58 results match your criteria hoct


Morphological and Molecular Study of Hybrid Oncocytic/Chromophobe Tumor of the Kidney Associated with Sporadic Renal Oncocytosis and Chronic B-Cell Lymphocytic Leukemia: The Possible Contribution of Lymphoma to Renal Oncocytosis.

Pathobiology 2021 Apr 21:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Pathology, University Hospital Virgen Macarena, University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain.

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) of the kidney arising from a precursor oncocytosis not associated with the Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an unusual and highly interesting neoplasm. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings suggest that HOCT is an entity distinct from both oncocytoma and chromophobe carcinoma. Although uncertainty persists regarding the factors predisposing to the development of HOCT, experimental findings suggest that it may arise due to the effect of toxins or in association with chronic kidney failure. Read More

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α-PPP and its derivatives are selective partial releasers at the human norepinephrine transporter: A pharmacological characterization of interactions between pyrrolidinopropiophenones and high and low affinity monoamine transporters.

Neuropharmacology 2021 06 20;190:108570. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medical University of Vienna, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Währingerstraße 13A, 1090, Vienna, Austria; AddRess Centre for Addiction Research and Science, Medical University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 13A, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

While classical cathinones, such as methcathinone, have been shown to be monoamine releasing agents at human monoamine transporters, the subgroup of α-pyrrolidinophenones has thus far solely been characterized as monoamine transporter reuptake inhibitors. Herein, we report data from previously undescribed α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP) derivatives and compare them with the pharmacologically well-researched α-PVP (α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone). Radiotracer-based in vitro uptake inhibition assays in HEK293 cells show that the investigated α-PPP derivatives inhibit the human high-affinity transporters of dopamine (hDAT) and norepinephrine (hNET) in the low micromolar range, with α-PVP being ten times more potent. Read More

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[Clinicopathological features of hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe renal cell tumor].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;50(2):97-102

Department of Pathology, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.

To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes of hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) of the kidney and its associations with renal oncocytoma (RO) and eosinophilic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (eChRCC). A total of 8 HOCT cases were collected from 2008 to 2019 at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University (5 cases) and 971 Hospital of PLA Navy (3 cases), Qingdao, China for morphological studies, immunohistochemical staining and follow-up. The immunohistochemical results of HOCT were compared with those of 27 typical RO and 17 eChRCC. Read More

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February 2021

Assessment of Interaction of Human OCT 1-3 Proteins and Metformin Using Silico Analyses.

Acta Chim Slov 2020 Dec;67(4):1202-1215

Metformin, a drug frequently used by diabetic patients as the first-line treatment worldwide, is positively charged and is transported into the cell through human organic cation transporter (hOCT 1-3) proteins. We aimed to mimic the cellular uptake of metformin by hOCT1-3 with various bioinformatics methods and tools. 3D structure of OCT1-3 proteins was predicted by considering the structures and function of these proteins. Read More

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December 2020

Role of amino terminal substitutions in the pharmacological, rewarding and psychostimulant profiles of novel synthetic cathinones.

Neuropharmacology 2021 03 30;186:108475. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Pharmacology Section and Institute of Biomedicine (IBUB), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The emergence of new synthetic cathinones continues to be a matter of public health concern. In fact, they are quickly replaced by new structurally related alternatives. The main goal of the present study was to characterize the pharmacological profile, the psychostimulant and rewarding properties of novel cathinones (pentedrone, N-ethyl-pentedrone, α-PVP, N,N-diethyl-pentedrone and α-PpVP) which only differs in their amino terminal substitution. Read More

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Central Macular Thickness in a Healthy Mexican Population Using Huvitz Optical Coherence Tomography.

Clin Ophthalmol 2020 17;14:3931-3940. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Retina department, Instituto Mexicano de Oftalmología I.A.P., Santiago De Querétaro, Querétaro, México.

Objective: To determine normal macular thickness values in a healthy Mexican population and its variation by age and gender using Huvitz spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (HOCT-1F).

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 211 consecutive eyes from clinically normal subjects (66 men, 145 women) between October 2018 and December 2018, with best-corrected visual acuities better than 20/30. One eye was selected for the macular scan using the Huvitz OCT (Huvitz OCT-1F, HOCT-1F, Huvitz Co. Read More

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November 2020

Spontaneous rupture of a hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor: A case report.

Urol Case Rep 2020 Nov 16;33:101304. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan.

The prognosis of Hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor (HOCT) is usually excellent, nevertheless, we are reporting a rare case of HOCT that resulted in death from tumor infection and rupture. Bilateral solid and cystic masses were detected in a 55-year-old woman during a computed tomography examination. HOCT was diagnosed following histopathological examination obtained during needle biopsy. Read More

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November 2020

Sporadic oncocytic tumors with features intermediate between oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: comprehensive clinicopathological and genomic profiling.

Hum Pathol 2020 10 13;104:18-29. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, United States. Electronic address:

Morphology, clinical behavior, and genomic profiles of renal oncocytoma (RO) and its malignant counterpart chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) are distinctly different. However, there is a substantial group of sporadic oncocytic tumors with peculiar hybrid phenotypes as well as a perplexing degree of morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between classic RO and ChRCC with eosinophilic cytoplasm. The aim of this study is to provide detailed characterization of these hybrid tumors. Read More

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October 2020

Characterization of -Iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) Transport by Polyspecific Organic Cation Transporters: Implication for mIBG Therapy.

Mol Pharmacol 2020 08 2;98(2):109-119. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Radiolabeled -iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is an important radiopharmaceutical used in the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. mIBG is known to enter tumor cells through the norepinephrine transporter. Whole-body scintigraphy has shown rapid mIBG elimination through the kidney and high accumulation in several normal tissues, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Read More

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Interactions of human organic anion transporters 1-4 and human organic cation transporters 1-3 with the stimulant drug methamphetamine and amphetamine.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Feb 18;44:101689. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Legal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ward, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan.

Drug membrane transport system proteins, namely, drug transporters, are expressed in the kidney and liver and play a crucial role in the excretion process. This study aimed to elucidate the interactions of the drug transporters human organic anion transporters 1, 2, 3, 4 (hOAT1, 2, 3, 4) and human organic cation transporters 1, 2, 3 (hOCT1, 2, 3), which are expressed primarily in human kidney, liver, and brain, with the stimulants methamphetamine (METH) and amphetamine (AMP). The results of an inhibition study using representative substrates of hOATs and hOCTs showed that METH and AMP significantly inhibited (by >50%) uptake of the hOCT1 and hOCT3 representative substrate 1-methy1-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP) and hOCT2 representative substrate tetraethyl ammonium (TEA). Read More

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February 2020

Repeatability of quantitative measurements of retinal layers with SD-OCT and agreement between vertical and horizontal scan protocols in healthy eyes.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(8):e0221466. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Unit of Optometry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: To evaluate the repeatability of the new spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HOCT-1F), and also to evaluate the agreement between vertical and horizontal scan protocols. In addition, we also evaluated the relation between the repeatability and age.

Methods: Three consecutive measurements of the inner limiting membrane-retinal pigment epithelium (ILM-RPE), inner limiting membrane-inner plexiform layer (ILM-IPL) from macular horizontal and vertical scans, and inner limiting membrane-retinal nerve fiber layer (ILM-RNFL) from optic disc horizontal scan. Read More

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Sporadic renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor in a young man: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Aug;98(33):e16641

Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Rationale: Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) is defined as tumor composed of renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC). Sporadic HOCT is extremely rare, the preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and no guidelines for clinical therapy. We report a case who is the youngest male patient of sporadic HOCT in the world, review the previously reported cases, and share the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of HOCT. Read More

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Identification of the Tetraspanin CD9 as an Interaction Partner of Organic Cation Transporters 1 and 2.

SLAS Discov 2019 10 18;24(9):904-914. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Medizinische Klinik D, Experimentelle Nephrologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany.

Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are membrane proteins with relevant physiological (because they accept neurotransmitters as substrate) and pharmacological (because of their interaction with drugs) roles. The human OCTs hOCT1 (/hOCT1) and hOCT2 (/hOCT2) are highly expressed in hepatic (hOCT1) and in renal and neuronal tissue (hOCT2), suggesting a possible role in modulating neurotransmitter activity in the liver, kidney, and brain, and their clearance from the blood. Even though there are several data demonstrating that OCTs are regulated under various patho-physiological conditions, it remains largely unknown which proteins directly interact with OCTs and thereby influence their cellular processing, localization, and function. Read More

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October 2019

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe renal tumors are molecularly distinct from oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2019 11 23;32(11):1698-1707. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) of the kidney represents a poorly understood clinicopathologic entity with pathologic features that overlap between benign renal oncocytoma (RO) and malignant chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC). Consequently, characterization of HOCT and its separation from the foregoing entities are clinically important. The aim of this study was to describe the pathologic and molecular features of HOCT and to compare them with those of RO and ChRCC. Read More

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November 2019

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe renal cell tumor: An integrated genetic and epigenetic characterization of a case.

Exp Mol Pathol 2018 12 18;105(3):352-356. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pathology, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Portugal; Cancer Biology & Epigenetics Group, Research Center, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Portugal; Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Introduction: Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) is a renal cell neoplasm displaying overlapping cellular and architectural features of both renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC). It has been described in the context of oncocytosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and also sporadically. Thus far, HOCT immunohischemical profile and cytogenetic alterations have been reported, but not epigenetic alterations. Read More

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December 2018

Renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor associated with multiple schwannomas: Case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(48):e8939

Department of Urology Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Rationale: Renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) are benign tumors containing a mixture of cells with features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). Sporadic HOCT, which means HOCT occurs in patients without Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) or renal oncocytosis, is extremely rare. In this article, we would report a new case of a patient with both sporadic HOCT and multiple Schwannomas, which is even rarer than simplex sporadic HOCT. Read More

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December 2017

Multiple drug transporters mediate the placental transport of sulpiride.

Arch Toxicol 2017 Dec 9;91(12):3873-3884. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Read More

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December 2017

Molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry characterization of uncommon and recently described renal cell carcinomas.

Chin J Cancer Res 2016 Feb;28(1):29-49

1 Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China ; 2 Department of Pathology and Laboratory, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compromises multiple types and has been emerging dramatically over the recent several decades. Advances and consensus have been achieved targeting common RCCs, such as clear cell carcinoma, papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Nevertheless, little is known on the characteristics of several newly-identified RCCs, including clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, Xp11 translocation RCC, t(6;11) RCC, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC, ALK translocation RCC, thyroid-like follicular RCC, tubulocystic RCC and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCT). Read More

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February 2016

[Oncocytoma versus chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Is there something in between?].

Pathologe 2016 Mar;37(2):153-8

Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Deutschland.

The differentiation of oncocytic tumors of the kidneys is often difficult, particularly in renal biopsies. Differential diagnoses are chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), renal oncocytoma (RO), the oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma (OPRCC), the eosinophilic variant of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumors (HOCT). In difficult cases that cannot be resolved by morphology alone, immunohistochemistry is usually helpful. Read More

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[The neurotoxicity of pyridinium metabolites of haloperidol].

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2015 Oct 19;69:1169-75. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Katedra i Zakład Farmakodynamiki i Farmakologii Molekularnej.

Haloperydol is a butyrophenone, typical neuroleptic agent characterized as a high antipsychotics effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and in palliative care to alleviation many syndromes, such as naursea, vomiting and delirium. Clinical problems occurs during and after administration of the drug are side effects, particularly extrapyrramidal symptoms (EPS). The neurotoxicity of haloperydol may be initiated by the cationic metabolites of haloperydol, HPP+, RHPP+, formed by oxidation and reduction pathways. Read More

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October 2015

Atenolol Renal Secretion Is Mediated by Human Organic Cation Transporter 2 and Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Proteins.

Drug Metab Dispos 2015 Dec 15;43(12):1872-81. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Atenolol is a β-blocker widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Atenolol is cleared predominantly by the kidney by both glomerular filtration and active secretion, but the molecular mechanisms involved in its renal secretion are unclear. Using a panel of human embryonic kidney cell lines stably expressing human organic cation transporter (hOCT) 1-3, human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1, hOAT3, human multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (hMATE) 1, and hMATE2-K, we found that atenolol interacted with both organic cation and anion transporters. Read More

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December 2015

Nucleoside transporter proteins as biomarkers of drug responsiveness and drug targets.

Front Pharmacol 2015 10;6:13. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona Spain ; Oncology Program, CIBER ehd, National Biomedical Research Institute on Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona Spain.

Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. Read More

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February 2015

Immunohistochemical characterization of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

Pathol Int 2015 Mar 19;65(3):126-32. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Department of Molecular Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with a germline mutation of folliculin (FLCN). The affected families are at a high risk for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Little is known about the immunostaining patterns of mutant FLCN-associated RCCs. Read More

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Renal cell carcinoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Am J Surg Pathol 2014 Jul;38(7):895-909

Departments of *Pathology **Urology ††Carol and James Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Massachusetts General Hospital ‡‡Division of Translational Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston ∥Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA †Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou §Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN #Department of Medicine, Division of Genomic Medicine, Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA ¶Department of Neurology and Epileptology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2% to 4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into 3 groups. Read More

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Inhibition of organic cation transporter 2 and 3 may be involved in the mechanism of the antidepressant-like action of berberine.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Mar 15;49:1-6. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and 3 (OCT3) are low-affinity, high-capacity transporters (uptake-2) expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and other major organs. Proven to be essential components in the CNS functions, OCT2 and OCT3 are suggested as potential targets of antidepressant therapeutics recently. Berberine, an active constituent derived from many medicinal plants, such as Coptis chinensis, has been reported to possess antidepressant-like action in the tail suspension test and forced swim test with elevated serotonin/norepinephrine/dopamine (5-HT/NE/DA) level in mouse brain; however the mechanism has not been elucidated. Read More

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Renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors - a review.

Histol Histopathol 2013 10 6;28(10):1257-64. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Department of Pathology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Czech Republic.

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCT) occur in three clinico-pathologic situations; (1) sporadically, (2) in association with renal oncocytomatosis and (3) in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD). There are no specific clinical symptoms in patients with sporadic or HOCT associated with oncocytosis/oncocytomatosis. HOCT in patients with BHD are usually encountered on characteristic BHD clinicopathologic background. Read More

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October 2013

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe renal cell tumours do not display genomic features of chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

Virchows Arch 2013 Jun 25;462(6):633-8. Epub 2013 May 25.

Department of Pathology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumours (HOCT) are renal tumours recently described displaying histological features of both renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), raising the question of their precise signification in the RO/ChRCC group. This study aimed to describe clinicopathological features of so called HOCT and to characterise their genomic profile. Five hundred and eighty-three tumours belonging to the ChRCC/RO group were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Effect of famotidine on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor.

Clin Pharmacol 2013 16;5:59-66. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, Discovery Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Background: Apixaban is an oral, selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for thromboprophylaxis after orthopedic surgery and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and under development for treatment of venous thromboembolism. This study investigated the effect of a gastric acid suppressant, famotidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist), on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban in healthy subjects.

Methods: This two-period, two-treatment crossover study randomized 18 healthy subjects to receive a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg with and without a single oral dose of famotidine 40 mg administered 3 hours before dosing with apixaban. Read More

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Oxybutynin and trospium are substrates of the human organic cation transporters.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2011 Feb 7;383(2):203-8. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Bonn, Biomedical Center, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany.

The muscarinic antagonists oxybutynin and trospium are used as spasmolytic agents for the treatment of overactive urinary bladder disease. Recently, it has been shown that trospium, but not oxybutynin, is a substrate of the multidrug efflux carrier P-glycoprotein, but carrier-mediated drug uptake has not been directly analysed for both drugs. However, trospium has been previously shown to exhibit inhibitory potency for the organic cation transporters (OCTs). Read More

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February 2011

A review of the clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of varenicline for smoking cessation.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2010 Dec;49(12):799-816

Clinical Pharmacology, Primary Care Unit, Pfizer Inc., New London, Connecticut 06320, USA.

Varenicline tartrate (Chantix®/Champix®) is a selective partial agonist of the α(4)β(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and is approved as an aid to smoking cessation. The usual oral dosage in adults is 1 mg twice daily for 12 weeks, with an initial titration week. Several clinical pharmacology studies have characterized the pharmacokinetics of varenicline in adult smokers aged 18-55 years, elderly smokers and nonsmokers aged ≥ 65 years, adolescent smokers aged 12-17 years and subjects with impaired renal function. Read More

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December 2010