Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.
Research Institute of Molecular Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
Pathophysiology of chronic neurodegeneration is mainly based on complex mechanisms related to aberrant signal transduction, excitation/inhibition imbalance, excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity and protein misfolding, local insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, excessive cell death, development of glia-supported neuroinflammation, and failure of neurogenesis. These mechanisms tightly associate with dramatic alterations in the structure and activity of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). NVU is an ensemble of brain cells (brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, pericytes, neurons, and microglia) serving for the adjustment of cell-to-cell interactions, metabolic coupling, local microcirculation, and neuronal excitability to the actual needs of the brain. Read More