativa). For example, the aromatic rice varieties basmati and jasmine rice, with a popcorn-like scent, are popular worldwide and routinely command a price premium. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a key flavor compound among over 200 volatiles identified in fragrant rice. Read More

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Predictable fold switching by the SARS-CoV-2 protein ORF9b.

Lauren L Porter

Protein Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Extant fold-switching proteins remodel their secondary structures and change their functions in response to environmental stimuli. These shapeshifting proteins regulate biological processes and are associated with a number of diseases, including tuberculosis, cancer, Alzheimer's, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, predictive methods are needed to identify more fold-switching proteins, especially since all naturally occurring instances have been discovered by chance. Read More

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Analysis of allelic variants of RhMLO genes in rose and functional studies on susceptibility to powdery mildew related to clade V homologs.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Key Message: Rose has 19 MLO genes. Of these, RhMLO1 and RhMLO2 were shown to be required for powdery mildew infection, which suggests their potential as susceptibility targets towards disease resistance. Powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera pannosa, is one of the most serious and widespread fungal diseases for roses, especially in greenhouse-grown cut roses. Read More

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Eur J Med Genet 2021 Apr 29:104215. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

, Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Deparment of Neonatology, Eskişehir/Turkey.

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a serious life-threatening birth defect characterized by abnormal development in the muscular or tendinous portion of the diaphragm during embryogenesis. Despite its high incidence, the etiology of CDH hasn't been fully understood. Genetic factors are important in pathogenesis; however, few single genes have been definitively implicated in human CDH. Read More

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Catalysis-dependent and redundant roles of Dma1 and Dma2 in maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 29:100721. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are among the deleterious lesions that are both endogenous and exogenous in origin, and are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for maintaining genome stability remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the role of two E3 ligases, Dma1 and Dma2 (homologs of human RNF8) in the maintenance of genome stability in budding yeast. Read More

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Changes in cell wall structure during rhizoid formation of Silvetia babingtonii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) zygotes.

J Phycol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Muroran Marine Station, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Muroran, 051-0013, Japan.

We examined the ultrastructure of the cell wall and immunolocalization of alginates using specific antibodies against M-rich alginates and MG blocks during rhizoid formation in fucoid zygotes, Silvetia babingtonii. The thallus region of 24-h old zygotes had a cell wall made of three layers with different fiber distribution. In the 12-h old zygotes, three layers in the thallus were observed before rhizoid formation, namely the inner, middle and outer layers. Read More

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A New Pathway for Forming Acetate and Synthesizing ATP during Fermentation in Bacteria.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Many bacteria and other organisms carry out fermentations forming acetate. These fermentations have broad importance to foods, agriculture, and industry. They also are important to bacteria themselves because they often generate ATP. Read More

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Characterization of a glycolipid glycosyltransferase with broad substrate specificity from the marine bacterium Pelagibacter sp. HTCC7211.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL United Kingdom

In the marine environment, phosphorus availability significantly affects the lipid composition in many cosmopolitan marine heterotrophic bacteria, including members of the SAR11 clade and the Roseobacter clade. Under phosphorus stress conditions, non-phosphorus sugar-containing glycoglycerolipids are substitutes for phospholipids in these bacteria. Although these glycoglycerolipids play an important role as surrogates for phospholipids under phosphate deprivation, glycoglycerolipid synthases in marine microbes are poorly studied. Read More

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Paradigm shift: the primary function of the "Adiponectin Receptors" is to regulate cell membrane composition.

Marc Pilon

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Apr 30;20(1):43. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dept. Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Univ. Gothenburg, Box 462, S-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 proteins (ADIPORs) are generally considered as adiponectin receptors with anti-diabetic properties. However, studies on the yeast and C. elegans homologs of the mammalian ADIPORs, and of the ADIPORs themselves in various mammalian cell models, support an updated/different view. Read More

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The Ion-Translocating NrfD-Like Subunit of Energy-Transducing Membrane Complexes.

Front Chem 2021 13;9:663706. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica-António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.

Several energy-transducing microbial enzymes have their peripheral subunits connected to the membrane through an integral membrane protein, that interacts with quinones but does not have redox cofactors, the so-called NrfD-like subunit. The periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfABCD) was the first complex recognized to have a membrane subunit with these characteristics and consequently provided the family's name: NrfD. Sequence analyses indicate that NrfD homologs are present in many diverse enzymes, such as polysulfide reductase (PsrABC), respiratory alternative complex III (ACIII), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase (DmsABC), tetrathionate reductase (TtrABC), sulfur reductase complex (SreABC), sulfite dehydrogenase (SoeABC), quinone reductase complex (QrcABCD), nine-heme cytochrome complex (NhcABCD), group-2 [NiFe] hydrogenase (Hyd-2), dissimilatory sulfite-reductase complex (DsrMKJOP), arsenate reductase (ArrC) and multiheme cytochrome sulfite reductase (MccACD). Read More

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Systemic Expression, Purification, and Initial Structural Characterization of Bacteriophage T4 Proteins Without Known Structure Homologs.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:674415. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

BioBank, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Bacteriophage T4 of is one of the most studied phages. Research into it has led to numerous contributions to phage biology and biochemistry. Coding about 300 gene products, this double-stranded DNA virus is the best-understood model in phage study and modern genomics and proteomics. Read More

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Nitrogen Signaling Genes and Determine the Flowering Time in a Reciprocal Negative Feedback Loop in Chinese Cabbage ( L.) Based on CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis of Multiple Homologs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Plant Systems Engineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Precise flowering timing is critical for the plant life cycle. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms and regulatory network associated with flowering in Chinese cabbage ( L.) by comparative transcriptome profiling of two Chinese cabbage inbred lines, "4004" (early bolting) and "50" (late bolting). Read More

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Ascorbate Peroxidase Neofunctionalization at the Origin of APX-R and APX-L: Evidence from Basal Archaeplastida.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centro de Biotecnologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-900, Brazil.

Ascorbate peroxidases (APX) are class I members of the Peroxidase-Catalase superfamily, a large group of evolutionarily related but rather divergent enzymes. Through mining in public databases, unusual subsets of APX homologs were identified, disclosing the existence of two yet uncharacterized families of peroxidases named ascorbate peroxidase-related (APX-R) and ascorbate peroxidase-like (APX-L). As APX, APX-R harbor all catalytic residues required for peroxidatic activity. Read More

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Coordinated and Independent Roles for MLH Subunits in DNA Repair.

Cells 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-2703, USA.

The MutL family of DNA mismatch repair proteins (MMR) acts to maintain genomic integrity in somatic and meiotic cells. In baker's yeast, the MutL homolog (MLH) MMR proteins form three heterodimeric complexes, MLH1-PMS1, MLH1-MLH2, and MLH1-MLH3. The recent discovery of human PMS2 (homolog of baker's yeast PMS1) and MLH3 acting independently of human MLH1 in the repair of somatic double-strand breaks questions the assumption that MLH1 is an obligate subunit for MLH function. Read More

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The Role of Knockout Olfactory Receptor Genes in Odor Discrimination.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health-IRCCS, Burlo Garofolo, 34127 Trieste, Italy.

To date, little is known about the role of olfactory receptor (OR) genes on smell performance. Thanks to the availability of whole-genome sequencing data of 802 samples, we identified 41 knockout (KO) OR genes (i.e. Read More

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Spectral Features of Canthaxanthin in HCP2. A QM/MM Approach.

Molecules 2021 Apr 22;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060, USA.

The increased interest in sequencing cyanobacterial genomes has allowed the identification of new homologs to both the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP). The N-terminal domain homologs are known as Helical Carotenoid Proteins (HCPs). Although some of these paralogs have been reported to act as singlet oxygen quenchers, their distinct functional roles remain unclear. Read More

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Common Principles and Specific Mechanisms of Mitophagy from Yeast to Humans.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells essential to a variety of cellular functions including energy conversion and ATP production, iron-sulfur biogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism, and regulating apoptosis and stress responses. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mechanistically linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing. Excessive and dysfunctional/damaged mitochondria are degraded by selective autophagic pathways known as mitophagy. Read More

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High Biofilm Formation of Non-Smooth Correlates with Increased Incorporation of GPI-Modified Wall Adhesins.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 19;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Albacete Regional Center for Biomedical Research, Castilla-La Mancha Science & Technology Park, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02008 Albacete, Spain.

is among the most frequent causes of candidiasis. Clinical isolates of this species show large variations in colony morphotype, ranging from round and smooth to a variety of non-smooth irregular colony shapes. A non-smooth appearance is related to increased formation of pseudohyphae, higher capacity to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces, and invading agar. Read More

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Contribution of Yeast Studies to the Understanding of BCL-2 Family Intracellular Trafficking.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institut de Biochimie et de Génétique Cellulaires, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5095, 1 Rue Camille Saint-Saëns, 33077 Bordeaux, France.

BCL-2 family members are major regulators of apoptotic cell death in mammals. They form an intricate regulatory network that ultimately regulates the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria to the cytosol. The ectopic expression of mammalian BCL-2 family members in the yeast which lacks BCL-2 homologs, has been long established as a useful addition to the available models to study their function and regulation. Read More

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Tribbles Pseudokinase 3 Regulation and Contribution to Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Inserm, UMR981, F-94805 Villejuif, France.

The first Tribbles protein was identified as critical for the coordination of morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Three mammalian homologs were subsequently identified, with a structure similar to classic serine/threonine kinases, but lacking crucial amino acids for the catalytic activity. Thereby, the very weak ATP affinity classifies TRIB proteins as pseudokinases. Read More

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Improvement of Genome Annotation: Towards the Exploitation of Genomic Features of a Biotechnologically Relevant Yeast.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;7(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

CBMA (Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology), Department of Biology, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

is the most commonly used yeast in wine, beer, and bread fermentations. However, has attracted interest in recent years due to its properties, ranging from its ability to produce flavor- and aroma-enhanced wine to its ability to survive longer in frozen dough. In this work, publicly available genomes of were explored and their annotation was improved. Read More

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The Evolution of Molybdenum Dependent Nitrogenase in Cyanobacteria.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Bioresource Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.

Nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by helping to convert nitrogen into a form usable by other organisms. Bacteria capable of fixing nitrogen are found in six phyla including Cyanobacteria. Molybdenum dependent nitrogenase () genes are thought to share a single origin as they have homologs in various phyla. Read More

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Synthesis, Mesomorphic and Computational Characterizations of Nematogenic Schiff Base Derivatives in Pure and Mixed State.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Chemistry Department, College of Sciences, Yanbu, Taibah University, Yanbu 30799, Saudi Arabia.

Homolog series based on three aromatic rings bearing terminal alkoxy chain of various lengths named 4-(4-(alkoxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenyl nicotinate () were synthesized. The alkoxy-chain length changed between 6, 8 and 16 carbons. Mesomorphic and optical properties were carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). Read More

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Quantitative Control of Early Flowering in White Lupin ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Gene Structure and Function, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 60-479 Poznań, Poland.

White lupin ( L.) is a pulse annual plant cultivated from the tropics to temperate regions for its high-protein grain as well as a cover crop or green manure. Wild populations are typically late flowering and have high vernalization requirements. Read More

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