51,043 results match your criteria hominin evolutionary


Conceptual issues in hominin taxonomy: Homo heidelbergensis and an ethnobiological reframing of species.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Efforts to name and classify Middle Pleistocene Homo, often referred to as "Homo heidelbergensis" are hampered by confusing patterns of morphology but also by conflicting paleoanthropological ideologies that are embedded in approaches to hominin taxonomy, nomenclature, and the species concept. We deconstruct these issues to show how the field's search for a "real" species relies on strict adherence to pre-Darwinian essentialist naming rules in a post-typological world. We then examine Middle Pleistocene Homo through the framework of ethnobiology, which examines on how Indigenous societies perceive, classify, and name biological organisms. Read More

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[Natural Selection as a Driver for the Genetic Component of Preeclampsia].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):441-459

Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk National Medical Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634050 Russia.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe hypertensive pathology and affects 2-8% of pregnancies worldwide. Its etiopathogenesis is poorly understood, and prognostic biomarkers and effective treatments are unavailable for this pregnancy complication, determining the high rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Racial and ethnic differences in PE incidence are of interest to study in terms of evolutionary medicine because such variability can be considered as a side effect of adaptive changes that have occurred in the genetic structure of modern populations since the dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa. Read More

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Isotopic composition of mercury deposited via snow into mid-latitude ecosystems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 22;784:147252. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has significant implications for human and animal exposure. Measurements of Hg isotopic composition can be utilized to trace sources of Hg, but outside of the Arctic there has been little Hg isotopic characterization of snow. To better understand deposition pathways at mid-latitudes, five time series of snowfall were collected at two sites (Dexter and Pellston, Michigan, USA) to investigate the Hg isotopic composition of snowfall, how it changes after deposition, and how it compares to rain. Read More

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Unusual giant pleural lipomas: imaging features.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Pleural lipomas are rarely encountered in the thoracic cavity. Sometimes, they infiltrate the intercostal space to have a component on either side of the intercostal space forming a hourglass configuration. They are generally solitary, small and asymptomatic. Read More

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Leveraging natural history biorepositories as a global, decentralized, pathogen surveillance network.

PLoS Pathog 2021 06 3;17(6):e1009583. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of New Mexico, Department of Biology and Museum of Southwestern Biology, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic reveals a major gap in global biosecurity infrastructure: a lack of publicly available biological samples representative across space, time, and taxonomic diversity. The shortfall, in this case for vertebrates, prevents accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of emerging pathogens and their reservoir host(s) and precludes extended investigation of ecological, evolutionary, and environmental associations that lead to human infection or spillover. Natural history museum biorepositories form the backbone of a critically needed, decentralized, global network for zoonotic pathogen surveillance, yet this infrastructure remains marginally developed, underutilized, underfunded, and disconnected from public health initiatives. Read More

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[Self-reported sleep and wake disorders in patients with ostheoarthrosis and end-stage renal disease].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(4. Vyp. 2):80-91

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Objective: This study aimed to assess subjective sleep and wake disorders (SWD) in patients with osteoarthritis and comorbid end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (ESRD-HD) compared to patients with osteoarthritis and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as to clarify of the association of subjective sleep characteristics with the levels of anxiety and depression and pain, general health score and laboratory parameters in these cohorts.

Material And Methods: This pilot case-control study included the patients with stage III hip osteoarthritis with ESRD-HD (=19) and without CKD (=19) aged 18-85 years. The patients received the consultations of orthopedic surgeon and internal medicine specialist with anthropometry and clinical and biochemical blood tests. Read More

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Primary Emotional Systems and Emotional Regulation.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, and Health Studies Sapienza, University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

(1) Background: The COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a unique challenge as a severe global crisis affecting physical and psychological health. The main purpose of this work is to study the impact of a traumatic event while also observing the human ability to adapt. One of the first theories to study the adaptive importance of the evolutionary lineage of the affective systems is referred to as BrainMind (Panksepp, 2010). Read More

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Structural Plasticity of LL-37 Indicates Elaborate Functional Adaptation Mechanisms to Bacterial Target Structures.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 14;22(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Microbiology and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a multifunctional peptide of the human innate immune system. Among the various functions of LL-37, its antimicrobial activity is important in controlling the microorganisms of the human body. The target molecules of LL-37 in bacteria include membrane lipids, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), proteins, DNA and RNA. Read More

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Mutations Causing Early Onset Ataxia: Profiling Clinical, Dysmorphic and Structural-Functional Findings.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 13;22(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

U-703 Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBER-ER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 08002 Barcelona, Spain.

The gene encodes the pore-forming α subunit of the voltage-gated Ca2.1 Ca channel, essential in neurotransmission, especially in Purkinje cells. Mutations in result in great clinical heterogeneity with progressive symptoms, paroxysmal events or both. Read More

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Boon and Bane of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

Authors:
Ingo Schubert

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 13;22(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), OT Gatersleben, D-06466 Seeland, Germany.

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), interrupting the genetic information, are elicited by various environmental and endogenous factors. They bear the risk of cell lethality and, if mis-repaired, of deleterious mutation. This negative impact is contrasted by several evolutionary achievements for DSB processing that help maintaining stable inheritance (correct repair, meiotic cross-over) and even drive adaptation (immunoglobulin gene recombination), differentiation (chromatin elimination) and speciation by creating new genetic diversity via DSB mis-repair. Read More

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Ticks, Hair Loss, and Non-Clinging Babies: A Novel Tick-Based Hypothesis for the Evolutionary Divergence of Humans and Chimpanzees.

Authors:
Jeffrey G Brown

Life (Basel) 2021 May 12;11(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Independent Researcher, Saddle Brook, NJ 07663, USA.

Human straight-legged bipedalism represents one of the earliest events in the evolutionary split between humans ( spp.) and chimpanzees ( spp.), although its selective basis is a mystery. Read More

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Rethinking the ecological drivers of hominin evolution.

Trends Ecol Evol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.

A central goal of paleoanthropology is understanding the role of ecological change in hominin evolution. Over the past several decades researchers have expanded the hominin fossil record and assembled detailed late Cenozoic paleoclimatic, paleoenvironmental, and paleoecological archives. However, effective use of these data is precluded by the limitations of pattern-matching strategies for inferring causal relationships between ecological and evolutionary change. Read More

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Plausible blockers of Spike RBD in SARS-CoV2-molecular design and underlying interaction dynamics from high-level structural descriptors.

J Mol Model 2021 May 31;27(6):191. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Surgical Biotechnology, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, NW3 2PF, UK.

COVID-19 is characterized by an unprecedented abrupt increase in the viral transmission rate (SARS-CoV-2) relative to its pandemic evolutionary ancestor, SARS-CoV (2003). The complex molecular cascade of events related to the viral pathogenicity is triggered by the Spike protein upon interacting with the ACE2 receptor on human lung cells through its receptor binding domain (RBD). One potential therapeutic strategy to combat COVID-19 could thus be limiting the infection by blocking this key interaction. Read More

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Accessory cusp expression at the enamel-dentine junction of hominin mandibular molars.

PeerJ 2021 20;9:e11415. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Studies of hominin dental morphology frequently consider accessory cusps on the lower molars, in particular those on the distal margin of the tooth (C6 or distal accessory cusp) and the lingual margin of the tooth (C7 or lingual accessory cusp). They are often utilized in studies of hominin systematics, where their presence or absence is assessed at the outer enamel surface (OES). However, studies of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) suggest these traits may be more variable in development, morphology and position than previously thought. Read More

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Fine-scale variation in malaria prevalence across ecological regions in Madagascar: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 29;21(1):1018. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Large-scale variation in ecological parameters across Madagascar is hypothesized to drive varying spatial patterns of malaria infection. However, to date, few studies of parasite prevalence with resolution at finer, sub-regional spatial scales are available. As a result, there is a poor understanding of how Madagascar's diverse local ecologies link with variation in the distribution of infections at the community and household level. Read More

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Compensatory evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa's slow growth phenotype suggests mechanisms of adaptation in cystic fibrosis.

Nat Commun 2021 05 27;12(1):3186. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Long-term infection of the airways of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often accompanied by a reduction in bacterial growth rate. This reduction has been hypothesised to increase within-patient fitness and overall persistence of the pathogen. Here, we apply adaptive laboratory evolution to revert the slow growth phenotype of P. Read More

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Removing energy with an exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of walking.

Science 2021 05;372(6545):957-960

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.

Evolutionary pressures have led humans to walk in a highly efficient manner that conserves energy, making it difficult for exoskeletons to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. Despite the challenge, some exoskeletons have managed to lessen the metabolic expenditure of walking, either by adding or storing and returning energy. We show that the use of an exoskeleton that strategically removes kinetic energy during the swing period of the gait cycle reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 2. Read More

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Associations between changes in population mobility in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and socioeconomic factors at the city level in China and country level worldwide: a retrospective, observational study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 06;3(6):e349-e359

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Center for Global Change and Public Health, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Until broad vaccination coverage is reached and effective therapeutics are available, controlling population mobility (ie, changes in the spatial location of a population that affect the spread and distribution of pathogens) is one of the major interventions used to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, population mobility differs across locations, which could reduce the effectiveness of pandemic control measures. Here we assess the extent to which socioeconomic factors are associated with reductions in population mobility during the COVID-19 pandemic, at both the city level in China and at the country level worldwide. Read More

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[Sleep-wake cycle regularity and cardiometabolic indicators].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(4):57-62

Almazov National Medical Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Objective: To evaluate the association between sleep-wake rhythm and cardiometabolic parameters.

Material And Methods: 103 participants, aged 25-64 years, underwent actigraphy study with Actigraph Actilife GT3X + device (USA) for 7 days. We assessed actigraphy indicators (physical activity and sleep data), anthropometric indicators, blood pressure and laboratory parameters. Read More

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Temporal stability of chimpanzee social culture.

Biol Lett 2021 05 26;17(5):20210031. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department for Comparative Cultural Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Culture is a hallmark of the human species, both in terms of the transmission of material inventions (e.g. tool manufacturing) and the adherence to social conventions (e. Read More

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Modern theories of human evolution foreshadowed by Darwin's .

Science 2021 05;372(6544)

Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Charles Darwin's , published 150 years ago, laid the grounds for scientific studies into human origins and evolution. Three of his insights have been reinforced by modern science. The first is that we share many characteristics (genetic, developmental, physiological, morphological, cognitive, and psychological) with our closest relatives, the anthropoid apes. Read More

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Making Waves: Collaboration in the time of SARS-CoV-2 - rapid development of an international co-operation and wastewater surveillance database to support public health decision-making.

Water Res 2021 Jul 22;199:117167. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Department for Hydroecology and Water Protection, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater was first reported in March 2020. Over the subsequent months, the potential for wastewater surveillance to contribute to COVID-19 mitigation programmes has been the focus of intense national and international research activities, gaining the attention of policy makers and the public. As a new application of an established methodology, focused collaboration between public health practitioners and wastewater researchers is essential to developing a common understanding on how, when and where the outputs of this non-invasive community-level approach can deliver actionable outcomes for public health authorities. Read More

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A trimethoprim derivative impedes antibiotic resistance evolution.

Nat Commun 2021 05 19;12(1):2949. Epub 2021 May 19.

Green Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) is used to treat a variety of Escherichia coli infections, but its efficacy is limited by the rapid emergence of TMP-resistant bacteria. Previous laboratory evolution experiments have identified resistance-conferring mutations in the gene encoding the TMP target, bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), in particular mutation L28R. Here, we show that 4'-desmethyltrimethoprim (4'-DTMP) inhibits both DHFR and its L28R variant, and selects against the emergence of TMP-resistant bacteria that carry the L28R mutation in laboratory experiments. Read More

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Lessons learned from the investigation of a COVID-19 cluster in Creil, France: effectiveness of targeting symptomatic cases and conducting contact tracing around them.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 19;21(1):457. Epub 2021 May 19.

SSA (French Military Health Service), Bégin Military Teaching Hospital, Saint-Mandé, France.

Background: This study presents the methods and results of the investigation into a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a professional community. Due to the limited testing capacity available in France at the time, we elaborated a testing strategy according to pre-test probability.

Methods: The investigation design combined active case finding and contact tracing around each confirmed case with testing of at-risk contact persons who had any evocative symptoms (n = 88). Read More

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MUSIC, RELIGION AND HEALTH; A SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR RELATIONSHIP TO MUSIC.

Psychiatr Danub 2021 05;33(Suppl 3):S378-S384

Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb.

Why do we react emotionally to music? Does music appreciation have an adaptive value? What is the role of music in spiritual and healing practices? Music is a fascinating area of research for evolutionary theory, psychological development, and emotional perception and elicitation. It is a highly valued feature of all known living cultures and societies, pervading many aspects of daily and devotional life and playing many roles. The question that still lingers among music researchers however is why is this so. Read More

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Nicotinic receptor targeting in physiological and environmental vulnerability: A whole of biosphere perspective.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 21;780:146642. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Schar School for Policy and Government, George Mason University, USA.

We propose a biosphere model of convergent interactions between nicotine and neonicotinoids (neonics) within a related framework of nicotinic receptor targeting agents (NrTA) across the globe. We explore how rising global trends in the use nicotine as well as neonics impacts vulnerability, within and across species, and posit that evolutionary conservation at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) provides an operational strategy map for pathogens and disease. Furthermore, we examine the effects of NrTA exposure on balance within extant and developing ecological niches, food chains, and human societies. Read More

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Shortcomings of SARS-CoV-2 genomic metadata.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 17;14(1):189. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biomolecular Engineering and Genomics Institute, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064, USA.

Objective: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has prompted one of the most extensive and expeditious genomic sequencing efforts in history. Each viral genome is accompanied by a set of metadata which supplies important information such as the geographic origin of the sample, age of the host, and the lab at which the sample was sequenced, and is integral to epidemiological efforts and public health direction. Here, we interrogate some shortcomings of metadata within the GISAID database to raise awareness of common errors and inconsistencies that may affect data-driven analyses and provide possible avenues for resolutions. Read More

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Structural landscape of the complete genomes of dengue virus serotypes and other viral hemorrhagic fevers.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 17;22(1):352. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551, Singapore.

Background: With more than 300 million potentially infected people every year, and with the expanded habitat of mosquitoes due to climate change, Dengue virus (DENV) cannot be considered anymore only a tropical disease. The RNA secondary structure is a functional characteristic of RNA viruses, and together with the accumulated high-throughput sequencing data could provide general insights towards understanding virus biology. Here, we profiled the RNA secondary structure of > 7000 complete viral genomes from 11 different species focusing on viral hemorrhagic fevers, including DENV serotypes, EBOV, and YFV. Read More

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Adapting for the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador, a characterization of hospital strategies and patients.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(5):e0251295. Epub 2021 May 17.

Hospital del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS) Quito-Sur, Quito, Ecuador.

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. In Ecuador, the first case of COVID-19 was recorded on 29 February 2020. Despite efforts to control its spread, SARS-CoV-2 overran the Ecuadorian public health system, which became one of the most affected in Latin America on 24 April 2020. Read More

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Research on International Cooperative Governance of the COVID-19.

Front Public Health 2021 29;9:566499. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Management Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Since the first case of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has quickly spread to all the corners of the world. Amid the global public health threats posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, active cooperative governance has gradually emerged as the most powerful weapon against its spread. To facilitate international cooperation for pandemic governance, this paper applied the evolutionary game theory to analyze the factors influencing active cooperative governance and, based on the results, proposed a series of recommendations for promoting international cooperation. Read More

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