94,425 results match your criteria hiv-positive

Demographic characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with Kaposi sarcoma: Ten-year follow-up results of a single center.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Clinical features, types of Kaposi sarcoma, and treatment outcomes have not been well-defined in Turkey. In this study, we reviewed records of the patients who had been diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma in the last decade in a single center and evaluated treatment results.

Methods: Medical records of the Kaposi sarcoma patients seen in the last decade in a single tertiary center were evaluated in detail. Read More

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September 2021

Real-Time SARS-CoV-2 Genotyping by High-Throughput Multiplex PCR Reveals the Epidemiology of the Variants of Concern in Qatar.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Complementing whole genome sequencing strategies with high-throughput multiplex RT-qPCR genotyping allows for more comprehensive and real-time tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. During the second and third waves of COVID-19 in Qatar, PCR genotyping, combined with Sanger sequencing of un-typeable samples, was employed to describe the epidemiology of the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. A total of 9792 nasopharyngeal PCR-positive samples collected between April-June 2021 were successfully genotyped, revealing the importation and transmission dynamics of these three variants in Qatar. Read More

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September 2021

Non-IFNγ Whole Blood Cytokine Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in HIV-exposed Infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Oct;40(10):922-929

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). Testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is limited by reduced Quantiferon (QFT) sensitivity in infants and tuberculin skin test (TST) cross-reactivity with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Our objective is to assess if non-IFNγ cytokine responses to Mtb-specific antigens have improved sensitivity in detecting Mtb infection in HEU infants compared with QFT. Read More

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October 2021

Importance of mitigation measures for hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the onset of the epidemic: the experience of Brescia, Northern Italy.

Infection 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for TB/HIV Collaborative Activities and for TB Elimination Strategy, University of Brescia, ASST Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Purpose: Since the first Italian case of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Lombardy (Northern Italy)  Italy quickly became one of the worst-affected European countries, with a severe impact on health-care workers (HCWs). In the first epidemic, HCWs accounted for 12% of all national COVID-19 cases. We evaluated the burden of COVID-19 among HCWs and other non-health-care workers (nHCWs) in a large Italian hospital. Read More

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September 2021

Stratifying the risk of NAFLD in patients with HIV under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Oct 5;40:101116. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: De novo steatosis is the main criteria for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is becoming a clinically relevant comorbidity in HIV-infected patients. This may be due to the HIV virus itself, as well as long-term toxicities deriving from antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, HIV infected patients require prevention and monitoring regarding NAFLD. Read More

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October 2021

Indications and diagnostic value of bone marrow examination in HIV-positive individuals: A 3-year review at Tygerberg Hospital.

S Afr J Infect Dis 2021 23;36(1):273. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Haematological Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Bone marrow examination is a useful diagnostic tool in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients presenting with cytopenias and fever. However, its role in the afebrile and asymptomatic patient presenting with an isolated cytopenia is not well established. This study was conducted to determine the indications for bone marrow examination and its diagnostic yield, in HIV-positive patients at Tygerberg Hospital. Read More

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Predictors of impaired pulmonary function in people living with HIV in an urban African setting.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 17;22(1):1252. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Studies have associated HIV with an increased risk of obstructive lung disease (OLD).

Objectives: We aimed to identify the predictive factors for impaired lung function in an urban, African, HIV-positive population.

Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in Johannesburg, South Africa, from July 2016 to November 2017. Read More

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A Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus-1 as the First Manifestation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211045245

Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Reported clinical manifestations of active herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection include typically painful vesicular cutaneous rash in a dermatomal distribution, temporal lobe encephalitis, and rarely, fulminant septic shock with multiorgan failure. In immunocompromised patients, the cutaneous rash can become disseminated. We report a case of a 33-year-old male patient with undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who presented to our emergency department (ED) with a disseminated cutaneous rash. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal Dynamics of a Blood Transcriptomic Signature of Tuberculosis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

CAPRISA, Durban, South Africa.

Objectives We evaluated longitudinal kinetics of an 11-gene blood transcriptomic tuberculosis (TB) signature, RISK11, and effects of TB preventative therapy (TPT) and respiratory organisms on RISK11 signature score, in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals. Methods RISK11 was measured in a longitudinal study of RISK11-guided TPT in HIV-uninfected adults, a cross-sectional respiratory organisms cohort or a longitudinal study in people living with HIV (PLHIV). HIV-uninfected RISK11+ participants were randomised to TPT or no TPT; RISK11- participants received no TPT. Read More

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September 2021

Posttraumatic growth and well-being among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis in recognition of 40 years of HIV/AIDS.

Qual Life Res 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Stawki 5/7, 00-183, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize, analyze, and critically review existing studies on the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and psychological well-being (operationalized either via positive or negative well-being indicators) among people living with HIV (PLWH). We also investigated whether this association varies as a function of socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, and study publication year.

Method: We conducted a structured literature search on Web of Science, Scopus, MedLine, PsyARTICLES, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. Read More

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September 2021

Community-Based HIV Testing for Urban Youth in Western Kenya.

AIDS Behav 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California, 550 16th Street 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Youth aged 15-24 years comprise 48% of new HIV infections and 15% of persons living with HIV in Kisumu County, Kenya. We assessed factors associated with HIV infection among youth participating in the Community Health Initiative (CHI) implemented in an urban informal settlement in 2018. Predictors of HIV infection were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Read More

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September 2021

Early impact of the DREAMS partnership on young women's knowledge of their HIV status: causal analysis of population-based surveys in Kenya and South Africa.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Epidemiology & Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Knowledge of one's HIV status is the gateway to treatment and prevention, but remains low among young people. We investigated the early impact (2016-2017) of Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe (DREAMS), a multisectoral HIV prevention package, on knowledge of HIV status among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW).

Methods: In 2017, randomly selected AGYW were enrolled into surveys, N=1081 aged 15-22 years in Nairobi slum settlements, and N=2174 aged 13-22 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Read More

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September 2021

Client-perpetrated gender-based violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected Northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 13;11(9):e046894. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Study Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of client-perpetrated gender-based violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected Northern Uganda.

Design And Settings: We conducted a cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Gulu district in conflict-affected Northern Uganda.

Participants: The study participants included 300 female sex workers aged 18+ years. Read More

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September 2021

Determinants of losses in the latent tuberculosis infection cascade of care in Brazil.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Sep;6(9)

Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brazil

Introduction: Factors associated with losses in the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) cascade of care in contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) were investigated in a multicentre prospective cohort from highly endemic regions in Brazil.

Methods: Close contacts of 1187 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were prospectively studied between 2015 and 2019, with follow-up of 6-24 months. Data on TB screening by clinical investigation, radiographic examination and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were collected. Read More

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September 2021

Immune disorders associated with juvenile recurrent chronic parotitis.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Juvenile recurrent chronic parotitis (JRCP) is a rare disease of unknown cause. There is a growing interest in its autoimmune aetiology and its relationship with dysfunctions of cellular and humoral immunity, although there is no agreed protocol for complementary investigations for its study. A consecutive series of cases is presented where the immune alterations and associated autoimmune disorders are investigated, proposing a study algorithm. Read More

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September 2021

Adaptation and validation of a culturally adapted HIV stigma scale in Myanmar.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 13;21(1):1663. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health and Sports, National AIDS Program, Naypyitaw, 15011, Myanmar.

Background: HIV stigma is a common barrier to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment adherence, especially for low- and middle-income countries such as Myanmar. However, there was no validated Myanmar version of a stigma scale. Therefore, we adapted the English version of the 40-item Berger's HIV stigma scale and the 7-item Indian HIV stigma scale into a 47-item Myanmar HIV stigma scale and then evaluated the scale's psychometric properties. Read More

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September 2021

Integration of community-based testing data into national HIV surveillance in Poland, Serbia and Slovakia within the framework of INTEGRATE project.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;21(Suppl 2):800. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Centre of Epidemiological Studies of HIV/AIDS and STI of Catalonia (CEEISCAT), Health Department, Generalitat de Catalunya, Badalona, Spain.

Background: Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Testing data from such decentralized services is however often not standardized nor linked to national surveillance systems. This study aimed to support the integration of community testing data into respective national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems for those infections. Read More

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September 2021

Increased integrated testing for HIV, hepatitis C and sexually transmitted infections in health care facilities: results from the INTEGRATE Joint Action pilots in Lithuania, Romania and Spain.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;21(Suppl 2):845. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Chelsea & Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Indicator condition guided HIV testing is a proven effective strategy for increasing HIV diagnosis in health care facilities. As part of the INTEGRATE Joint Action, we conducted four pilot studies, aiming to increase integrated testing for HIV/HCV/HBV and sexually transmitted infections, by introducing and expanding existing indicator condition guided HIV testing methods.

Methods: Pilot interventions included combined HIV/HCV testing in a dermatovenerology clinic and a clinic for addictive disorders in Lithuania; Increasing HIV testing rates in a tuberculosis clinic in Romania by introducing a patient information leaflet and offering testing for HIV/HCV/sexually transmitted infections to chemsex-users in Barcelona. Read More

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September 2021

RiskRadar: development and pilot results of a technical intervention targeting combination prevention regarding HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;21(Suppl 2):866. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Applied Biosciences, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: The HIV pandemic impacts the lives of millions and despite the global coordinated response, innovative actions are still needed to end it. A major challenge is the added burden of coinfections such as viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and various sexually transmitted infections in terms of prevention, treatment and increased morbidity in individuals with HIV infection. A need for combination prevention strategies, tailored to high-risk key populations arises and technology-based interventions can be a valuable asset. Read More

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September 2021

Recommendations for collection and integration of community-based testing and linkage to care data into national surveillance, monitoring and evaluation systems for HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections: results from the INTEGRATE Joint Action.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;21(Suppl 2):794. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Health Department, Generalitat de Catalunya, Centre of Epidemiological Studies of HIV/AIDS and STI of Catalonia (CEEISCAT), Badalona, Spain.

Background: National testing strategy, including monitoring and evaluation, is critical in responding to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Countries providing community-based testing, should integrate some core data on testing and linkage to care in these services into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems. Read More

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September 2021

The Kanyakla study: Randomized controlled trial of a microclinic social network intervention for promoting engagement and retention in HIV care in rural western Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(9):e0255945. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Organic Health Response Research Group, Mfangano Island, Kenya.

Background: Existing social relationships are a potential source of "social capital" that can enhance support for sustained retention in HIV care. A previous pilot study of a social network-based 'microclinic' intervention, including group health education and facilitated HIV status disclosure, reduced disengagement from HIV care. We conducted a pragmatic randomized trial to evaluate microclinic effectiveness. Read More

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September 2021

Frequency of CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles in HIV-infected and uninfected patients in Istanbul, Turkey.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Aug 31;15(8):1183-1189. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Co-receptors involved in cell entry of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mutations in genes encoding their ligands may play a role in the susceptibility to infection and resistance to the progression of the infection. The best studied mutations that can exist in these genes are the CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A mutations. The frequency of these mutations vary from continent to continent and even from region to region. Read More

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HIV transmission in sero-discordant couples with the HIV-positive partner in Xinjiang: incidence and associated predictors.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Aug 31;15(8):1173-1182. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

Introduction: To control the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sero-discordant couples, we explored the HIV seroconversion and its contributing factors.

Methodology: We recruited negative partners in HIV sero-discordant couples to established a prospective cohort between January 2010 and June 2015 from areas with severe HIV epidemic in Xinjiang. Follow up once every 3 months, serological tests and risk behavior surveys every 6 months. Read More

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Transcription Factors of CAT1, EFG1, and BCR1 Are Effective in Persister Cells of -Associated HIV-Positive and Chemotherapy Patients.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:651221. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Biofilm is an accumulation of cells, which are formed on mucosal surfaces of the host as well as on medical devices. The inherent resistance of strains producing biofilms to antimicrobial agents is an important and key feature for biofilm growth, which can lead to treatment failure. This resistance is due to the regulatory increase of the output pumps, the presence of extracellular matrix, and the existence of persister cells. Read More

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An HIV Narrative of Female Inmates With a Lifetime History of Mental Illness in Durban, South Africa.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:637387. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

South Africa (SA) has one of the highest prevalence rates of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) globally, with women carrying a larger burden of the disease. Furthermore, female inmates have higher rates of HIV compared to their male counterparts, with an over-representation of mental illnesses among female inmates as well. Additionally, mental illnesses are highly prevalent in people living with HIV, with HIV and mental illness sharing a complex bidirectional relationship. Read More

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Survival from a Triple Co-Infection of COVID-19, HIV, and Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 2;14:611-615. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The triple burden of COVID-19, human immune virus (HIV), and TB co-infection is one of the contemporary challenges to this globe. People living with chronic medical diseases such as HIV and TB are more likely to experience poor outcomes from COVID-19. This study aimed to report survival from triple co-infection with PTB, HIV, and COVID-19 in Wollega University referral hospital (WURH), western Ethiopia. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Reoccurrence of Opportunistic Infections Among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Attending the ART Clinic at Public Health Facilities in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 4;13:867-876. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Mettu University, Mettu, Ethiopia.

Background: Opportunistic infections (OIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals are infections that are more frequent or more severe than normal because of HIV-mediated immunosuppression. When these OIs occur in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the form of relapse or reinfection, they are said to be a reoccurrence of OI. This study will try to identify gaps in addressing the burden in the study area. Read More

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September 2021

Symptomatic Cryptococcal Meningitis with Negative Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cryptococcal Antigen Tests.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 1;13:861-865. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Kiruddu National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of mortality in advanced HIV disease. A positive cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test defines cryptococcal meningitis. Herein, we present a patient with serum and cerebrospinal fluid CrAg negative cryptococcal meningitis, despite a positive cerebrospinal fluid India ink examination and quantitative culture. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence and Associated Factors of Hepatitis B and C Virus Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Attending Health Facilities in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 3;14:3599-3608. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses whose primary replication occurs in the liver. Despite the significant clinical importance of early screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection in decreasing the hepatotoxicity effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs, screening of hepatitis B and C virus among tuberculosis (TB) patients before treatment has not been practiced in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV and HCV infections among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients attending health facilities in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Read More

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September 2021

A Cross-sectional Study on the Magnitude of undernutrition in Tuberculosis Patients in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 2;14:2421-2428. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose: To estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in tuberculosis (TB) patients and evaluate its association with selected sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients.

Patients And Methods: A health facility-based cross-sectional design was used. Four hundred and fifty pulmonary TB (PTB) patients were recruited between September 2017 and August 2018. Read More

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September 2021