93,946 results match your criteria hiv positive


Maternal depressed mood and child development over the first five years of life in South Africa.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 16;294:346-356. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute for Life Course Health Research, Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queens University, Belfast, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: While the negative impact of peri-natal depression is well-documented in high-income countries, the long-term effects across the life course in low and middle-income countries is less clear. Children's adjustment over the first five years is examined as a function of patterns of maternal depressed mood.

Methods: Pregnant women in 24 peri-urban townships (N = 1,238) were randomized to a home-visiting intervention or standard care and reassessed five times, with high retention. Read More

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Examining the association of alcohol use and psychotropic medication adherence among women with severe mental illness in South Africa.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Jul 19;304:114127. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

HIV Mental Health Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Anzio Road Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

Women with severe mental illness (SMI) in South Africa face numerous psychosocial challenges and alcohol use is widely used in this population as a coping strategy. Although hazardous alcohol use has a documented negative effect on medication adherence or chronic illness, research has mostly ignored the role of alcohol on psychotropic medication adherence in women with SMI. The primary aim of this study was to explore the association of hazardous alcohol use on psychotropic medication adherence in adult women living with SMI (N = 119), attending a psychiatric clinic for treatment in Cape Town. Read More

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Use of fourth-generation rapid combined antigen and antibody diagnostic tests for the detection of acute HIV infection in a community centre for men who have sex with men, between 2016 and 2019.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255065. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Tuberculosis Research Unit of Barcelona (UITB) Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To assess the use of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests in identifying acute infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Methods: BCN Checkpoint promotes sexual health among men who have sex with men (MSM), with a focus on diagnosing HIV early, initiating combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) promptly, and recommending regular repeat testing for those who have tested negative. This cross-sectional study included all test results obtained at the centre between 25 March 2016 and 24 March 2019. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Pediatric Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India.

Thalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. Read More

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Missed Testing Opportunities Among HIV-Positive Adults in a Community Emergency Department.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Nevada Reno, 6851, School of Community Health Sciences, Reno, Nevada, United States;

Northern Nevada's most utilized emergency department (ED) could represent a locale of missed opportunity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, as the ED serves as a source of primary care for many patients at risk for HIV infection. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review, through the electronic health record, evaluating new diagnoses of HIV between 2012-2017 within a single hospital system. An opportunity for prior detection of HIV in the hospital's adult ED, within the past 5 years, was recorded as a missed testing opportunity (MTO). Read More

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Comparing non-invasive predictors of neurosyphilis among syphilis patients with and without HIV co-infection based on the real-world diagnostic criteria: a single-centre, retrospective cohort study in China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Second Department of Infectious Disease, Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou, Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, Second Department of Infectious disease, Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou, Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310023, P.R. China, Hangzhou , China, 310023;

Background: Diagnosis of neurosyphilis is currently based on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessments and CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (CSF-VDRL) is the traditional "gold standard". In the real world, CSF assessments or CSF-VDRL are not always available. This study aimed to identify non-invasive predictors of neurosyphilis based on real-world clinical parameters and diagnostic criteria in populations with different HIV status. Read More

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Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes fecal carriers in HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women from Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department Preventive Medicine and Instituto de Puericultura E Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira - UFRJ, R Bruno Lobo, 50 - Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of Listeria spp. in feces of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Brazil.

Methods: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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Digital chest radiography enhances screening efficiency for pulmonary tuberculosis in primary health clinics, South Africa.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Optimized tuberculosis (TB) screening in high burden settings is essential for case finding. We evaluated digital chest x-ray with computer-aided detection (CAD) software (d-CXR) for identifying undiagnosed TB in three primary health clinics in South Africa.

Methods: The cross-sectional study consented adults who were sequentially screened for TB using the World Health Organization (WHO) four symptom questionnaire and d-CXR. Read More

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An engineered microfluidic blood-brain barrier model to evaluate the anti-metastatic activity of β-boswellic acid.

Biotechnol J 2021 Jul 27:e2100044. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory for Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman.

Background: The development of anti-cancer drugs with the ability to inhibit brain metastasis through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is substantially limited due to the lack of reliable in vitro models.

Main Methods: In this study, the Geltrex™-based Transwell and microfluidic BBB models were applied to screen the effect of β-boswellic acid (β-BA) on the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells through the BBB in static and dynamic conditions, respectively.

Major Results: The toxicity assay revealed that β-BA deteriorates MDA-MB-231 cells, while β-BA had no detectable toxic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and astrocytes. Read More

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Isolated B-cell lymphopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia as a curious combination of findings at the time of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis: a pediatric case report.

AME Case Rep 2021 25;5:26. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Lymphopenia is associated with poor outcome in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but the impact of specific cytopenias is unexplored. We report a case of isolated B-cell lymphopenia with HL, EBV infection, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Our patient is a 19-year-old male without any significant past medical history who presented with two weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, subjective fevers, night sweats, fatigue and a five-pound weight loss. Read More

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HIV-positive patients presenting with peripheral blood cytopenias: is bone marrow assessment a priority?

Hematol Transfus Cell Ther 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Introduction: Hematologic abnormalities are frequent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). The bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and biopsy (BMB) are commonly performed in the diagnostic approach of patients with unexplained cytopenias. Changes in antiretrovirals, supportive therapy and increased life expectancy have modified the distribution and etiology of cytopenias, questioning their use. Read More

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Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections in male partners of pregnant women in Brazil.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Jul 26:9564624211032759. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, David Geffen School of Medicine, 8783UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can adversely affect a woman's pregnancy and the health of the developing fetus. The source of these infections may be the male sexual partner who remains under-diagnosed and un-treated due to a combination of lack of symptoms, decreased access to health care, and poor health-seeking behaviors. From September 2018 to November 2019, we offered a cohort of pregnant women (gestational age range: 4. Read More

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Hofbauer cells and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy: Molecular pathology analysis of villous macrophages, endothelial cells, and placental findings from 22 placentas infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with and without fetal transmission.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Obstetrics & Gynecology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden and Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Context: - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can undergo maternal-fetal transmission, heightening interest in the placental pathology findings from this infection. Transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission is typically accompanied by chronic histiocytic intervillositis together with necrosis and positivity of syncytiotrophoblast for SARSCoV-2. Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages that have been involved in viral diseases including HIV and Zika virus, but their involvement in SARS-CoV-2 in unknown. Read More

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Profiles of liver fibrosis evolution during long-term tenofovir treatment in HIV-positive patients coinfected with hepatitis B.

Liver Int 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

APHP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Paris, F75012, France.

Background & Aims: Data on liver fibrosis evolution and its involvement in liver-related morbidity are scarce in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection during treatment. We identified profiles of liver fibrosis evolution in coinfected patients undergoing tenofovir (TDF).

Methods: We included 169 HIV-HBV-coinfected patients on TDF-based antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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An unusual case of paediatric plasmablastic lymphoma presenting with malignant effusion and the challenges in its diagnosis.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring commonly in the oral mucosa and jaw of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive adult males. PBL is not a common occurrence in children and a presentation with malignant effusion is rarely reported. Herein, we share our experience in the challenges confronted in the diagnosis of PBL in a 6-year-old, HIV positive boy presenting with malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions along with gum hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy and paranasal sinus mass. Read More

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Distinguishing repeated polymerase chain reaction positivity from re-infections in COVID-19.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Liver Transplantation Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Possibility of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 changes our view on herd immunity and vaccination and can impact worldwide quarantine policies. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) follow-up studies on recovered patients to assess possible development of reinfections and re-positivity.

Methods: During a 6-month period, 202 PCR-confirmed recovering COVID-19 patients entered this study. Read More

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Chemically sulfated polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill: Synthesis, characterization and anti-HIV activity.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Beijing University of Technology, College of Life Science and Bio-engineering, Pingleyuan No. 100, Chaoyang District, 100124, Beijing, CHINA.

AIDS, caused by HIV-1, is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with more potent bioactivities, less toxicity and higher tolerability for controlling the viral load, particularly by using the raw materials that are widely available. Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), known in China as jisongrong, is of great importance as a food source and as a health-promoting supplement for immunomodulation. Read More

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Cohort profile: A Prospective Household cohort study of Influenza, Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory pathogens community burden and Transmission dynamics in South Africa, 2016-2018.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose: The PHIRST study (Prospective Household cohort study of Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial virus, and other respiratory pathogens community burden and Transmission dynamics in South Africa) aimed to estimate the community burden of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) including the incidence of infection, symptomatic fraction, and to assess household transmission.

Participants: We enrolled 1684 individuals in 327 randomly selected households in a rural and an urban site over three consecutive influenza and two RSV seasons. A new cohort of households was enrolled each year. Read More

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Client-led care in HIV: perspectives from community and practice.

HIV Med 2021 Jul;22 Suppl 1:3-14

Centre for Social Impact, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: While current antiretroviral and care strategies can effectively suppress HIV, achieving optimal quality of life (QoL) requires a wider consideration of clients' well-being, the complexity of individuals' lives and social determinants of health. The objective of this commentary was to develop a definition of client-led care in the Australian context and its key supporting principles for people living with HIV (PLHIV).

Methods: The authors used two sources of evidence to support their HIV community experience with client-led care: (1) a scoping review of the literature, and (2) consultations with colleagues who were PLHIV advocates or HIV specialist physicians. Read More

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Primary membranous glomerulonephritis with negative serum PLA2R in haemophilia A successfully managed with rituximab - case report and review of the literature.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jul 22;22(1):268. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause a wide range of glomerular pathologies. In people with haemophilia, transfusion-associated infections with these viruses are common and definitive pathological diagnosis in this population is complicated by the difficulty of safely obtaining a renal biopsy. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of adult onset nephrotic syndrome occurring in both primary and secondary forms. Read More

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Acute hepatitis C virus infection and direct-acting antiviral drugs: Perfect combination to eliminate the epidemic?

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Jul 23:9564624211033756. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 16867Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain.

Early diagnosis and treatment of incident cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is fundamental to eliminate HCV in HIV-positive patients. From January 2016 to December 2019, we attended 40 episodes of acute HCV infection (AHC) in 35 subjects (9 reinfections) who were coinfected with HIV. The patients were treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in seven hospitals in Andalusia, Spain. Read More

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Immunosuppression in HIV Positive Heart Transplant Recipients in the post-COVID-19 era.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Tufts Medical Center 800 Washington St, Boston, MA, 02111. Electronic address:

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Review of diagnostic methods and results for HIV-associated disseminated histoplasmosis: pathologists are not sufficiently involved.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon Cayenne, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Objective: Disseminated histoplasmosis is a major killer of HIV-infected persons in Latin America. Antigen detection, fungal culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction are often not available, but cytology and histology are present in most hospitals and may offer a diagnostic alternative. In this study, we review 34 years of clinical experience to describe the roles of cytology and histology in diagnosing disseminated histoplasmosis. Read More

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Characterisation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in HIV-positive men by immunohistochemical markers p16, Ki-67, HPV-E4, and DNA methylation markers.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, Cancer Center Amsterdam CCA, Amsterdam University Medical Centers (Amsterdam UMC), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN, graded 1-3) is highly prevalent in HIV-positive (HIV+) men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), but only a minority of lesions progresses to cancer. This study aimed to characterise comprehensively anal tissue samples from a cross-sectional series (n = 104) of HIV + MSM and longitudinal series (n = 40) of AIN2/3 progressing to cancer using different biomarkers. The cross-sectional series consisted of 8 normal, 26 AIN1, 45 AIN2, 15 AIN3 and 10 anal squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

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Field evaluation of a prototype tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan lateral flow assay on HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0254156. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Global Good Fund, Intellectual Ventures, Bellevue, Washington, United States of America.

Detection of tuberculosis at the point-of-care (POC) is limited by the low sensitivity of current commercially available tests. We describe a diagnostic accuracy field evaluation of a prototype urine Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan Lateral Flow Assay (TB-LAM LFA) in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients using fresh samples with sensitivity and specificity as the measures of accuracy. This prototype combines a proprietary concentration system with a sensitive LFA. Read More

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Characteristics and Outcomes of Neonates With Blood Stream Infection Due to Listeria monocytogenes.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand and National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Infection due to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is rare in neonates; thus, its clinical presentation and outcomes are not commonly reported, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In 2017, South Africa had an outbreak due to LM.

Objective: To determine demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and outcomes of all neonates infected with LM during the outbreak period. Read More

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Feasibility and impact of near-point-of-care integrated TB/HIV testing in Malawi and Zimbabwe.

AIDS 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, USA Clinton Health Access Initiative, Harare, Zimbabwe Clinton Health Access Initiative, Lilongwe, Malawi Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Population, Lilongwe, Malawi. Authors contributed equally.

Objectives: Near-point-of-care (POC) testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) and viral load (VL) expedites clinical action and improves outcomes, but requires capital investment. We assessed whether excess capacity on existing near-POC devices used for TB diagnosis could be leveraged to increase near-POC HIV molecular testing, termed integrated testing, without compromising TB services.

Design: Pre/post implementation studies in 10 health facilities in Malawi and 8 in Zimbabwe. Read More

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Utility of the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis from Blood Samples in Ethiopia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is needed to initiate prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of VL from blood in an endemic area in Ethiopia. LAMP was positive in 117/122 confirmed VL cases and negative in 149/152 controls, resulting in a sensitivity of 95. Read More

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Comparison of HIV Screening Strategies in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2117763. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Denver Public Health, Denver, Colorado.

Importance: The National HIV Strategic Plan for the US recommends HIV screening in emergency departments (EDs). The most effective approach to ED-based HIV screening remains unknown.

Objective: To compare strategies for HIV screening when integrated into usual ED practice. Read More

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sQuiz your knowledge! A cutaneous nodule in an HIV-positive man returning from Thailand.

Eur J Dermatol 2021 Jun;31(3):436-437

Department of Dermatology, Rennes University Hospital, Rennes, France, University Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

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