3,290 results match your criteria homing differentiation

Downregulation of ALR impairs the therapeutic efficacy of LEPCs against acute liver injury by enhancing mitochondrial fission.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cell Biology, Capital Medical University and the Municipal Key Laboratory for Liver Protection and Regulation of Regeneration, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Cell-based therapeutic approaches have been proven to be effective strategies for the treatment of acute liver injury (ALI). However, widespread application of these procedures is limited by several key issues, including rapid loss of stemness in vitro, aberrant differentiation into undesirable cell types and low engraftment in vivo. In this study, liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) were characterized and transfected with augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR). Read More

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NLRP1 in Bone Marrow Microenvironment Controls Hematopoietic Reconstitution after Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China; Department of Hematology, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Jiangsu Province, Xuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The pretreatment before transplantation initiates an inflammatory response. Inflammasomes are key regulators of immune and inflammatory responses, but their role in regulating hematopoiesis is unclear.

Objective: Our study intends to assess the role and mechanism of NLRP1 in bone marrow microenvironment on hematopoiesis regulation. Read More

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The Cellular Choreography of Osteoblast Angiotropism in Bone Development and Homeostasis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 6;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Rheumatology Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Interaction between endothelial cells and osteoblasts is essential for bone development and homeostasis. This process is mediated in large part by osteoblast angiotropism, the migration of osteoblasts alongside blood vessels, which is crucial for the homing of osteoblasts to sites of bone formation during embryogenesis and in mature bones during remodeling and repair. Specialized bone endothelial cells that form "type H" capillaries have emerged as key interaction partners of osteoblasts, regulating osteoblast differentiation and maturation and ensuring their migration towards newly forming trabecular bone areas. Read More

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Lymphotoxin: from the physiology to the regeneration of the thymic function.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, INSERM, CIML, Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Marseille, France.

The members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) superfamily, the ligand lymphotoxin α1β2 (LTα1β2) and its unique receptor lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), play a pivotal role in the establishment and regulation of the immune system by allowing a tight communication between lymphocytes and stromal cells. Recent advances using transgenic mice harboring a specific deletion of the Ltbr gene in distinct stromal cells have revealed important roles for LTβR signaling in the thymic function that ensures the generation of a diverse and self-tolerant T-cell repertoire. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on this signaling axis in the thymic homing of lymphoid progenitors and peripheral antigen-presenting cells, the trafficking and egress of thymocytes, the differentiation of medullary thymic epithelial cells, and the establishment of central tolerance. Read More

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[Exosomes-based strategies for dental pulp regeneration].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):709-714

Department of Trauma and Plastic Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University & State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Engineering Research Center of Oral Translational Medicine, Ministry of Education & National Engineering Laboratory for Oral Regenerative Medicine, Chengdu 610041, China.

Researches on pulp regeneration based on odontogenic stem cells have made a breakthrough and some results have been applied clinically in recent years. It is demonstrated that exosomes secreted by stem cells play a significant role in tissue regeneration. Compared with stem cells, exosomes exhibit more advantages such as wider sources, more immediate effects, and less immune rejections, which are expected to be exploited in the pulp regeneration by cell-homing. Read More

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Prostacyclin is an endosteal bone marrow niche component and its clinical analog iloprost protects hematopoietic stem cell potential during stress.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Stem Cell and Cancer Group.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with superior reconstitution potential are reported to be enriched in the endosteal compared to central bone marrow (BM) region. To investigate whether specific factors at the endosteum may contribute to HSC potency, we screened for candidate HSC niche factors enriched in the endosteal compared to central BM regions. Together with key known HSC supporting factors Kitl and Cxcl12, we report that prostacyclin/prostaglandin I (PGI ) synthase (Ptgis) was one of the most highly enriched mRNAs (>10-fold) in endosteal compared to central BM. Read More

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Chronically Activated T-cells Retain Their Inflammatory Properties in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Immune dysregulation complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), but the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. While CVID is primarily considered a B-cell defect, resulting in the characteristic hypogammaglobulinemia, T-cells may also contribute to immune dysregulation complications. Here, we aim to further characterize T-cell activation and regulation in CVID with immune dysregulation (CVIDid). Read More

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Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells and extracellular vesicles for cancer therapy.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 Jul 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) hold great perspective for the therapy of a host of diseases due to regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties by differentiation into diverse cell populations, homing to damaged tissue regions, paracrine effects, and release of extracellular vesicles.

Areas Covered: This review describes the isolation, characterization, and potential use of MSCs and ADSCs for benign and malignant diseases. The MSCs may be administered as whole cells or in form of their secretome that is held responsible for most of their beneficial effects. Read More

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Piezo1 channels restrain regulatory T cells but are dispensable for effector CD4 T cell responses.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 7;7(28). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4561, USA.

T lymphocytes encounter complex mechanical cues during an immune response. The mechanosensitive ion channel, Piezo1, drives inflammatory responses to bacterial infections, wound healing, and cancer; however, its role in helper T cell function remains unclear. In an animal model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we found that mice with genetic deletion of Piezo1 in T cells showed diminished disease severity. Read More

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Green, yellow or black? Genetic differentiation and adaptation signatures in a highly migratory marine turtle.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jul 7;288(1954):20210754. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Marine species may exhibit genetic structure accompanied by phenotypic differentiation related to adaptation despite their high mobility. Two shape-based morphotypes have been identified for the green turtle () in the Pacific Ocean: the south-central/western or yellow turtle and north-central/eastern or black turtle. The genetic differentiation between these morphotypes and the adaptation of the black turtle to environmentally contrasting conditions of the eastern Pacific region has remained a mystery for decades. Read More

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Multimodal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Young and Old Mice Labeled with Magnetic-Fluorescent Nanoparticles and Their Grafting by Bioluminescence in a Bone Marrow Transplant Model.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo 05652-000, SP, Brazil.

This study proposes an innovative way to evaluate the homing and tracking of hematopoietic stem cells from young and old mice labeled with SPION conjugated with two types of fluorophores (NIRF and Rhodamine), and their grafting by bioluminescence (BLI) in a bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. In an in vitro study, we isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) from young and old mice, and analyzed the physical-chemical characteristics of SPION, their internalization, cell viability, and the iron quantification by NIRF, ICP-MS, and MRI. The in vivo study was performed in a BMT model to evaluate the homing, tracking, and grafting of young and old BM-MNC labeled with SPION by NIRF and BLI, as well as the hematological reconstitution for 120 days. Read More

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Migration and Adhesion of B-Lymphocytes to Specific Microenvironments in Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Interplay between Signaling Pathways and the Epigenetic Landscape.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 10;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Biomedical and Cellular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 141 57 Stockholm, Sweden.

Lymphocyte migration to and sequestration in specific microenvironments plays a crucial role in their differentiation and survival. Lymphocyte trafficking and homing are tightly regulated by signaling pathways and is mediated by cytokines, chemokines, cytokine/chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. The production of cytokines and chemokines is largely controlled by transcription factors in the context of a specific epigenetic landscape. Read More

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A narrative overview of utilizing biomaterials to recapitulate the salient regenerative features of dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Int J Oral Sci 2021 06 30;13(1):22. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Tissue engineering approaches have emerged recently to circumvent many limitations associated with current clinical practices. This elegant approach utilizes a natural/synthetic biomaterial with optimized physiomechanical properties to serve as a vehicle for delivery of exogenous stem cells and bioactive factors or induce local recruitment of endogenous cells for in situ tissue regeneration. Inspired by the natural microenvironment, biomaterials could act as a biomimetic three-dimensional (3D) structure to help the cells establish their natural interactions. Read More

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The secretome of mesenchymal stem cells and oxidative stress: challenges and opportunities in cell-free regenerative medicine.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Drug Applied Research Center and Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 5166/15731, Tabriz, Iran.

Over the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered a suitable source for cell-based therapy, especially in regenerative medicine. First, the efficacy and functions of MSCs in clinical applications have been attributed to their differentiation ability, called homing and differentiation. However, it has recently been confirmed that MSCs mostly exert their therapeutic effects through soluble paracrine bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles, especially secretome. Read More

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Obstacles and Coping Strategies of CAR-T Cell Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:687822. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of General Surgery, Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy refers to an adoptive immunotherapy that has rapidly developed in recent years. It is a novel type of treatment that enables T cells to express specific CARs on their surface, then returns these T cells to tumor patients to kill the corresponding tumor cells. Significant strides in CAR-T cell immunotherapy against hematologic malignancies have elicited research interest among scholars in the treatment of solid tumors. Read More

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The Role of ZEB2 in Human CD8 T Lymphocytes: Clinical and Cellular Immune Profiling in Mowat-Wilson Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

The Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The gene encodes a transcription factor (ZEB2) that acts as an important immune mediator in mice, where it is expressed in early-activated effector CD8 T cells, and limits effector differentiation. homozygous knockout mice have deficits in CD8 T cells and NK cells. Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare genetic disease resulting from heterozygous mutations in causing disease by haploinsufficiency. Read More

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MTOR Signaling and Metabolism in Early T Cell Development.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 13;12(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell fate and responses via its functions in regulating metabolism. Its role in controlling immunity was unraveled by early studies on the immunosuppressive properties of rapamycin. Recent studies have provided insights on how metabolic reprogramming and mTOR signaling impact peripheral T cell activation and fate. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Preclinical Infertility Cytotherapy: A Retrospective Review.

Stem Cells Int 2021 17;2021:8882368. Epub 2021 May 17.

First Affiliated Hospital, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Infertility is a global reproductive disorder which is caused by a variety of complex diseases. Infertility affects the individual, family, and community through physical, psychological, social and economic consequences. The results from recent preclinical studies regarding stem cell-based therapies are promising. Read More

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Regulation and function of CX3CR1 and its ligand CX3CL1 in kidney disease.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Molecular Medicine and Experimental Immunology, University Clinic of the Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms University Bonn, Biomedical Center II, Venusberg Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Attraction, retention, and differentiation of leukocytes to and within the kidney are governed by chemokines. The chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and its receptor CX3CR1 are exemplary in this regard as they are highly expressed and further upregulated in a range of kidney diseases. CX3CL1 is chiefly produced by renal endothelium and tubular epithelium, where it promotes leukocyte attraction. Read More

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[email protected] MSCs Targeting the Spinal Cord to Treat Neuropathic Pain Under the Guidance of a Magnetic Field.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 11;16:3275-3292. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Scientific Research Center, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Neuropathic pain causes great distress among patients; however, its response to traditional analgesia techniques remains sub-optimal. There has been progress in stem cell research for neuropathic pain treatment; however, effective homing remains problematic. This study aimed to establish [email protected](PDA)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); moreover, we aimed to guide MSCs using a magnetic field to the spinal cord segments showing pain-related responses to allow MSC homing and gathering, in advance, in order to fully employ their repair function. Read More

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Luspatercept restores SDF-1-mediated hematopoietic support by MDS-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

Leukemia 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

German Consortium for Cancer Research (DKTK, Site Dresden), DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany.

The bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), clonal blood disorders affecting the differentiation, and maturation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). In lower-risk MDS patients, ineffective late-stage erythropoiesis can be restored by luspatercept, an activin receptor type IIB ligand trap. Here, we investigated whether luspatercept can modulate the functional properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as key components of the BMME. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: The Prospect of Human Clinical Translation.

Stem Cells Int 2020 11;2020:8837654. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are key players in regenerative medicine, relying principally on their differentiation/regeneration potential, immunomodulatory properties, paracrine effects, and potent homing ability with minimal if any ethical concerns. Even though multiple preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated remarkable properties for MSCs, the clinical applicability of MSC-based therapies is still questionable. Several challenges exist that critically hinder a successful clinical translation of MSC-based therapies, including but not limited to heterogeneity of their populations, variability in their quality and quantity, donor-related factors, discrepancies in protocols for isolation, in vitro expansion and premodification, and variability in methods of cell delivery, dosing, and cell homing. Read More

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The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living With HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates With Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Translocation.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:661990. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Long-term changes in the immune system of successfully treated people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed 108 white blood cell (WBC) populations in a cohort of 211 PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and in 56 HIV-uninfected controls using flow cytometry. We show that marked differences exist in T cell maturation and differentiation between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected controls: PLHIV had reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells and naïve T cells and increased percentages of CD8+ T cells, effector T cells, and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, together with increased Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios. Read More

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Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

CD8+ T cells are important antiviral effectors that can potentiate long-lived immunity against COVID-19, but a detailed characterization of these cells has been hampered by technical challenges. We screened 21 well-characterized, longitudinally-sampled convalescent donors that recovered from mild COVID-19 against a collection of SARS-CoV-2 tetramers, and identified one participant with an immunodominant response against Nuc , a peptide that is conserved in all the SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern reported to date. We conducted 38- parameter CyTOF phenotyping on tetramer-identified Nuc -specific CD8+ T cells, and on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognizing the entire nucleocapsid and spike proteins from SARS- CoV-2, and took 32 serological measurements on longitudinal specimens from this participant. Read More

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Neuroprotective response and efficacy of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells in traumatic brain injury mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), DRDO, Delhi, India.

Cellular transplantation of stem cells can be a beneficial treatment approach for neurodegenerative diseases such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation potential of infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after localisation at the injury site. We evaluated the appropriate homing of infused MSCs through immunohistochemistry, followed by Y-chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Read More

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Antigen Expression Regulates CD4 T Cell Differentiation and Vaccine Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

mBio 2021 04 20;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

New vaccines are urgently needed against (Mtb), which kills more than 1.4 million people each year. CD4 T cell differentiation is a key determinant of protective immunity against Mtb, but it is not fully understood how host-pathogen interactions shape individual antigen-specific T cell populations and their protective capacity. Read More

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The Heteromeric Complex Formed by Dopamine Receptor D and CCR9 Leads the Gut Homing of CD4 T Cells Upon Inflammation.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 20;12(2):489-506. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratorio de Neuroinmunología, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Ñuñoa, Chile; Facultad de Medicina y Ciencia, Universidad San Sebastián, Providencia, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: CD4 T cells constitute central players in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), driving inflammation in the gut mucosa. Current evidence indicates that CCR9 and the integrin α4β7 are necessary and sufficient to imprint colonic homing on CD4 T cells upon inflammation. Interestingly, dopaminergic signaling has been previously involved in leukocyte homing. Read More

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Characterization of CD31 expression in CD4+ and CD8+T cell subpopulations in chronic untreated HIV infection.

Immunol Lett 2021 Jul 20;235:22-31. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, México City, Mexico.

Background: The platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or CD31 has been involved in regulation of T-cell tolerance, activation, survival and homing in mice cells. However, there is limited knowledge about the expression pattern and role of this molecule in human T cells, particularly in conditions of chronic immune activation.

Objectives: We explored CD31 expression in T cell differentiation subsets of individuals with untreated HIV infection and in non-HIV-infected controls. Read More

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Biofunctionalized Structure and Ingredient Mimicking Scaffolds Achieving Recruitment and Chondrogenesis for Staged Cartilage Regeneration.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:655440. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Orthopedics, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing Key Lab of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopedics, Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Trauma & War Injuries PLA, Beijing, China.

It remains scientifically challenging to regenerate injured cartilage in orthopedics. Recently, an endogenous cell recruitment strategy based on a combination of acellular scaffolds and chemoattractants to specifically and effectively recruit host cells and promote chondrogenic differentiation has brought new hope for articular cartilage regeneration. In this study, a transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3)-loaded biomimetic natural scaffold based on demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) and acellular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) was developed and found to improve chondral repair by enhancing cell migration and chondrogenesis. Read More

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From hair to pancreas: transplanted hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells express pancreatic progenitor cell markers in a rat model of acute pancreatitis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1389-1399. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University Harbin 150086, P. R. China.

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is commonly accompanied by intense pain and is associated with high mortality rates. However, the effectiveness of existing therapeutic approaches remains unsatisfactory. Stem cell therapy, which can promote the regeneration of damaged tissue and alleviate systemic inflammatory responses, has brought new possibility for patients suffering from AP. Read More

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