32,613 results match your criteria hiv-infected patients

Effects of perinatal HIV-infection on the cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes in young adulthood.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25403

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitario 12 De Octubre, Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract: Brain atrophy has been observed in perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV) despite initiation on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), but neuroimaging studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate cortical thickness (CT) and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes of PHIV youths with stable immunovirological situation and with a normal daily performance.A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Read More

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Cytokines in saliva as biomarkers of oral and systemic oncological or infectious diseases: A systematic review.

Cytokine 2021 Apr 9:155506. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Infectious Unit and Mycobacterial Research Group Switzerland, University Children's Hospital and Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Pediatrics, The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Recent evidence suggests that salivary cytokines provide information about both oral conditions and systemic diseases. This review summarizes evidence for the use of salivary cytokines as biomarkers for oral and systemic diseases. We included studies in adults and children with a focus on the latter, due to the importance of non-invasive diagnostic methods in the paediatric age group. Read More

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HIV and Surgery for Degenerative Spine Disease: A Systematic Review.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.

Background And Study Aims:  The objective of this review is to evaluate the incidence of operative treatment, outcomes, and complications of surgery for degenerative spine disease (DSD) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. Combined antiretroviral treatment led HIV patients to live long enough to develop many chronic conditions common in the uninfected population. Surgery for DSD is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. Read More

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[Congenital cytomegalovirus infection screening in high risk newborn].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2021 Feb;38(1):45-53

Servicio de Neonatología, Complejo Asistencial Barros Luco Trudeau, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection, 90% of affected newborn (NB) are asymptomatic at birth and 6-15% will develop long term sequalae. It is the main etiology of non-genetic sensorineural hearing loss.

Aim: To determine prevalence of CMV in high risk NB. Read More

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February 2021

[Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients in Chile].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1550-1557

Laboratorio de Medicina Molecular, Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) occurs in patients with HIV infection who are not exposed to antiretroviral drugs but who are infected with a virus with mutations associated with resistance.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of TDR and characterize HIV reverse transcriptase and protease mutation patterns.

Material And Methods: HIV infected antiretroviral treatment-naive patients treated in three centers between 2014 and 2018 were studied. Read More

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November 2020

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

4Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. Atypical cases of leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection have been documented in case reports, mostly associated with gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and skin involvement. We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. Read More

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Clozapine-Associated Leukopenia and Agranulocytosis in Western Cape, South Africa: A 3-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

From the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University Computational Biology Division, Integrative Biomedical Sciences Wellcome Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Clozapine may cause life-threatening hematological side effects (HSEs). Hematological side effect incidence data from Sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. Furthermore, clozapine reduces cellular immunity, and it is unknown whether clozapine is a risk factor for tuberculosis or whether HIV is a risk factor for developing HSEs. Read More

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COVID-19 infection in a HIV positive health care worker: first case report from a tertiary care hospital of North India.

Virusdisease 2021 Apr 7:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) are at greater risk of developing prolonged illness due to COVID 19 leading to longer duration of virus shedding owing to their underlying immune defects. The present study compared SARS-CoV-2 infection developing at the same time among two health care workers living with and without a history of HIV and working in the same ward of a tertiary care hospital of North India. A higher viral load was reported in the SARS-CoV-2 infected worker who was immunocompromised as compared to immunocompetent patient (19,193 copies/µL vs 9. Read More

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Plasma Biomarkers of Risk of Tuberculosis Recurrence in HIV Co-Infected Patients From South Africa.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:631094. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa.

There is an urgent need to identify immunological markers of tuberculosis (TB) risk in HIV co-infected individuals. Previously we have shown that TB recurrence in HIV co-infected individuals on ART was associated with markers of systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL1β and IL-1Rα). Here we examined the effect of additional acute inflammation and microbial translocation marker expression on risk of TB recurrence. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Bloodstream Infections in HIV-Infected Patients with Cancer and Febrile Neutropenia: A Case-Control Study.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, Carrer de Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSI) in cancer patients presenting febrile neutropenia with and without HIV infection, and analyze the prognostic factors for mortality.

Methods: BSI episodes in febrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy were prospectively collected (1997-2018). A case (HIV-infected)-control (non-HIV-infected) sub-analysis was performed (1:2 ratio), matching patients by age, gender, baseline disease, and etiological microorganism. Read More

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Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus infection among HIV-infected adults in French Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe in 2015: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 9;15(4):e0009267. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

INSERM Centre d'Investigation Clinique Antilles-Guyane, Cayenne, France.

Background: In 2014, a first outbreak of chikungunya hit the Caribbean area where chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had never circulated before.

Methodology/principal Findings: We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV immediately after the end of the 2014 outbreak in HIV-infected people followed up in two clinical cohorts at the University hospitals of Guadeloupe and Martinique. Study patients were identified during the first months of 2015 and randomly selected to match the age and sex distribution of the general population in the two islands. Read More

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Co-infection of HIV in patients with Buruli ulcer disease in Central Ghana.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 8;21(1):331. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Previous studies have reported that presence and severity of Buruli ulcer (BU) may reflect the underlying immunosuppression in HIV infected individuals by causing increased incidence of multiple, larger and ulcerated lesions. We report cases of BU-HIV coinfection and the accompanying programmatic challenges encountered in central Ghana.

Methods: Patients with PCR confirmed BU in central Ghana who were HIV positive were identified and their BU01 forms were retrieved and reviewed in further detail. Read More

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Residual viremia in HIV-infected patients who continue a 2-drug or switch to a 3-drug integrase strand transfer inhibitor-based regimen.

AIDS 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milano, Italy.

In this randomized, single-center, open-label, 96-week, superiority, controlled trial of 50 HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL on a two-drug regimen based on dolutegravir plus one reverse transcriptase inhibitor, switching to a single tablet regimen of cobicistat, elvitregravir, emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide did not appear to mitigate the burden of residual viremia, both at week 48 and at week 96. The immunological changes observed during follow-up and the safety of the two regimens were similar. Read More

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Uncovering a behavioral strategy for establishing new habits: Evidence from incentives for medication adherence in Uganda.

J Health Econ 2021 Mar 16;77:102443. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90401, United States. Electronic address:

Incentives are used to improve many health-related behaviors, but evidence is mixed for their effectiveness both during the incentivization period and, even more so, on the persistence of the behavior after incentives are withdrawn. In this paper, we present the results of a randomized controlled trial that successfully uses incentives to improve medication adherence among HIV-infected patients in Uganda over 20 months, and follows the sample for another 6 months to measure the persistence of these behavioral improvements. Our study contributes to the literature on habit formation by identifying a behavioral strategy that is associated with persistently high medication adherence after controlling for observable individual-level characteristics and the receipt of incentives. Read More

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Tacrolimus, Sirolimus and Everolimus Doses in HIV-Infected Solid-Organ Recipients, Requiring a Cobicistat-Based Antiretroviral Regimen: Report of Three Cases and Review.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

HIV Unit and Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic - IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

People living with HIV should be considered candidates for solid-organ transplantation (SOT). However, managing HIV-infected patients undergoing SOT represents a major challenge due to the potential drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and immunosuppressive agents, particularly when resorting to antiretroviral drugs that require pharmacokinetic enhancers. We report three cases of cobicistat-tacrolimus co-administration, two of which also include the co-administration of mTOR inhibitors, in HIV-positive patients undergoing SOT (2 kidney and 1 liver recipient). Read More

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Functional and Activation Profiles of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients With Tuberculosis and HIV in a High Endemic Setting.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:648216. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

MAIT cells are non-classically restricted T lymphocytes that recognize and rapidly respond to microbial metabolites or cytokines and have the capacity to kill bacteria-infected cells. Circulating MAIT cell numbers generally decrease in patients with active TB and HIV infection, but findings regarding functional changes differ. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the effect of HIV, TB, and HIV-associated TB (HIV-TB) on MAIT cell frequencies, activation and functional profile in a high TB endemic setting in South Africa. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of flucytosine as induction therapy in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected adults in South Africa.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 6;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Greys Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa accounts for three-quarters of the global cases and 135,000 deaths per annum. Current treatment includes the use of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Recent evidence has shown that the synergistic use of flucytosine improves efficacy and reduces toxicity, however affordability and availability has hampered access to flucytosine in many countries. Read More

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miRNA expression profiles in liver grafts of HCV and HIV/HCV infected recipients, six months after liver transplantation.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Liver-Kidney Transplant Unit - Department of Medicine, University of Udine. Udine, Italy.

Background: In HCV/HIV co-infected patients, HIV enhances HCV replication and liver damage. Several miRNAs, active in pro-fibrotic and inflammatory pathways, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. However, these miRNAs have been tested only in explanted cirrhotic livers, when the liver damage has become chronic and irreversible. Read More

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Carotid atherosclerosis in virologically suppressed HIV patients: comparison with a healthy sample and prediction by cardiovascular risk equations.

HIV Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Hospital del Mar Institute for Medical Research (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in virologically suppressed HIV patients with that of a community sample, and to evaluate the capacity of various cardiovascular risk (CVR) equations for predicting carotid atherosclerosis.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with two randomly selected groups: HIV patients from an HIV unit and a control group drawn from the community. Participants were matched by age (30-80 years) and sex without history of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Clinical features of a large chronic ulcer on the genital and perianal region in HIV-infected patients can be a strong clinical clue for the diagnosis of herpes simplex infection.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2020 Jul-Dec;41(2):192-195. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Herpes simplex infection presents as a large, chronic, genital, and perianal ulcer in immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients. However, the characteristic morphological feature for clinical diagnosis is unclear. This case series illustrates the morphological characteristics of large, chronic, herpes simplex ulcers at the genital and perianal region in four HIV-positive patients. Read More

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Sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: Scenario in Western India.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2020 Jul-Dec;41(2):162-168. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Dermatology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a well-established synergistic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Coinfection with HIV and STI can increase the probability of HIV transmission to an uninfected partner by increasing HIV concentrations in genital lesions, genital secretions, or both. Concurrent HIV infection alters the natural history of the classic STIs. Read More

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Profile of hematological abnormalities and its correlation with absolute CD4 count and human immunodeficiency virus viral load in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2020 Jul-Dec;41(2):156-161. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: A variety of hematological manifestations are seen at every stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they often pose a great challenge in the comprehensive management of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality associated with HIV infection. The severity and the incidence of cytopenia are usually correlated with the stage of the disease and underlying immune status if interpreted cautiously, especially if the patient is on regular follow-up. Read More

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Effect of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)-HIV-1 Co-existence on Maternal and Infant Health: A Secondary Data Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2021 18;9:544192. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Mathematics, Physics and Computing, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.

The lactobacillus-rich microbiome forms a defense system against infections. Babies are born sterile and acquire their microbiome from exposure to the mothers' vaginal and rectal microbiota. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is characterized by a deficit of the Lactobacilli genera, may predispose women and their babies to an increased frequency of illness. Read More

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Immunogenicity and duration of protection after yellow fever vaccine in people living with HIV: A systematic review.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Infectious Diseases Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Saint-Pierre - Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium; Robert Koch Institute, Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emerging Infections and Biological Threats, Berlin, Germany; Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Infectious Tropical diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Ospedale Sacro Cuore Don Calabria, Negrar, Verona, Italy; Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium; Environmental Health Research Centre, Public Health School, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Background: We lack the rationale on which to base the development of a yellow fever (YF) vaccination schedule for people living with HIV (PLHIV).

Objectives: Report on the current evidence regarding the seroconversion rate and the duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine, as well as the impact of revaccination in PLWHIV.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Google Scholar, LILACS and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. Read More

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Disruption of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response by R5-tropic HIV-1 protein gp120.

J Biol Chem 2021 Mar 31:100618. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus; Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, PR, 00936; Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico Medical Science Campus; Molecular Sciences Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR. Electronic address:

Despite current pharmacological intervention strategies, patients with HIV still suffer from chronic inflammation. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely distributed throughout the nervous and immune systems. In macrophages, activation of alpha7-nAChR (α7-nAChR) controls inflammatory processes through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response (CAR). Read More

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Subclinical atherosclerosis and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults in Jos, North Central Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 31;37:388. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Introduction: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is evolving into a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where the burden of HIV remains high. Atherosclerosis underlie progression to CVD. We therefore examined the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and its association with traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD in Nigerian HIV-infected adults. Read More

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December 2020

Baseline Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Resistance-Associated Polymorphisms in Patients With and Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Mexico.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

We aimed to evaluate the frequency and associated factors of baseline NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection with genotype 1b (GT1b) or genotype 1a (GT1a). Moreover, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the pattern of clustering among samples of patients with RASs. Fifty-five patients were infected with GT1a, of whom 44 (80%) were HIV-infected patients. Read More

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Neurocognitive impairment and health-related quality of life among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0248802. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America.

The association between HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well known. We investigated this association among the CNS (Central Nervous System) HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study participants. We performed factor analysis to distinguish physical and mental HRQoL, followed by general linear models. Read More

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Antioxidant nanozyme counteracts HIV-1 by modulating intracellular redox potential.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Apr 1:e13314. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulates the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) during infection. However, the application of this knowledge to develop therapeutic strategies remained unsuccessful due to the harmful consequences of manipulating cellular antioxidant systems. Here, we show that vanadium pentoxide (V O ) nanosheets functionally mimic natural glutathione peroxidase activity to mitigate ROS associated with HIV-1 infection without adversely affecting cellular physiology. Read More

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