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Screening Balanites aegyptiaca for inhibitors against putative drug targets in Microsporum gypseum - Subtractive proteome, docking and simulation approach.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 4;90:104755. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Biochematics Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore., India. Electronic address:

Microsporum gypseum is a keratinophilic fungi grouped under dermatophytes infecting skin, hair and nail portions in human and animals causing tinea corporis, tinea facei and tinea capitis. As both human and fungi are eukaryotes, the available drugs for treating dermatophytes produce some side effects due to drug interaction with human also. Apart from this, the gut microbiota has a very big role in the health of human which should not be affected by the drugs. Read More

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Conserved patterns and interactions in the unfolding transition state across SH3 domain structural homologues.

Protein Sci 2021 Feb 26;30(2):391-407. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Proteins with similar structures are generally assumed to arise from similar sequences. However, there are more cases than not where this is not true. The dogma is that sequence determines structure; how, then, can very different sequences fold to the same structure? Here, we employ high temperature unfolding simulations to probe the pathways and specific interactions that direct the folding and unfolding of the SH3 domain. Read More

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February 2021

Chromosome-autonomous feedback down-regulates meiotic DNA break competence upon synaptonemal complex formation.

Genes Dev 2020 Dec 12;34(23-24):1605-1618. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

The number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiating meiotic recombination is elevated in mutants that are globally defective in forming crossovers and synaptonemal complex (SC), a protein scaffold juxtaposing homologous chromosomes. These mutants thus appear to lack a negative feedback loop that inhibits DSB formation when homologs engage one another. This feedback is predicted to be chromosome autonomous, but this has not been tested. Read More

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December 2020

Alternative conformation of the C-domain of the P140 protein from Mycoplasma genitalium.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2020 Nov 8;76(Pt 11):508-516. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Structural Biology, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC), Parc Científic de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium is responsible for urethritis in men, and for cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. The adherence of M. genitalium to host target epithelial cells is mediated through an adhesion complex called Nap, which is essential for infectivity. Read More

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November 2020

Epidemiological and molecular identification of diagnosed in cattle during outbreaks in central Brazil.

Parasitology 2020 10 22;147(12):1313-1319. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Centro de Parasitologia Veterinária, Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Bovine trypanosomosis has been spreading in Brazil. In the present study, we evaluated the spatial distribution, prevalence and risk factors of this disease in the state of Goiás, Brazil, and performed both molecular and phylogenetical analyses of Trypanosoma vivax. A total of 4049 blood samples were collected from cattle for a period of 2 years. Read More

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October 2020

Flower morphology is correlated with distribution and phylogeny in Bertolonia (Melastomataceae), an herbaceous genus endemic to the Atlantic Forest.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2020 08 20;149:106844. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Botânica, Centro Politécnico, Postal Box 19031, Curitiba, Paraná 81531-970, Brazil.

Several centers of endemism have been proposed for Melastomataceae, particularly in Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. Despite the high degree of human-caused degradation in the last 500 years, the Atlantic Forest still presents some of the largest levels of diversity and endemism across all angiosperms. With several recently described species in the last decade, the knowledge on Bertolonia's distribution and morphological characterization has changed, with most new species found in northern Atlantic Forest and with different flower color patterns than the species from southern Atlantic Forest. Read More

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Human Lateral Frontal Pole Contributes to Control over Emotional Approach-Avoidance Actions.

J Neurosci 2020 04 7;40(14):2925-2934. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Regulation of emotional behavior is essential for human social interactions. Recent work has exposed its cognitive complexity, as well as its unexpected reliance on portions of the anterior PFC (aPFC) also involved in exploration, relational reasoning, and counterfactual choice, rather than on dorsolateral and medial prefrontal areas involved in several forms of cognitive control. This study anatomically qualifies the contribution of aPFC territories to the regulation of prepotent approach-avoidance action tendencies elicited by emotional faces, and explores a possible structural pathway through which this emotional action regulation might be implemented. Read More

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Critical evaluation of a possible role of HLA epitope matching in kidney transplantation.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2020 04 17;34(2):100533. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Institute of Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is one of the cornerstones of organ allocation in deceased-donor kidney transplantation. Increased numbers of HLA allele mismatches are associated with a higher risk of immunological rejection, de novo donor-specific HLA antibody development and graft failure. HLA epitopes are defined as the specific portions of HLA molecules to which antibodies and T-cell receptors bind with their paratopes. Read More

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Pre-Exposure to Nicotine with Nocturnal Abstinence Induces Epigenetic Changes that Potentiate Nicotine Preference.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Apr 17;57(4):1828-1846. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Physiology and Institute of Physiology and Biophysics (IFIBIO, UBA-CONICET), School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155 7th floor (C1121ABG), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Prior exposure to drugs of abuse may facilitate addiction. It has been described that pre-exposure to nicotine can increase or, contrarily, prevent conditioned place preference (CPP). Here, we evaluated the effect of nicotine pre-exposure on CPP performance using an original protocol mimicking smokers' behaviour in zebrafish. Read More

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Savannah roars: The vocal anatomy and the impressive rutting calls of male impala (Aepyceros melampus) - highlighting the acoustic correlates of a mobile larynx.

J Anat 2020 03 28;236(3):398-424. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Hannover Zoo, Hannover, Germany.

A retractable larynx and adaptations of the vocal folds in the males of several polygynous ruminants serve for the production of rutting calls that acoustically announce larger than actual body size to both rival males and potential female mates. Here, such features of the vocal tract and of the sound source are documented in another species. We investigated the vocal anatomy and laryngeal mobility including its acoustical effects during the rutting vocal display of free-ranging male impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) in Namibia. Read More

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Antigenic Variation in Occurs Independently of RecQ-Mediated Unwinding of the G Quadruplex.

J Bacteriol 2020 01 15;202(3). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

The obligate human pathogen alters its cell surface antigens to evade the immune system in a process known as antigenic variation (AV). During pilin AV, portions of the expressed pilin gene () are replaced with segments of silent pilin genes () through homologous recombination. The exchange is initiated by formation of a parallel guanine quadruplex (G4) structure near the gene, which recruits the homologous recombination machinery. Read More

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January 2020

Equipping Durum Wheat- Recombinant Lines With a Major QTL for Resistance to Fusarium Diseases Through a Cytogenetic Strategy.

Front Plant Sci 2019 22;10:1324. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.

Prompted by recent changes in climate trends, cropping areas, and management practices, head blight (FHB), a threatening disease of cereals worldwide, is also spreading in unusual environments, where bread wheat (BW) and durum wheat (DW) are largely cultivated. The scarcity of efficient resistance sources within adapted germplasm is particularly alarming for DW, mainly utilized for human consumption, which is therefore at high risk of kernel contamination by health-dangerous mycotoxins (e.g. Read More

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October 2019

Kinetics and Phenotype of the CD4 T Cell Response to Influenza Virus Infections.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:2351. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Interdisciplinary Immunology Graduate Program, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections, with increased risk of severe illness and death in the very young, aged, and immunocompromised individuals. In both mice and humans, IAV-specific T cell responses are protective during primary as well as homologous and heterologous challenge infections. Many mouse studies have focused on CD4 T cells specific for a single, known model or IAV antigen. Read More

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October 2020

Biomechanical and Histopathological Analysis of a Retrieved Dermal Allograft After Superior Capsule Reconstruction: A Case Report.

Arthroscopy 2019 10;35(10):2959-2965

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado; Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate biomechanical and histopathological results of a retrieved acellular human dermal allograft (AHDA) after superior capsule reconstruction (SCR). A 67-year-old man with pseudoparalysis was treated with SCR for an irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tear. The patient failed clinically 4. Read More

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October 2019

Genomic Sequence Analysis of the Multidrug-Resistance Region of Avian serovar Indiana Strain MHYL.

Microorganisms 2019 Aug 9;7(8). Epub 2019 Aug 9.

National Demonstration Center for Animal Experimental Education, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China.

A series of human and animal diseases that are caused by infections pose a serious threat to human health and huge economic losses to the livestock industry. We found antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in the genome of 133 strains of Indiana from a poultry production site in Shandong Province, China. subsp. Read More

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DNA-PKcs promotes chromatin decondensation to facilitate initiation of the DNA damage response.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 10;47(18):9467-9479

Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

The DNA damage response (DDR) encompasses the cellular response to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), and includes recognition of the DSB, recruitment of numerous factors to the DNA damage site, initiation of signaling cascades, chromatin remodeling, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and repair of the DSB. Key drivers of the DDR are multiple members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase family, including ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). ATM and ATR modulate multiple portions of the DDR, but DNA-PKcs is believed to primarily function in the DSB repair pathway, non-homologous end joining. Read More

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October 2019

Evolutionary Dynamics of Sex Chromosomes of Paleognathous Birds.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 08;11(8):2376-2390

Informatics Group, Division of Science, Harvard University.

Standard models of sex chromosome evolution propose that recombination suppression leads to the degeneration of the heterogametic chromosome, as is seen for the Y chromosome in mammals and the W chromosome in most birds. Unlike other birds, paleognaths (ratites and tinamous) possess large nondegenerate regions on their sex chromosomes (PARs or pseudoautosomal regions). It remains unclear why these large PARs are retained over >100 Myr, and how this retention impacts the evolution of sex chromosomes within this system. Read More

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Rapid evolution of α-gliadin gene family revealed by analyzing Gli-2 locus regions of wild emmer wheat.

Funct Integr Genomics 2019 Nov 13;19(6):993-1005. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service USDA-ARS, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA, 94710, USA.

α-Gliadins are a major group of gluten proteins in wheat flour that contribute to the end-use properties for food processing and contain major immunogenic epitopes that can cause serious health-related issues including celiac disease (CD). α-Gliadins are also the youngest group of gluten proteins and are encoded by a large gene family. The majority of the gene family members evolved independently in the A, B, and D genomes of different wheat species after their separation from a common ancestral species. Read More

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November 2019

Comparing sequence and structure of falcipains and human homologs at prodomain and catalytic active site for malarial peptide based inhibitor design.

Malar J 2019 May 3;18(1):159. Epub 2019 May 3.

Research Unit in Bioinformatics (RUBi), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.

Background: Falcipains are major cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum involved in haemoglobin degradation and remain attractive anti-malarial drug targets. Several inhibitors against these proteases have been identified, yet none of them has been approved for malaria treatment. Other Plasmodium species also possess highly homologous proteins to falcipains. Read More

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Achilles Tendon Reconstruction With Bone Block Allograft:Long-Term Follow-Up of Two Cases.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Jul 20;58(4):779-784. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Faculty, Grant Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

The treatment of neglected or chronically ruptured Achilles tendon is challenging. Various treatments for large defects associated with chronic Achilles ruptures have been described. Many surgeons recommend the use of a tendon transfer, turndown rotational flap, advancement flap, or reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft with calcaneal bone block. Read More

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Plasma kallikrein structure reveals apple domain disc rotated conformation compared to factor XI.

J Thromb Haemost 2019 05 19;17(5):759-770. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Essentials Zymogen PK is activated to PKa and cleaves substrates kininogen and FXII contributing to bradykinin generation. Monomeric PKa and dimeric homologue FXI utilize the N-terminal apple domains to recruit substrates. A high-resolution 1. Read More

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Molecular characterization of thioredoxin reductase in waterflea Daphnia magna and its expression regulation by polystyrene microplastics.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Mar 4;208:90-97. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Global scale concerns regarding rise in microplastics pollution in the environment have recently aroused. Ingestion of microplastics by biota, including freshwater zooplankton has been well studied, however, despite keystone species in freshwater food webs, the molecular response (e.g. Read More

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Growth Dynamic of Allogeneic and Autogenous Bone Grafts in a Vertical Model.

Braz Dent J 2018 Jul-Aug;29(4):325-334

Oral Surgery Department, School of Dentistry, USP - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Several techniques have been proposed for vertical bone regeneration, and many of them use bone autogenous and allogeneic grafts. The purpose of this study was to compare demineralised freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA), fresh-frozen (FF) allografts, autogenous bone grafts to find differences between volumetric and histological quantity of bone formation and vertical bone growth dynamic. A vertical tissue regeneration bone model was performed in rabbit calvarias under general anaesthesia. Read More

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Editorial Commentary: Reduce the Failure Risk: A Challenge to Reduce the Risk of Using Hybrid Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Arthroscopy 2018 10;34(10):2936-2938

The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University.

Hybrid grafting (augmentation of small hamstring autografts with allograft tissue) is preferred by many surgeons for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although a recent, well-conducted, systematic review reported no significant differences in failure risk between hybrid graft and autograft ACL reconstruction, a trend toward a greater failure risk using the hybrid graft existed in many of the included studies. Three potential causes of hybrid graft ACL reconstruction failure that are absent in autograft ACL reconstruction are different levels of graft revascularization and ligamentization, differences in the tendon-bone healing capacity between the allograft and autograft portions in the bone tunnel, and processing of the graft. Read More

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October 2018

Allosteric regulators selectively prevent Ca-feedback of Ca and Na channels.

Elife 2018 09 10;7. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, United States.

Calmodulin (CaM) serves as a pervasive regulatory subunit of Ca1, Ca2, and Na1 channels, exploiting a functionally conserved carboxy-tail element to afford dynamic Ca-feedback of cellular excitability in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Yet this modularity counters functional adaptability, as global changes in ambient CaM indiscriminately alter its targets. Here, we demonstrate that two structurally unrelated proteins, SH3 and cysteine-rich domain (stac) and fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (fhf) selectively diminish Ca/CaM-regulation of Ca1 and Na1 families, respectively. Read More

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September 2018

Stereomorphology of the peripheral zone of the human prostate.

Wiad Lek 2018;71(5):992-995

Higher State Educational Establishment Of Ukraine, Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine.

Objective: Introduction: The human prostate gland is a complex organ that consists of two main components - glandular and non-glandular. The first of them represents a compound of components of different origin, structure, location, and complexity of spatial organization. Their stereomorphology and microanatomical interrelations remain understudied for a number of reasons. Read More

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Genetic diversity analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Huaihe River.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2018 07 19;29(5):737-744. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

a College of Life Science , Anhui Science and Technology University , Fengyang , China.

The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an economically and nutritionally important species of decapod crustaceans in China. Genetic structure and demographic history of Macrobrachium nipponense were examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Samples of 191 individuals were collected from 10 localities in the upper to middle reaches of the Huaihe River. Read More

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Comparative anatomy and development of pectoral and pelvic girdles in hylid anurans.

J Morphol 2018 07 17;279(7):904-924. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Instituto de Biodiversidad Neotropical, UNT-CONICET, Yerba Buena, Tucumán, Argentina.

The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Read More

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[The experimental study on endoplasmic reticulum stress-participated outer hair cell apoptosis in cadherin 23 gene mutant mice].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Feb;53(2):110-117

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an 710004, China.

To test the mechanism and upstream pathway of outer hair cell apoptosis in Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene mutant mice. The mutant 23() 57/6 (6) . 70 . Read More

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February 2018

A refined karyotype based on an ultra-high copy 167-bp tandem repeat and ribosomal DNAs.

J Ginseng Res 2017 Oct 11;41(4):469-476. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Meyer (Asian ginseng) has a large nuclear genome size of > 3.5 Gbp in haploid genome equivalent of 24 chromosomes. Tandem repeats (TRs) occupy significant portions of the genome in many plants and are often found in specific genomic loci, making them a valuable molecular cytogenetic tool in discriminating chromosomes. Read More

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October 2017