19,378 results match your criteria homeostasis neurons


Colonization of the Caenorhabditis elegans gut with human enteric bacterial pathogens leads to proteostasis disruption that is rescued by butyrate.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009510. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology & Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Protein conformational diseases are characterized by misfolding and toxic aggregation of metastable proteins, often culminating in neurodegeneration. Enteric bacteria influence the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases; however, the complexity of the human microbiome hinders our understanding of how individual microbes influence these diseases. Disruption of host protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, affects the onset and progression of these diseases. Read More

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Genetic analysis of the Drosophila ESCRT-III complex protein, VPS24, reveals a novel function in lysosome homeostasis.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251184. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology and Center for Cellular Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States of America.

The ESCRT pathway is evolutionarily conserved across eukaryotes and plays key roles in a variety of membrane remodeling processes. A new Drosophila mutant recovered in our forward genetic screens for synaptic transmission mutants mapped to the vps24 gene encoding a subunit of the ESCRT-III complex. Molecular characterization indicated a loss of VPS24 function, however the mutant is viable and thus loss of VPS24 may be studied in a developed multicellular organism. Read More

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FSHR-1/GPCR Regulates the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Genetics 2020 Feb;214(2):409-418

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033.

The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive response that functions to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis following mitochondrial damage. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the nervous system plays a central role in responding to mitochondrial stress by releasing endocrine signals that act upon distal tissues to activate the UPRmt. The mechanisms by which mitochondrial stress is sensed by neurons and transmitted to distal tissues are not fully understood. Read More

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February 2020

Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma.

Authors:
Joao N Duarte

J Ophthalmol 2021 15;2021:4581909. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Neuroinflammation Unit, Biotech Research & Innovation Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The exact mechanism of retinal ganglion cell loss in the pathogenesis of glaucoma is yet to be understood. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy, as well as to brain neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence shows that, in conditions where mitochondria are damaged, a sustained inflammatory response and downstream pathological inflammation may ensue. Read More

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Neurovascular Interactions in Malaria.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 May 5:1-10. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium infection and remains a serious public health problem worldwide, despite control efforts. Malaria can progress to severe forms, affecting multiple organs, including the brain causing cerebral malaria (CM). CM is the most severe neurological complication of malaria, and cognitive and behavior deficits are commonly reported in surviving patients. Read More

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Remodeling of the Homer-Shank interactome mediates homeostatic plasticity.

Sci Signal 2021 May 4;14(681). Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.

Neurons maintain stable levels of excitability using homeostatic synaptic scaling, which adjusts the strength of a neuron's postsynaptic inputs to compensate for extended changes in overall activity. Here, we investigated whether prolonged changes in activity affect network-level protein interactions at the synapse. We assessed a glutamatergic synapse protein interaction network (PIN) composed of 380 binary associations among 21 protein members in mouse neurons. Read More

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Mutations and Protein Interaction Landscape Reveal Key Cellular Events Perturbed in Upper Motor Neurons with HSP and PLS.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are rare motor neuron diseases, which affect mostly the upper motor neurons (UMNs) in patients. The UMNs display early vulnerability and progressive degeneration, while other cortical neurons mostly remain functional. Identification of numerous mutations either directly linked or associated with HSP and PLS begins to reveal the genetic component of UMN diseases. Read More

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Synaptic Zinc: An Emerging Player in Parkinson's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

CNRS, Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives, (UMR 729), Aix Marseille Université, 13331 Marseille, France.

Alterations of zinc homeostasis have long been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Zinc plays a complex role as both deficiency and excess of intracellular zinc levels have been incriminated in the pathophysiology of the disease. Besides its role in multiple cellular functions, Zn also acts as a synaptic transmitter in the brain. Read More

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Lipocalin 2 regulates iron homeostasis, neuroinflammation, and insulin resistance in the brains of patients with dementia: Evidence from the current literature.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

Dementia accompanied by memory loss is considered one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide, and its prevalence is gradually increasing. Known risk factors for dementia include genetic background, certain lifestyle and dietary patterns, smoking, iron overload, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose metabolism in the brain. Here, we review recent evidence on the regulatory role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in dementia from various perspectives. Read More

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Upregulation of brain cholesterol levels inhibits mitophagy in Alzheimer disease.

Autophagy 2021 May 4:1-3. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cell Death and Proliferation, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB-CSIC), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is behind several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is already observed at the early stages of AD and has been linked to impaired mitophagy, but the mechanisms underlying this alteration are still not fully known. In our recent study, we show that intracellular cholesterol enrichment can downregulate amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced mitophagy. Read More

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Effects of electromagnetic fields on neuronal ion channels: a systematic review.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Leverhulme Quantum Biology Doctoral Training Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Many aspects of chemistry and biology are mediated by electromagnetic field (EMF) interactions. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly sensitive to EMF stimuli. Studies have explored the direct effect of different EMFs on the electrical properties of neurons in the last two decades, particularly focusing on the role of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Read More

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Normalization of Calcium Balance in Striatal Neurons in Huntington's Disease: Sigma 1 Receptor as a Potential Target for Therapy.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Apr;86(4):471-479

Laboratory of Molecular Neurodegeneration, Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, 195251, Russia.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative, dominantly inherited genetic disease caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin gene. At the cellular level, HD is characterized by the accumulation of mutant huntingtin protein in brain cells, resulting in the development of the HD phenotype, which includes mental disorders, decreased cognitive abilities, and progressive motor impairments in the form of chorea. Despite numerous studies, no unambigous connection between the accumulation of mutant protein and selective death of striatal neurons has yet been established. Read More

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The pleiotropic of GLP-1/GLP-1R axis in central nervous system diseases.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 3:1-38. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) is a multifunctional polypeptide throughout the lifespan via activating Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R).GLP-1 can affect food ingestion, enhance the secretion of insulin from pancreatic islets induced by glucose and be utilized to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).But, accumulating evidences from the decades suggest that activation GLP-1R can not only regulate the blood glucose, but also sustain the homeostasis of intracellular environment and protect neuron from various damaged responses such as oxidative stress, inflammation, excitotoxicity, ischemia and so on. Read More

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Targeting AMPK by Statins: A Potential Therapeutic Approach.

Drugs 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Statins are a group of lipid-lowering drugs that inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory properties. Several lines of evidence indicate that statins regulate multiple proteins associated with the regulation of differing cellular pathways. The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway plays an important role in metabolism homeostasis with effects on cellular processes including apoptosis and the inflammatory responses through several pathways. Read More

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Melanocortin 4 receptor signals at the neuronal primary cilium to control food intake and body weight.

J Clin Invest 2021 May;131(9)

Department of Medicine and The Diabetes Center and.

The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis, and mutations in the MC4R are the most common cause of monogenic obesity. However, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of energy balance within MC4R-expressing neurons are unknown. We recently reported that the MC4R localizes to the primary cilium, a cellular organelle that allows for partitioning of incoming cellular signals, raising the question of whether the MC4R functions in this organelle. Read More

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Proteostasis in the Male and Female Germline: A New Outlook on the Maintenance of Reproductive Health.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:660626. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

For fully differentiated, long lived cells the maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) becomes a crucial determinant of cellular function and viability. Neurons are the most well-known example of this phenomenon where the majority of these cells must survive the entire course of life. However, male and female germ cells are also uniquely dependent on the maintenance of proteostasis to achieve successful fertilization. Read More

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Molecular Basis of GABA Hypofunction in Adolescent Schizophrenia-Like Animals.

Neural Plast 2021 15;2021:9983438. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction appears centrally involved. Schizophrenia typically emerges in adolescence or early adulthood. Electrophysiological and several neurochemical changes have linked the GABA deficits to abnormal behaviors induced by NMDAR hypofunction. Read More

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Iron overload in the motor cortex induces neuronal ferroptosis following spinal cord injury.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 22;43:101984. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Motor neuron death is supposed to result in primary motor cortex atrophy after spinal cord injury (SCI), which is relevant to poorer motor recovery for patients with SCI. However, the exact mechanisms of motor neuron death remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that iron deposition in the motor cortex was significantly increased in both SCI patients and rats, which triggered the accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resulted in motor neuronal ferroptosis ultimately. Read More

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Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the tadpole brain: Response to different energy states.

Neuropeptides 2021 Apr 20;88:102152. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India. Electronic address:

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is an anorexigenic neuropeptide known to play a key role in energy homeostasis across the vertebrate phyla. In the current study, we have investigated the response of the CART immunoreactive system to varying energy states in the brain of a tadpole model. The pro-metamorphic tadpoles of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis were fasted, or intracranially injected with glucose or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG; an antagonist to glucose inducing glucoprivation) and the response of the CART containing system in various neuroanatomical areas was studied using immunohistochemistry. Read More

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Prospects for the application of Müller glia and their derivatives in retinal regenerative therapies.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Apr 28:100970. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK. Electronic address:

Neural cell death is the main feature of all retinal degenerative disorders that lead to blindness. Despite therapeutic advances, progression of retinal disease cannot always be prevented, and once neuronal cell damage occurs, visual loss cannot be reversed. Recent research in the stem cell field, and the identification of Müller glia with stem cell characteristics in the human eye, have provided hope for the use of these cells in retinal therapies to restore vision. Read More

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Microglia Specific Drug Targeting Using Natural Products for the Regulation of Redox Imbalance in Neurodegeneration.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:654489. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Microglia, a type of innate immune cell of the brain, regulates neurogenesis, immunological surveillance, redox imbalance, cognitive and behavioral changes under normal and pathological conditions like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury. Microglia produces a wide variety of cytokines to maintain homeostasis. It also participates in synaptic pruning and regulation of neurons overproduction by phagocytosis of neural precursor cells. Read More

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Novel botanical therapeutic NB-02 effectively treats Alzheimer's neuropathophysiology in an APP/PS1 mouse model.

eNeuro 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, MassGeneral Institute of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 114 Sixteenth St., Charlestown, MA 02129.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder and a major cause of dementia. Some of the hallmarks of AD include presence of amyloid plaques in brain parenchyma, calcium dysregulation within individual neurons, and neuroinflammation. A promising therapeutic would reverse or stymie these pathophysiologies in an animal model of AD. Read More

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Expression Analysis of Zinc Transporters in Nervous Tissue Cells Reveals Neuronal and Synaptic Localization of ZIP4.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Cellular Neurobiology and Neuro-Nanotechnology Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, V94PH61 Limerick, Ireland.

In the last years, research has shown that zinc ions play an essential role in the physiology of brain function. Zinc acts as a potent neuromodulatory agent and signaling ions, regulating healthy brain development and the function of both neurons and glial cells. Therefore, the concentration of zinc within the brain and its cells is tightly controlled. Read More

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Blood-Brain Barrier and Neurovascular Unit In Vitro Models for Studying Mitochondria-Driven Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Institute of Molecular Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Pathophysiology of chronic neurodegeneration is mainly based on complex mechanisms related to aberrant signal transduction, excitation/inhibition imbalance, excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity and protein misfolding, local insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, excessive cell death, development of glia-supported neuroinflammation, and failure of neurogenesis. These mechanisms tightly associate with dramatic alterations in the structure and activity of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). NVU is an ensemble of brain cells (brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, pericytes, neurons, and microglia) serving for the adjustment of cell-to-cell interactions, metabolic coupling, local microcirculation, and neuronal excitability to the actual needs of the brain. Read More

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Intersection between Redox Homeostasis and Autophagy: Valuable Insights into Neurodegeneration.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Program in Biomedical Science & Engineering, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Autophagy, a main degradation pathway for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and redox homeostasis have recently been considered to play protective roles in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurons can induce mitochondrial damage and protein aggregation, thereby resulting in neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress is one of the major activation signals for the induction of autophagy. Read More

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Astrocyte Activation in Neurovascular Damage and Repair Following Ischaemic Stroke.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK.

Transient or permanent loss of tissue perfusion due to ischaemic stroke can lead to damage to the neurovasculature, and disrupt brain homeostasis, causing long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Despite promising pre-clinical studies, clinically approved neuroprotective therapies are lacking. Most studies have focused on neurons while ignoring the important roles of other cells of the neurovascular unit, such as astrocytes and pericytes. Read More

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Modulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Activating Adenosine A2 Receptors in Oncological Treatment.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 24;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211A, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important protective role in the central nervous system and maintains its homeostasis. It regulates transport into brain tissue and protects neurons against the toxic effects of substances circulating in the blood. However, in the case of neurological diseases or primary brain tumors, i. Read More

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The Multifaceted Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Member X2 in Allergic Diseases and Beyond.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

Recent research on mast cell biology has turned its focus on MRGPRX2, a new member of the Mas-related G protein-coupled subfamily of receptors (Mrgprs), originally described in nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. MRGPRX2, a member of this group, is present not only in neurons but also in mast cells (MCs), specifically, and potentially in other cells of the immune system, such as basophils and eosinophils. As emerging new functions for this receptor are studied, a variety of both natural and pharmacologic ligands are being uncovered, linked to the ability to induce receptor-mediated MC activation and degranulation. Read More

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Impaired Ca Sensitivity of a Novel GCAP1 Variant Causes Cone Dystrophy and Leads to Abnormal Synaptic Transmission Between Photoreceptors and Bipolar Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy.

Guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) is involved in the shutdown of the phototransduction cascade by regulating the enzymatic activity of retinal guanylate cyclase via a Ca/cGMP negative feedback. While the phototransduction-associated role of GCAP1 in the photoreceptor outer segment is widely established, its implication in synaptic transmission to downstream neurons remains to be clarified. Here, we present clinical and biochemical data on a novel isolate GCAP1 variant leading to a double amino acid substitution (p. Read More

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Hypothalamic GHR-SIRT1 Axis in Fasting.

Cells 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Integrative Biosciences Center (IBio), Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48202, USA.

Many aspects of physiological functions are controlled by the hypothalamus, a brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to whole-body metabolism. Growth hormone (GH) and the GH receptor (GHR) are expressed in hypothalamic regions known to participate in the regulation of feeding and whole-body energy homeostasis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is the most conserved mamma-lian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylase that plays a key role in controlling life span and sensing nutrient availability in the hypothalamus in response to caloric restriction. Read More

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