Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2015 27;316:1-47. Epub 2015 Feb 27.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA. Electronic address:
The immune system is based on the actions of the collection of specialized immune defense cells and their secreted proteins and peptides that defend the host against infection by parasites. Parasites are organisms that live part or all of their lives in close physical association with the host and extract nutrients from the host and, by releasing toxins and virulence factors, cause disease with the potential for injury and premature death of that host. Parasites of the metazoa can be viruses, eubacteria, fungi, protozoans, and other metazoans. Read More