838,170 results match your criteria hmgb1inflammatory cytokines


Normal weight obesity is associated with hypercholesterolemia and low muscle mass in persons living with HIV on antiretroviral treatment.

Nutrition 2021 Oct 14;94:111515. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico.

Objectives: Normal weight obesity (NWO) is defined as a condition of normal body weight, but with high body fat percentage. Clinical and immunologic implications of NWO in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine NWO prevalence and its associations with metabolic and immunologic measurements in a cohort of PLHIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Baicalin ameliorates APEC-induced intestinal injury in chicks by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

Poult Sci 2021 Oct 29;101(1):101572. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Animal Health, Institute of Animal Population Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of avian colibacillosis. Baicalin (BA) possesses multiple pharmacological effects, but the mechanism underlying its activity in APEC-induced intestinal injury remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the protective effects and possible mechanism of BA against APEC-induced intestinal injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Lamotrigine effects on immune gene expression in larval zebrafish.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Nov 23;178:106823. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway.

Purpose: Despite growing evidence that neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of seizures and epilepsy, this knowledge has not been incorporated in the proposed mechanism of action of any of the current antiseizure medications (ASMs). Here, we tested the hypothesis by assessing inflammation markers in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to lamotrigine (LTG).

Methods: In order to establish the most appropriate LTG concentrations for the transcriptome analysis (RNAseq), we initially assessed for teratogenic (spinal cord deformation, heart oedema, failed inflation of the swim bladder) and behavioural effects (distance moved, time spent active, and average swimming speed during a light/dark test) in zebrafish larvae exposed to 0, 50, 100, 300, 500, 750, and 1000 μM LTG continuously between 5 and 120 h post fertilisation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

IL-1 family cytokines as drivers and inhibitors of trained immunity.

Cytokine 2021 Nov 26;150:155773. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS) and Radboud Center of Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Genetics, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Strada Victor Babes 8, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Electronic address:

Trained immunity is the long-term memory of innate immune cells, characterised by increased pro-inflammatory responses towards homo- and heterologous secondary stimuli. Interleukin (IL)-1 signalling plays an essential role in the induction of trained immunity, also called innate immune memory. As such, certain anti-inflammatory members of the IL-1 family of cytokines (IL-1F) which interfere with the inflammatory process have the potential to regulate the induction of a trained phenotype. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Fructooligosaccharide ameliorates high-fat induced intrauterine inflammation and improves lipid profile in the hamster offspring.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Nov 26:108925. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, 500007. Electronic address:

Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) often results in intrauterine and feto-placental inflammation, and increases the risks of fetal programming of metabolic diseases. Intake of prebiotic is reported beneficial. However, its effects on HFD during pregnancy and lactation is not known. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Necroptosis in pulmonary macrophages promotes silica-induced inflammation and interstitial fibrosis in mice.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Dust Prevention and Control & Occupational Health and Safety, Ministry of Education, Huainan, China; Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory of Occupational Health and Safety, Huainan, China; the Key Laboratory of Industrial dust deep reduction and occupational health and safety of Anhui University, Huainan, China; School of medicine, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan, China; Cancer Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Silicosis is a disease characterized by extensive lung nodules and fibrosis caused by the prolonged inhalation of silica in occupational settings. However, the molecular mechanism of silicosis development is complex and not fully understood. Furthermore, the role of necroptosis, a death receptor-mediated and caspase-independent mode of inflammatory cell death, is not well understood in silicosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Immunotoxicity induced by Ivermectin is associated with NF-κB signaling pathway on macrophages.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 26:133087. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China. Electronic address:

Ivermectin (IVM) has been widely used as a highly effective and broad-spectrum biopesticide in animal husbandry and agriculture. Considering the frequent environmental and occupational exposure, the various toxic effects caused by IVM should be paid more attention. The immune system is a common target of toxins due to its complexity and sensitivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Luxeptinib Disables NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1β release and Pathways Required for Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Nov 26:114861. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Moores Cancer Center, Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Luxeptinib (CG-806) is an orally bioavailable multikinase inhibitor with nanomolar potency against select clusters of kinases including the BTK, FLT3, TRK, STE/MAPK and aurora kinase clusters. It is cytotoxic to primary malignant cells obtained from patients with AML, ALL, and CLL at lower concentrations than other BTK and FLT3 inhibitors, and has activity in AML and lymphoma xenografts at concentrations attainable in patients. Exposure of macrophages and monocytes to endotoxin triggers the release of IL-1β through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-6 and TNFα through transcriptional up-regulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Peptide vaccines designed with the aid of immunoinformatic against Caseous Lymphadenitis promotes humoral and cellular response induction in mice.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(11):e0256864. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Center for Studies on Colloidal Systems (NUESC)/Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Tiradentes University (UNIT), Aracaju, Brazil.

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects also small ruminants. CLA is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and is responsible for high economic losses due to the formation of superficial and visceral granulomas, the latter is considered as asymptomatic CLA causing high levels of dissemination. Several vaccination strategies, in which the use of synthetic peptides stands out. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Protecting Intestinal Mechanical Barrier, Restoring Unbalanced Gut Microbiota, and Regulating the Toll-Like Receptor-4/Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

This study aimed to explore the effects and differences of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing on the alleviation of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and to explore its patterns. Different strains were administered at 10 cfu/day 7 days before DSS treatment. CCFM681 significantly increased goblet cells, mucin2 (MUC2), claudin-3, α-catenin1, and ZO-1, but neither CCFM760 nor CCFM642 had those protective effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The mineralocorticoid receptor blocker spironolactone lowers plasma interferon-[gamma] and interleukin-6 in patients with type 2 diabetes and treatment-resistant hypertension.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense.

Background: The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone lowers blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension despite antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARB). In preclinical studies, spironolactone suppresses pro-hypertensive interleukin 17A (IL-17A).

Objectives: Plasma samples were analysed from a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial with spironolactone given to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and resistant hypertension on three antihypertensive drugs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imprint of unconventional T cell response in acute hepatitis C persists despite successful early antiviral treatment.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Unconventional T cells (UTCs) are a heterogenous group of T cells that typically exhibit rapid responses towards specific antigens from pathogens. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes dysfunction of several subsets of UTCs. This altered phenotype and function of UTCs can persist over time even after direct acting antiviral (DAA) mediated clearance of chronic HCV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Possible Interaction of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Against NF-κB- and COX-2-Mediated Inflammation: In Silico Probe.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Life Sciences, BS Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, 600048, India.

In recent years, inflammatory mediators have been considered a possible key for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's). NSAID's have been known as most promising medication against inflammation and its mediated pain. Inflammation could be recognize as a systemic adaptive stimulation triggered by detrimental stimuli as pathogenic attack and endogenous signals mediated injury inside the cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The Impact of Alcohol-Induced Dysbiosis on Diseases and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, 07079, USA.

The human digestive tract contains a diverse and abundant microbiota that is important for health. Excessive alcohol use can disrupt the balance of these microbes (known as dysbiosis), leading to elevated blood endotoxin levels and systemic inflammation. Using QIAGEN Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) bioinformatics tool, we have confirmed that peripheral endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) mediates various cytokines to enhance the neuroinflammation signaling pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Cellular components of the idiopathic epiretinal membrane.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.

Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular proliferation on the inner surface of the retina, which leads to decreased visual acuity and even central visual loss. As iERM is associated to advanced age and posterior vitreous detachment, a higher prevalence is expected with increasing life expectancy and aging of the global population. Although various cell types of retinal and extra-retinal origin have been described in iERMs (Müller glial cells, astrocytes, hyalocytes, retinal pigment epithelium cells, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts), myofibroblasts have a central role in collagen production and contractile activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Chemokine level predicts the therapeutic effect of anti-PD-1 antibody (nivolumab) therapy for malignant melanoma.

Arch Dermatol Res 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621, Japan.

Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody drugs, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are regarded as first-line therapies for advanced malignant melanoma. Anti-PD-1 therapy suppresses tumor immunity, and the therapeutic effect is frequently correlated with the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor mutation burden (TMB). However, sampling tumor tissues from the metastatic sites to examine the number of TILs and TMB level is often challenging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Colorectal Dysplasia and Cancer Surveillance in Ulcerative Colitis.

Diseases 2021 Nov 19;9(4). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a risk factor for the development of inflammation-associated dysplasia or colitis-associated neoplasia (CAN). This transformation results from chronic inflammation, which induces changes in epithelial proliferation, survival, and migration via the induction of chemokines and cytokines. There are notable differences in genetic mutation profiles between CAN in UC patients and sporadic colorectal cancer in the general population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Exploring the Inflammatory Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer.

Diseases 2021 Oct 30;9(4). Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, Franciscan Health, Olympia Fields, IL 60461, USA.

Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Traditionally, mechanisms of colorectal cancer formation have focused on genetic alterations including chromosomal damage and microsatellite instability. In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence supporting the role of inflammation in colorectal cancer formation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

The Role of an Anti-Inflammatory Diet in Conjunction to COVID-19.

Diseases 2021 Oct 29;9(4). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), otherwise known as COVID-19, has challenged healthcare systems at an international level. COVID-19 suppresses the immune system by causing a systemic inflammatory response, also known as cytokine release syndrome, leaving COVID-19 patients with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Nutrition's function in the respiratory and immune systems has been investigated in much research, and its significance cannot be overstated, as the nutritional status of patients has been shown to be directly connected with the severity of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

IL-33, IL-37, and Vitamin D Interaction Mediate Immunomodulation of Inflammation in Degenerating Cartilage.

Antibodies (Basel) 2021 Oct 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Translational Research, Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA.

Chronic joint inflammation due to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the accumulation of inflammatory immune cells (mainly macrophages), and vitamin D deficiency leads to cartilage degeneration and the development of osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the effect of vitamin D status on the expression of mediators of inflammation including interleukin (IL)-33, IL-37, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, toll-like receptors (TLRs), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in degenerating the cartilage of hyperlipidemic microswine. Additionally, in vitro studies with normal human chondrocytes were conducted to investigate the effect of calcitriol on the expression of IL-33, IL-37, IL-6, TNF-α, TLRs, DAMPs, and MMPs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Effects of chlorobromoisocyanuric acid on embryonic development and immunotoxicity of zebrafish.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Ji'an, China.

Although chlorobromoisocyanuric acid has been widely used in agriculture, its deleterious toxicity on aquatic organisms remains rare. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to chlorobromoisocyanuric acid (0, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) from 10 to 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). We found a significant reduction in immune cell numbers (neutrophils and macrophages) and the area of thymus at 96 hpf. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Intrinsic and damage-induced JAK/STAT signaling regulate developmental timing by the Drosophila prothoracic gland.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Development involves tightly paced, reproducible sequences of events, yet it must adjust to conditions external to it, such as resource availability and organismal damage. A major mediator of damage-induced immune responses in vertebrates and insects is JAK/STAT signaling. At the same time, JAK/STAT activation by the Drosophila Upd cytokines is pleiotropically involved in normal development of multiple organs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Identification of the Source of Secreted Proteins in the Kidney by Brefeldin A Injection.

J Vis Exp 2021 Nov 10(177). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center;

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the top ten leading causes of death in the USA. Acute kidney injury (AKI), while often recoverable, predisposes patients to CKD later in life. Kidney epithelial cells have been identified as key signaling nodes in both AKI and CKD, whereby the cells can determine the course of the disease through the secretion of cytokines and other proteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Anti-Inflammatory Agents: An Approach to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

Authors:
Staley A Brod

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Nov 21. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Systemic inflammation is an organism's response to an assault by the non-self. However, that inflammation may predispose humans to illnesses targeted to organs, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lesions in AD have pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated microglial/monocyte/macrophage cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

IL-21 impairs pro-inflammatory activity of M1-like macrophages exerting anti-inflammatory effects on rheumatoid arthritis.

Autoimmunity 2021 Nov 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Macrophages are the main source of inflammatory mediators and play important roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and exerts major effects on inflammatory responses that promote the development of RA. However, its effect on macrophage polarisation remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The role of mesenchymal stromal cells in tissue repair and fibrosis.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Toho University Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, 36591, Research Promotion and Development, 5-21-16, Omori-nishi, Tokyo, Ota-ku, Outside U.S./Canada, Japan, 143-8540;

Significance: The present review covers an overview of the current understanding of biology of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and suggests an important role of their differential potential for clinical approaches associated with tissue repair and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Genetic lineage tracing technology has enabled the delineation of cellular hierarchies and examination of MSC cellular origins and myofibroblasts sources. This technique has led to the characterization of perivascular MSC populations and suggests that pericytes might provide a local source of tissue-specific MSCs, which can differentiate into tissue-specific cells for tissue repair and fibrosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

[Culture and application of thymic organoids: a review].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Nov;37(11):3945-3960

Shanghai Biomass Pharmaceutical Product Evaluation Professional Public Service Platform, Center for Pharmacological Evaluation and Research, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 200437, China.

The thymus is a pivotal immune organ of the human body, and it is the place where T cells differentiate and mature. The damage of thymus would easily induce autoimmune diseases and even malignant tumors. For years, researchers have been exploring the process of T cell development and revealing the mechanism of thymic injury and regeneration generally through the monolayer culture system of T cells in vitro. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

[Treatment of psoriasis vulgaris using Bacteroides fragilis BF839: a single-arm, open preliminary clinical study].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Nov;37(11):3828-3835

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510260, Guangdong, China.

Psoriasis is considered as an inflammatory disease driven by T cells, and its pathogenesis is closely related to the imbalance of intestinal bacteria flora. It has been reported that Bacteroides fragilis could play an anti-inflammatory role by regulating the expression of cytokines in T cells. To date, there is no report using B. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Nucleomodulin BspJ as an effector promotes the colonization of in the host.

J Vet Sci 2021 Oct 24. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

International Research Center for Animal Health Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang, China.

Background: infection induces brucellosis, a zoonotic disease. The intracellular circulation process and virulence of mainly depend on its type IV secretion system (T4SS) expressing secretory effectors. Secreted protein BspJ is a nucleomodulin of that invades the host cell nucleus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Protective efficacy of a novel multivalent vaccine in the prevention of diarrhea induced by enterotoxigenic in a murine model.

J Vet Sci 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

School of Bioengineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Background: Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) infection is a primary cause of livestock diarrhea. Therefore, effective vaccines are needed to reduce the incidence of ETEC infection.

Objectives: Our study aimed to develop a multivalent ETEC vaccine targeting major virulence factors of ETEC, including enterotoxins and fimbriae. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021