113,552 results match your criteria hiv patients

Four-Month Rifapentine Regimens with or without Moxifloxacin for Tuberculosis.

N Engl J Med 2021 May;384(18):1705-1718

From the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (S.E.D.); the UCSF Center for Tuberculosis, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (P.N., P.P.J.P., R.M.S.); the Vietnam National Tuberculosis Program-University of California, San Francisco Research Collaboration Unit (P.N., P.P.J.P., H.T.T.P., N.V.N., T.H.P., R.M.S.) and the National Lung Hospital (N.V.N., T.H.P.) - both in Hanoi; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (E.V.K., K.B., S.V.G., A.E.P., N.A.S., E.S., A.V.); the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (M.E., M.W.); the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare (J.H., W.S.); Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland (J.L.J.); the Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, Kampala (J.L.J., G.M.); TASK (M.L.), the University of Cape Town Lung Institute (K.N.), and the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (J.S.), Cape Town, the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (N.A.M., Z.W.), and the Wits Health Consortium (I.S.), Johannesburg - all in South Africa; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.E.D., N.A.M., R.E.C.), and the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (A.E.P.) - both in Maryland; the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), Port-au-Prince (S.N., S.P.); and the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (S.S.).

Background: Rifapentine-based regimens have potent antimycobacterial activity that may allow for a shorter course in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

Methods: In an open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis from 13 countries, we compared two 4-month rifapentine-based regimens with a standard 6-month regimen consisting of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (control) using a noninferiority margin of 6.6 percentage points. Read More

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Ocular syphilis - a case series of four patients.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University Hospital and Clinic for Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Halle (Saale) of Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Ocular manifestations of syphilis with visual impairment symptoms may occur already at the stage of secondary syphilis. They may also be the only manifestation of syphilis and mimic other diseases of the eye. Therefore, in all patients with uveitis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, acute ocular muscle paresis, or loss of visual acuity, syphilis infection should be ruled out, even if the medical history does not initially raise suspicion. Read More

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Potential value of urine lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for diagnosing tuberculosis among severely acute malnourished children.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250933. Epub 2021 May 5.

Epicentre, Paris, France.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious co-morbidity among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and TB diagnosis remains particularly challenging in the very young. We explored whether, in a low HIV-prevalence setting, the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine may assist TB diagnosis in SAM children, a pediatric population currently not included in LAM-testing recommendations. To that end, we assessed LAM test-positivity among SAM children with and without signs or symptoms of TB. Read More

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Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rifampicin-Resistant MTB) and Associated Risk Actors Among Pulmonary Presumptive TB Patients in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia: 2015-2019.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem, mainly in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of TB and rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR-MTB) among presumptive tuberculosis patients using Xpert MTB/RIF assay in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among presumptive TB patients from three governmental hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Read More

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Correlates of Self-Reported HIV Testing Among Patients in Specialized Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in South Africa.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Substance use is a recognized risk factor for HIV acquisition, transmission and progression in South Africa. Persons who use drugs (PWUD) and access specialist substance abuse treatment centers (SSATCs) are a potentially critical target group for HIV services because of the severity of their substance use and associated health risks. SSATCs represent an opportunity for integrated programming, particularly HIV testing services (HTS), to reach PWUD who are at an increased risk of or living with HIV. Read More

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p55PIK Deficiency and its N-terminal Derivative inhibit Inflammation and Emphysema in COPD mouse model.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is comprised of chronic inflammation and emphysema. Recent studies show that Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and emphysema. However, there are few studies on their regulatory subunits. Read More

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Comparisons of Serologic Responses of Early Syphilis to Treatment with a Single-Dose Benzathine Penicillin G Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Poorer serologic responses of early syphilis to treatment have been inconsistently reported in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, but the interpretation of previous studies is limited by discrepant study designs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the treatment response to a single dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) for early syphilis.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2020, adult patients with early syphilis who received a single dose of BPG were enrolled and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were periodically determined. Read More

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Novel Longitudinal Methods for Assessing Retention in Care: a Synthetic Review.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 4523 Clayton Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Retention in care is both dynamic and longitudinal in nature, but current approaches to retention often reduce these complex histories into cross-sectional metrics that obscure the nuanced experiences of patients receiving HIV care. In this review, we discuss contemporary approaches to assessing retention in care that captures its dynamic nature and the methodological and data considerations to do so.

Recent Findings: Enhancing retention measurements either through patient tracing or "big data" approaches (including probabilistic matching) to link databases from different sources can be used to assess longitudinal retention from the perspective of the patient when they transition in and out of care and access care at different facilities. Read More

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A highly multiplexed droplet digital PCR assay to measure the intact HIV-1 proviral reservoir.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Apr 12;2(4):100243. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Quantifying the replication-competent HIV reservoir is essential for evaluating curative strategies. Viral outgrowth assays (VOAs) underestimate the reservoir because they fail to induce all replication-competent proviruses. Single- or double-region HIV DNA assays overestimate it because they fail to exclude many defective proviruses. Read More

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Stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among primary health care providers in Kinta District, Perak.

Malays Fam Physician 2021 Mar 15;16(1):31-38. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

MD (USM), MMed FamMed (USM), Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Background: Stigmatizing attitudes expressed by health care providers prevent some members of at-risk populations from accessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and care. This attitude contributes to the continuity of the infection dissemination within our community, which gives an impact on the healthcare service and the curtailment of the global HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic.

Objective: This study was conducted to identify stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their determinants among primary health care providers in Kinta District, Perak. Read More

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Common seasonal respiratory virus infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has led to strict and generalized transmission prevention measures that may have changed the epidemiological landscape of common seasonal respiratory virus (CSRV). Through a prospective CSRV survey program conducted from 2016 onwards in allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients with respiratory symptoms, we aimed to analyze and compare the epidemiology and characteristics of CSRV over three consecutive periods [from February 1 to September 30 of 2018 (P1), 2019 (P2), and 2020 (P3)]. CSRV screening was performed through multiplex PCR assays during the study period. Read More

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Integration of non-communicable disease and HIV/AIDS management: a review of healthcare policies and plans in East Africa.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5)

Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK

Background: Low-income and middle-income countries are struggling to manage growing numbers of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), while services for patients with HIV infection are well established. There have been calls for integration of HIV and NCD services to increase efficiency and improve coverage of NCD care, although evidence of effectiveness remains unclear. In this review, we assess the extent to which National HIV and NCD policies in East Africa reflect the calls for HIV-NCD service integration. Read More

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Liver function following hepatitis C virus eradication by direct acting antivirals in patients with liver cirrhosis: data from the PITER cohort.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 4;21(1):413. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for HCV has revolutionized the treatment of HCV, including its treatment in patients with HIV coinfection. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in liver function between coinfected and monoinfected patients with cirrhosis who achieved HCV eradication by DAA.

Methods: Patients with pre-treatment diagnosis of HCV liver cirrhosis, consecutively enrolled in the multicenter PITER cohort, who achieved a sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment cessation (SVR12) were analysed. Read More

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Use of pritelivir in refractory aciclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 May 4:9564624211006568. Epub 2021 May 4.

Northern Sexual Health, 8943Contraception and HIV Service, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Recurrence of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is common in immunosuppressed patients. Thymidine kinase mutations conferring resistance to the antiviral agent aciclovir have been observed in such patients. Recommended second-line therapeutic agents against HSV are associated with significant side effects contributing to disease burden. Read More

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Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine Two-Drug Regimen: Safety, Efficacy and Diagnostic Considerations for Its Use in Real-Life Clinical Practice-A Refined Approach in the COVID-19 Era.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Diagnostic and Laboratory Medicine, IRCCS Children Hospital Bambino Gesu', 00165 Rome, Italy.

The diagnostic and therapeutic management of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the HIV population brought some known criticalities (and opportunities) to the forefront, for both those who are facing their first therapeutic line today, and for those already well viro-suppressed. The clinical, socioeconomic, and psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic should not affect the long-term care of people living with HIV, which creates an urgent need to optimize the diagnostic and treatment approach to the first-line or switch regimens. The use of dolutegravir plus a lamivudine two-drug regimen is one of the most promising solutions to ease the management of HIV treatment in this difficult period. Read More

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HIV-1 Tat Protein Promotes Neuroendocrine Dysfunction Concurrent with the Potentiation of Oxycodone's Psychomotor Effects in Female Mice.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of BioMolecular Sciences, University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Oxford, MS 38677-1848, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroendocrine dysfunction which may contribute to co-morbid stress-sensitive disorders. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) or -gonadal (HPG) axes are perturbed in up to 50% of HIV patients. The mechanisms are not known, but we have found the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein to recapitulate the clinical phenotype in male mice. Read More

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Sequence Length of HIV-1 Subtype B Increases over Time: Analysis of a Cohort of Patients with Hemophilia over 30 Years.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

HIV Databases, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA.

We aimed to investigate whether the sequence length of HIV-1 increases over time. We performed a longitudinal analysis of full-length coding region sequences (FLs) during an HIV-1 outbreak among patients with hemophilia and local controls infected with the Korean subclade B of HIV-1 (KSB). Genes were amplified by overlapping RT-PCR or nested PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Read More

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From HIV to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Hematologic Complications in Viral Pandemics.

Donald S Karcher

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

From the Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Context.—: From the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic in the 1980s to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple viral pandemics have occurred and all have been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity.

Objective. Read More

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Assisted reproductive technology outcomes in women with a chronic viral disease.

AIDS 2021 Jun;35(7):1073-1081

Université de Paris, Faculté de Médecine.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative live birth rate in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection (IVF/ICSI) according to the type of chronic viral infection [HIV, hepatitis-B virus (HBV) and hepatitis-C virus (HCV)].

Design: A cohort study.

Setting: A tertiary-care university hospital. Read More

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Trends in childhood cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: Results from 25 years of cancer registration in Harare (Zimbabwe) and Kyadondo (Uganda).

Int J Cancer 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

We examined trends in childhood cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa using data from two population-based cancer registries in Harare (Zimbabwe) and Kyadondo (Uganda) with cases classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer and explored reasons for observed variations and changes. Over the whole 25-year period (1991-2015) studied, there were only small, and non-significant overall trends in incidence. Nevertheless, within the period, peaks in incidence occurred from 1996-2001 in Harare (Zimbabwe) and from 2003-2006 in Kyadondo (Uganda). Read More

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Reaching underserved South Africans with integrated chronic disease screening and mobile HIV counselling and testing: A retrospective, longitudinal study conducted in Cape Town.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249600. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences, The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Community-based, mobile HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and screening for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may improve early diagnosis and referral for care in underserved populations. We evaluated HCT/NCD data and described population characteristics of those visiting a mobile clinic in high HIV disease burden settings in Cape Town, South Africa, between 2008 and 2016.

Methods: Trained counsellors registered patients ≥12 years old at a mobile clinic, which offered HCT and blood pressure, diabetes (glucose testing) and obesity (body mass index) screening. Read More

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Relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 response to COVID-19 severity and impact of HIV-1 and Tuberculosis co-infection.

J Clin Invest 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

T cells are involved in control of COVID-19, but limited knowledge is available on the relationship between antigen-specific T cell response and disease severity. Here, we assessed the magnitude, function and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells in 95 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (38 of them being HIV-1 and/or tuberculosis (TB) co-infected) and 38 non-COVID-19 patients, using flow cytometry. We showed that SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cell attributes, rather than magnitude, associates with disease severity, with severe disease being characterized by poor polyfunctional potential, reduced proliferation capacity and enhanced HLA-DR expression. Read More

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Internalised stigma as durable social determinant of HIV care for transnational patients of Puerto Rican ancestry.

Glob Public Health 2021 May 4:1-20. Epub 2021 May 4.

Analytics & Evaluation, Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC), New York, NY, USA.

Intersectional stigmas have been contributing barriers to linkage and retention in HIV care for Latinx communities. Our analysis examines whether reductions in HIV-related and other stigmas were associated (or not) with progression on the HIV continuum of care for Puerto Ricans living with HIV, patients of the U.S. Read More

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Multicentric Castleman's disease in HIV patients: a single-center cohort diagnosed from 2008 to 2018.

Infection 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Purpose: Castleman's disease (CD) is a well-established entity but there is a lack of available data regarding the management and therapy of HIV- and HHV-8-positive multicentric CD (MCD). We provide our own single-center experience with HIV-associated MCD.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, descriptive study on a cohort of patients with MCD, diagnosed and admitted to the infectious diseases or intensive care unit in the University Hospital Düsseldorf between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Establishing local reference intervals for full blood count and white blood cell differential counts in Cape Town, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(4):327-332. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Haematology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; National Health Laboratory Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Accurate laboratory reference intervals (RIs) are essential to differentiate between health and disease. There are variations in haematological indices within populations relating to gender, age, ethnicity and environment. Iron deficiency is common, has a wide range of clinical morbidities and affects red cell indices. Read More

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A nurse-led intervention to improve management of virological failure in public sector HIV clinics in Durban, South Africa: A pre- and post-implementation evaluation.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(4):299-303. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Department of Infectious Diseases, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Identification of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with virological failure (VF) and the response in the public health sector remain significant challenges. We previously reported improvement in routine viral load (VL) monitoring after ART commencement through a health system-strengthening, nurse-led 'VL champion' programme as part of a multidisciplinary team in three public sector clinics in Durban, South Africa.

Objectives: To report on the impact of the VL champion model adapted to identify, support and co-ordinate the management of individuals with VF on first-line ART in a setting with limited electronic-based record capacity. Read More

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A severity-of-illness score in patients with tuberculosis requiring intensive care.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):245-249. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: We previously retrospectively validated a 6-point severity-of-illness score aimed at identifying patients at risk of dying of tuberculosis (TB) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Parameters included septic shock, HIV infection with a CD4 count <200 cells/µL, renal dysfunction, a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) <200 mmHg, a chest radiograph demonstrating diffuse parenchymal infiltrates, and no TB treatment on admission.

Objectives: To prospectively validate the severity-of-illness scoring system in patients with TB requiring intensive care, and to refine and simplify the score in order to expand its clinical utility. Read More

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One in four die from acute infectious illness in an emergency department in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):129-136. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., USA.

Background: Despite the breadth of data supporting evidence-based practice for sepsis care in high-resource settings, there are relatively few data to guide the management of sepsis in low-resource settings, particularly in areas where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are prevalent. Furthermore, few studies had broadened sepsis parameters to include all patients with acute infectious illness or followed patients up after hospital discharge. Understanding the epidemiology and outcomes of acute infections in a local context is the critical first step to developing locally informed targeted management strategies. Read More

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February 2021

Is there a role for doravirine in African HIV treatment programmes? A large observational resistance study in South Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 May;24(5):e25706

Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: Dolutegravir has replaced efavirenz in most low- and middle-income countries, due to better tolerability and formidable resistance profile, but dolutegravir side effects suggest alternatives are needed. We evaluated doravirine resistance in South Africa as a first step to assess whether doravirine may replace dolutegravir.

Methods: A retrospective dataset was analysed for predicted doravirine susceptibility, including sequences obtained from three patient groups. Read More

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Neurosyphilis: a series of 178 cases at the 3rd-level hospital of Marrakesh (Morocco).

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroscience Research Laboratory of Marrakech Medical School, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS), caused by Treponema pallidum. Up to 4-10% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop NS which still constitutes a health challenge. The aim of this study is to analyze epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic, and progression profiles of NS in the south of Morocco. Read More

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