19,502,300 results match your criteria homo sapiens

Associations of Obesity with Linear Growth and Puberty.

Horm Res Paediatr 2021 Jun 15:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: The prevalence of obesity in childhood has increased dramatically in recent decades with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic and other comorbidities. Childhood adiposity may also influence processes of growth and puberty.

Summary: Growth patterns of obesity during childhood have been shown to be associated with increased linear growth in early childhood, leading to accelerated epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) maturation. Read More

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Determination of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in human urine after intake of extra virgin olive oil produced with an ultrasounds-based technology.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 10;203:114204. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70126, Bari, Italy.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a known source of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, useful in the prevention of non-infectious diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases). In the present study, EVOO obtained using an innovative ultrasounds-based technology was found richer in total polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, than EVOO obtained using a conventional mechanical technology. The urinary excretion in humans of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, after the administration of ultrasounds and mechanical EVOOs, respectively, was assessed and compared. Read More

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Human spatial navigation: Neural representations of spatial scales and reference frames obtained from an ALE meta-analysis.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 12:118264. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510631, China. Electronic address:

Humans use different spatial reference frames (allocentric or egocentric) to navigate successfully toward their destination in different spatial scale spaces (environmental or vista). However, it remains unclear how the brain represents different spatial scales and different spatial reference frames. Thus, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 47 fMRI articles involving human spatial navigation. Read More

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Proteomic portraits reveal evolutionarily conserved and divergent responses to spinal cord injury.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100096. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Neurosurgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Despite the emergence of promising therapeutic approaches in preclinical studies, the failure of large-scale clinical trials leaves clinicians without effective treatments for acute spinal cord injury (SCI). These trials are hindered by their reliance on detailed neurological examinations to establish outcomes, which inflate the time and resources required for completion. Moreover, therapeutic development takes place in animal models whose relevance to human injury remains unclear. Read More

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Yawn-like behavior in captive common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

Behav Processes 2021 Jun 12:104444. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Yawning is an involuntary action that begins with a slow opening of the mouth with inhalation, followed by a maximum gaping phase, and ends with a short exhalation and the closing of the mouth. A wide variety of vertebrate species, including humans, yawn. Here, we report underwater yawn-like behavior in three captive common bottlenose dolphins, inferred from 119-h of observations. Read More

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Saponins from Panax japonicus alleviate HFD-induced impaired behaviors through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome to upregulate AMPA receptors.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jun 12:105098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; New Medicine Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is characterized by a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation that facilitates development of numerous comorbidities and dysregulation of brain homeostasis. It is reported that obesity can lead to behavioral alterations such as cognitive decline and depression-like behaviors both in humans and rodents. Saponins from panax japonicus (SPJ) have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory action in mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Read More

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Basement Membrane Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Pulmonary Vascular and Right Ventricular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1500, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

The extracellular matrix (ECM), a highly organized network of structural and non-structural proteins, plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Changes in the ECM are critical for normal tissue repair, while dysregulation contributes to aberrant tissue remodeling. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disorder of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle (RV), increased production and deposition of structural and non-structural proteins, and altered expression of ECM growth factors and proteases. Read More

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Research Relevant Conditions and Pathology in Nonhuman Primates.

ILAR J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Covance Preclinical Services GmbH, Münster 48163, Germany.

Biomedical research involving animal models continues to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment of diseases that impact human health. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in translational research due to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and similarities to disease pathogenesis and treatment responses as assessed in clinical trials. Microscopic changes in tissues remain a significant endpoint in studies involving these models. Read More

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What's not in the news headlines or titles of Alzheimer disease articles? #InMice.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 15;19(6):e3001260. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

There is increasing scrutiny around how science is communicated to the public. For instance, a Twitter account @justsaysinmice (with 70.4K followers in January 2021) was created to call attention to news headlines that omit that mice, not humans, are the ones for whom the study findings apply. Read More

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A global database of plant services for humankind.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253069. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Wadham College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Humanity faces the challenge of conserving the attributes of biodiversity that may be essential to secure human wellbeing. Among all the organisms that are beneficial to humans, plants stand out as the most important providers of natural resources. Therefore, identifying plant uses is critical to preserve the beneficial potential of biodiversity and to promote basic and applied research on the relationship between plants and humans. Read More

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Molecular investigation of tick-borne pathogens in ticks removed from tick-bitten humans in the southwestern region of the Republic of Korea.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252992. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the presence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks removed from tick-bitten humans in the southwestern provinces of the Republic of Korea (ROK). We identified 33 ticks from three tick species, namely Amblyomma testudinarium (60.6%), Haemaphysalis longicornis (27. Read More

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The Course of Microfilaremia in Experimentally Infected Cats.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

As one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans, has been established as the laboratory model of choice for studying this infection owing to its viability in small animal hosts, with the domestic cat being significant among these. The usefulness of individual feline infections is highly dependent on the levels of circulating microfilariae in the blood; thus, characterizing the course of microfilaremia benefits our understanding of this model. In -endemic regions, cats are also known reservoirs of infection, and describing microfilaremia in a controlled setting may improve transmission modeling. Read More

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The epidemiology of bacterial zoonoses in pastoral and dairy cattle in Cameroon, Central Africa.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, UK.

Previous work identified that bacterial zoonoses (Brucella species, Coxiella burnetii and Leptospira hardjo) were present in Cameroonian pastoral cattle. To assess the characteristics of this zoonotic risk, we analyse seroprevalence of each pathogen and the associated management, herd and environmental factors in Cameroonian pastoral and dairy cattle. Cross-sectional samples included pastoralist herds in the Northwest Region (NWR n = 750) and Vina Division (VD n = 748) and small holder dairy herds in the NWR (n = 60). Read More

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A Novel Multi-Ingredient Supplement Reduces Inflammation of the Eye and Improves Production and Quality of Tears in Humans.

Ophthalmol Ther 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

G7 Synergon Private Limited, 537, 5th Main, 9th Cross, Sahakarnagar Post, Tatanagar, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560092, India.

Introduction: Dry eye is a multifactorial condition of the eye caused by insufficient tear production and imbalance in tear composition leading to faster evaporation of tear fluid. It is also associated with inflammation that often leads to ocular surface damage. Symptoms of dry eyes include itchiness, soreness, red eyes, a burning sensation, eye fatigue and blurred vision. Read More

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Evaluation of sex steroid hormones and reproductive irregularities in diethyl phthalate-exposed premature mice: modulatory effect of raw honey against potential anomalies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals, are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family, was declared a potent endocrine disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Read More

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Arsenic and lead in soil: impacts on element mobility and bioaccessibility.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Long-term brown coal mining contributes to risk element contents in soils surrounding coal basins. However, there is a lack of bioaccessibility characterization of the risk elements in the soils at the impacted locations for estimation of the potential health risk, in relation to the effects of soil particle size and element origin. In this study, soils from different geological areas (geogenic vs. Read More

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Rapid and selective detection of macrocyclic trichothecene producing Stachybotrys chartarum strains by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 4, 85354, Freising, Germany.

Cytotoxic macrocyclic trichothecenes such as satratoxins are produced by chemotype S strains of Stachybotrys chartarum. Diseases such as stachybotryotoxicosis in animals and the sick building syndrome as a multifactorial disease complex in humans have been associated with this mold and its toxins. Less toxic non-chemotype S strains of S. Read More

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N-methyl d-aspartate receptor hypofunction reduces visual contextual integration.

J Vis 2021 Jun;21(6)

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

Visual cognition is finely tuned to the elements in a scene but also relies on contextual integration to improve visual detection and discrimination. This integration is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Studying impairments in contextual integration may lead to biomarkers of schizophrenia, tools to monitor disease progression, and, in animal models, insight into the underlying neural deficits. Read More

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Integrated transcriptomic analysis of human tuberculosis granulomas and a biomimetic model identifies therapeutic targets.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent global pandemic and standard treatment has not changed for thirty years. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has undergone prolonged co-evolution with humans, and patients can control Mtb even after extensive infection, demonstrating the fine balance between protective and pathological host responses within infected granulomas. We hypothesised that whole transcriptome analysis of human TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection could identify therapeutic targets, and that comparison with a non-infectious granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, would identify disease-specific pathological mechanisms. Read More

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Insights into evolution and coexistence of the colibactin- and yersiniabactin secondary metabolite determinants in enterobacterial populations.

Microb Genom 2021 Jun;7(6)

Institute of Hygiene, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

The bacterial genotoxin colibactin interferes with the eukaryotic cell cycle by causing dsDNA breaks. It has been linked to bacterially induced colorectal cancer in humans. Colibactin is encoded by a 54 kb genomic region in . Read More

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The temporal representation of experience in subjective mood.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Emotion and Development Branch, National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, United States.

Humans refer to their mood state regularly in day-to-day as well as clinical interactions. Theoretical accounts suggest that when reporting on our mood we integrate over the history of our experiences; yet, the temporal structure of this integration remains unexamined. Here we use a computational approach to quantitatively answer this question and show that early events exert a stronger influence on reported mood compared to recent events. Read More

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Antiviral and Immunological Activity of Zinc and Possible Role in COVID-19.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-21. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI, Brazil.

Zinc deficiency compromises its biological functions, its effect on the immune system and its antiviral activity, increasing vulnerability to infectious diseases. This narrative review aims at presenting and discussing functional aspects and possible mechanisms involved in the potential role of zinc in the immune response and antiviral activity for COVID-19 prevention and control. The searches were conducted in PubMed and Science Direct databases, using clinical trials, experimental studies in animals and humans, case-control studies, case series, letters to the editor, and review articles published in English, without restrictions on year of publication. Read More

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Pathological and Immunohistochemical Microscopy of Natural Cases of Canine and Feline Neoplastic Mammary Lesions.

Microsc Microanal 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina22758, Egypt.

Mammary cancer is the second most common tumor worldwide. Small animal mammary neoplasms provide an outstanding model to study cancer in humans, as tumors in both share a similar environment, histopathologic features, and biological behavior. This study aims to investigate the percentage and microscopy of breast tumors in affected dogs and cats; its relationship to breed, age, and sex; and the immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and cytokeratin 8. Read More

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N-3 PUFA as an ergogenic supplement modulating muscle hypertrophy and strength: a systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-21. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

There is growing evidence that suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve physical performance when combined with proper training through modulation of muscle hypertrophy, muscle strength, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This systematic review aims to examine the effect and optimal dosage of n-3 PUFA supplementation on muscle hypertrophy, muscle strength, and DOMS when combined with physical exercise. The PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE Complete, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched following the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Silver-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes-catalyzed multicomponent reactions: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, density functional theory calculations, and antibacterial study.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Jun 15:e2100111. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Research Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technologies (LR16ES09), Higher Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia.

Nowadays, silver-N-heterocyclic carbene (silver-NHCs) complexes are widely used in medicinal chemistry due to their low toxic nature toward humans. Due to the success of silver-NHCs in medicinal applications, interest in these compounds is rapidly increasing. Therefore, the interaction of N,N-disubstituted benzimidazolium salts with Ag O in dichloromethane to prepare novel Ag(I)-NHCs complexes was carried out at room temperature for 120 h in the absence of light. Read More

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Production, purification, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. strain MPPS2 extracellular pyomelanin pigment.

Sinan Bayram

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Vocational School of Health Services, Bayburt University, 69000, Bayburt, Turkey.

Melanins are natural pigments widely distributed in nature from bacteria to humans. These complex, negatively charged, amorphous, high molecular mass natural biopolymers have many different bioactive properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, liver protective effects, etc. In this study, some chemical and physical properties of the purified extracellular pyomelanin pigment were investigated via XRD (X-ray diffraction), FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared), and H NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance). Read More

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Unravelling HP1 functions: post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell fate.

Chromosoma 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein first identified in Drosophila as a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, required for stable epigenetic gene silencing in many species including humans. Over the years, several studies have highlighted additional roles of HP1 in different cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA replication and repair, chromosome segregation and, surprisingly, positive regulation of gene expression. In this review, we briefly summarize past research and recent results supporting the unexpected and emerging role of HP1 in activating gene expression. Read More

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Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jun;21(Supplement_1):S2-S9

Center for Spine Health, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurologic Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Osteobiologics are engineered materials that facilitate bone healing and have been increasingly used in spine surgery. Autologous iliac crest bone grafts have been used historically, but morbidity associated with graft harvesting has led surgeons to seek alternative solutions. Allograft bone, biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and stem cells have been explored as bone graft substitutes and supplements. Read More

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Deconvoluting the T Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2: Specificity Versus Chance and Cognate Cross-Reactivity.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:635942. Epub 2021 May 28.

Research and Development, Cellular Technology Ltd., Shaker Heights, OH, United States.

SARS-CoV-2 infection takes a mild or clinically inapparent course in the majority of humans who contract this virus. After such individuals have cleared the virus, only the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunological memory can reveal the exposure, and hopefully the establishment of immune protection. With most viral infections, the presence of specific serum antibodies has provided a reliable biomarker for the exposure to the virus of interest. Read More

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Smart integration of sensors, computer vision and knowledge representation for intelligent monitoring and verbal human-computer interaction.

J Intell Inf Syst 2021 Jun 10:1-25. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas, Information Technologies Institute, GR 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki Greece.

The details presented in this article revolve around a sophisticated monitoring framework equipped with knowledge representation and computer vision capabilities, that aims to provide innovative solutions and support services in the healthcare sector, with a focus on clinical and non-clinical rehabilitation and care environments for people with mobility problems. In contemporary pervasive systems most modern virtual agents have specific reactions when interacting with humans and usually lack extended dialogue and cognitive competences. The presented tool aims to provide natural human-computer multi-modal interaction via exploitation of state-of-the-art technologies in computer vision, speech recognition and synthesis, knowledge representation, sensor data analysis, and by leveraging prior clinical knowledge and patient history through an intelligent, ontology-driven, dialogue manager with reasoning capabilities, which can also access a web search and retrieval engine module. Read More

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