6,248 results match your criteria historical linguistic


Touch-ups, Rejuvenation, Re-dos and Revisions: Remote Communication and Cosmetic Surgery on the Rise.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", PhD School of Translational Medicine of Development and Active Aging, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084, Fisciano, SA, Italy.

The way in which communication takes place has undergone significant change over the last year leading to alterations regarding the way we perceive our own personal image. Indeed, the increase in remote video interaction seems to have led to an increase in the number of requests for teleconsultations with plastic surgeons in private practice (70% in the UK and 64% in the USA), the so-called Zoom Boom. The reasons connected to this increase are still under investigation, but it is likely that patients' greater exposure to seeing their own image in online video communication for prolonged periods has highlighted what patients perceive as flaws and/or their self-image does not correspond to the same image that they see in the mirror. Read More

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At the boundaries of syntactic prehistory.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 May 22;376(1824):20200197. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Dipartimento di Matematica e Geoscienze, Università di Trieste, Via Weiss 2, 34128 Trieste, Italy.

Can language relatedness be established without cognate words? This question has remained unresolved since the nineteenth century, leaving language prehistory beyond etymologically established families largely undefined. We address this problem through a theory of universal syntactic characters. We show that not only does syntax allow for comparison across distinct traditional language families, but that the probability of deeper historical relatedness between such families can be statistically tested through a dedicated algorithm which implements the concept of 'possible languages' suggested by a formal syntactic theory. Read More

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Testing methods of linguistic homeland detection using synthetic data.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 May 22;376(1824):20200202. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Linguistics, University of North Texas, Discovery Park Room B201, 3940 N Elm St., Suite B201, Denton, TX 76207, USA.

Two families of quantitative methods have been used to infer geographical homelands of language families: Bayesian phylogeography and the 'diversity method'. Bayesian methods model how populations may have moved using a phylogenetic tree as a backbone, while the diversity method assumes that the geographical area where linguistic diversity is highest likely corresponds to the homeland. No systematic tests of the performances of the different methods in a linguistic context have so far been published. Read More

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The vocal tract as a time machine: inferences about past speech and language from the anatomy of the speech organs.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 May 22;376(1824):20200192. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Anthropology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

While speech and language do not fossilize, they still leave traces that can be extracted and interpreted. Here, we suggest that the shape of the hard structures of the vocal tract may also allow inferences about the speech of long-gone humans. These build on recent experimental and modelling studies, showing that there is extensive variation between individuals in the precise shape of the vocal tract, and that this variation affects speech and language. Read More

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One Hundred Years of Migration Discourse in : A Discourse-Historical Word Vector Space Approach to the Construction of Meaning.

Front Artif Intell 2020 10;3:64. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of History and Art History, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

This study proposes an experimental method to trace the historical evolution of media discourse as a means to investigate the construction of collective meaning. Based on distributional semantics theory (Harris, 1954; Firth, 1957) and critical discourse theory (Wodak and Fairclough, 1997), it explores the value of merging two techniques widely employed to investigate language and meaning in two separate fields: neural word embeddings (computational linguistics) and the discourse-historical approach (DHA; Reisigl and Wodak, 2001) (applied linguistics). As a use case, we investigate the historical changes in the semantic space of public discourse of migration in the United Kingdom, and we use the (TDA) from 1900 to 2000 as dataset. Read More

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September 2020

Beyond Last Words: Patterns of Linguistic and Interactional Behavior in a Historical Sample of Dying Hospital Patients.

Authors:
Michael Erard

Omega (Westport) 2021 Mar 15:302228211000938. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Data Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Patterns of linguistic and interactional behavior by people at the very end of their lives are not well described, partly because data is difficult to obtain. This paper analyzes descriptions of 486 deaths gathered from 1900 to 1904 in the first-ever clinical study of dying by noted Canadian physician, Sir William Osler. Only 16 patients were noted speaking, and only four canonical last words were reported. Read More

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40 Years of Research on Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)-A Historical Overview and Newest Data of a Promising Anticancer Drug.

Molecules 2021 Feb 13;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Institute for Molecular Medicine I, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of molecules with an ambiguous background in literature. PBDEs were first isolated from marine sponges of species in 1981 and have been under continuous research to the present day. This article summarizes the two research aspects, (i) the marine compound chemistry research dealing with naturally produced PBDEs and (ii) the environmental toxicology research dealing with synthetically-produced brominated flame-retardant PBDEs. Read More

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February 2021

Differences of kindergarten children's linguistic picture of the world: focus on Hungary, Russia, and Laos.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 12;7(2):e05940. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Trubetskaya ul. 8|2, Moscow, Russia.

Three-to-five-year-old Laotian kindergarten children, native speakers of the Lao language were investigated in order to map the peculiarities of their picture of the world through their word associations. Results were contrasted to a previous comparative study of Hungarian and Russian kindergarteners of the same age aiming at revealing linguistic and cultural differences and similarities in this age group in the three aforementioned countries. Theories and methods of the Moscow School of Psycholinguistics were utilized for the cross-cultural comparison based on a Vygotskian cultural-historical approach, on Leontiev's speech activity theory, on the concept of verbal consciousness (linguistic picture of the world) and on the association experiment. Read More

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February 2021

Can Bayesian phylogeography reconstruct migrations and expansions in linguistic evolution?

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jan 13;8(1):201079. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

University Research Priority Program (URPP) Language and Space, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Bayesian phylogeography has been used in historical linguistics to reconstruct homelands and expansions of language families, but the reliability of these reconstructions has remained unclear. We contribute to this discussion with a simulation study where we distinguish two types of spatial processes: , where populations or languages leave one place for another, and , where populations or languages gradually expand their territory. We simulate migration and expansion in two scenarios with varying degrees of spatial directional trends and evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art phylogeographic methods. Read More

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January 2021

Geospatial distributions reflect temperatures of linguistic features.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 1;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Linguistics and English Language, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Quantifying the speed of linguistic change is challenging because the historical evolution of languages is sparsely documented. Consequently, traditional methods rely on phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we propose a model-based approach to the problem through the analysis of language change as a stochastic process combining vertical descent, spatial interactions, and mutations in both dimensions. Read More

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January 2021

Genetic evidence and historical theories of the Asian and African origins of the present Malagasy population.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Équipe de Médecine Evolutive, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire UMR5288 CNRS/Université Toulouse III, France.

The origin of the Malagasy population has been a subject of speculation since the 16th century. Contributions of African, Asian, Indian, Melanesian, Arabic, Persian populations have been suggested based on physical and cultural anthropology, oral tradition, linguistics and later also by archaeology. In the mid-20th century, increased knowledge of heredity rules and technical progress enabled the identification of African and Asian populations as main contributors. Read More

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January 2021

On the Use of the Term "Evapotranspiration".

Water Resour Res 2020 Nov 31;56(11):e2020WR028055. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia Universidade de Lisboa Lisbon Portugal.

Evaporation is the phenomenon by which a substance is converted from its liquid into its vapor phase, independently of where it lies in nature. However, language is alive, and just like regular speech, scientific terminology changes. Frequently, those changes are grounded on a solid rationale, but sometimes these semantic transitions have a fragile foundation. Read More

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November 2020

International transfer and translation of an end of life care intervention: the case of the Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 27;5:256. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Health Sciences School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, S10 2HQ, UK.

We explore how and why the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) for the dying patient was transferred to 20 countries beyond the UK, and with what consequences for policy and practice. Our paper synthesises findings from 95 publications contained in a historical narrative literature review on the implementation of the LCP outside the United Kingdom, alongside data from 18 qualitative interviews with 19 key actors involved with the LCP in 14 countries. We use the review to explore the timelines and patterns of development and implementation in the specific countries, to consider what forms of research and evaluation about the LCP were undertaken to establish its effectiveness, and to summarise the resulting findings and their consequences. Read More

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October 2020

Prediction and Explanation in a Postmodern World.

Front Psychol 2020 1;11:597706. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

The experimental research paradigm lies at the core of empirical psychology. New data analytical and computational tools continually enrich its methodological arsenal, while the paradigm's mission remains the testing of theoretical predictions and causal explanations. Predictions regarding experimental results necessarily point to the future. Read More

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December 2020

Aging Narratives over 210 years (1810-2019).

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Objectives: The World Health Organization launched a recent global campaign to combat ageism, citing its ubiquity and insidious threat to health. The historical context that promoted this pernicious threat is understudied, and such studies lay the critical foundation for designing societal-level campaigns to combat it. We analyzed the trend and content of aging narratives over 210 years across multiple genres-newspaper, magazines, fiction, non-fiction books; and modelled the predictors of the observed trend. Read More

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December 2020

Ageing without remembering: Fantasy, memory and loss in Kazuo Ishiguro's The Buried Giant.

J Aging Stud 2020 Dec 21;55:100879. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of English and Linguistics, Universitat de Lleida, Pl. Víctor Siurana, 1, 25003 Lleida, Catalunya, Spain. Electronic address:

In his most recent novel, The Buried Giant (2015), Ishiguro presents an elderly couple, Axl and Beatrice, who live in a Britain afflicted by a mist that makes everyone forget not only their common historical past but also their own life experiences and memories. By focusing on the journey of the two elderly and increasingly frail protagonists within a fantastic, neomedieval world, the novel challenges the chronometric and future-oriented model of time in which youth is an asset and old age inevitably a burden. Related to this, the novel interrogates the model of generational succession as straightforward renewal and progress, instead positing a cyclical movement through which the mistakes of past generations are repeated once and again. Read More

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December 2020

Geographical and social isolation drive the evolution of Austronesian languages.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0243171. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The origins of linguistic diversity remain controversial. Studies disagree on whether group features such as population size or social structure accelerate or decelerate linguistic differentiation. While some analyses of between-group factors highlight the role of geographical isolation and reduced linguistic exchange in differentiation, others suggest that linguistic divergence is driven primarily by warfare among neighbouring groups and the use of language as marker of group identity. Read More

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January 2021

The Blows and Capoeira Movements From the Caricatures of Calixto Cordeiro.

Front Psychol 2020 28;11:586712. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

This study analyses some elements of the historical and social nature of Capoeira, such as the juridical-political, the clothing, the symbolic and the identity, but, essentially, those of a physical and linguistic nature, from the caricatures produced by Calixto Cordeiro, which illustrated the work of Lima Campos in 1906. In this work, a multi-method process was applied, represented by the presuppositions of Historical Archeology, the interpretation of images indicated by Panofsky, and the documental analysis of various sources. The use of these presuppositions and the confrontation of sources of diverse natures allowed us to interpret the signs, symbols, and meanings from the facts and data described by Cordeiro, about Capoeira presented by different literates. Read More

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October 2020

Contribution of the Semiological Approach to Deixis-Anaphora in Sign Language: The Key Role of Eye-Gaze.

Front Psychol 2020 6;11:583763. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Structures Formelles du Langage Laboratory, UMR 7023, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Paris 8 - University Paris Lumières, Paris, France.

We address the issue of deixis-anaphora in sign language (SL) discourse, focusing on the role of eye-gaze. According to the Semiological Approach, SL structuring stems from a maximum exploitation of the visuo-gestural modality, which results in two modes of meaning production, depending on the signer's semiotic intent. Involving both non-manual and manual parameters, the first mode, expressing the intent to , uses constructions based on structures, the termed "transfer structures. Read More

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November 2020

A Complex History: Reckoning With Prejudice in Surgery's Past.

Ann Surg 2021 03;273(3):e81-e82

Columbia University, Department of Surgery, New York, NY.

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Kinship and social organization in Copper Age Europe. A cross-disciplinary analysis of archaeology, DNA, isotopes, and anthropology from two Bell Beaker cemeteries.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(11):e0241278. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Cultures / Archaeology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We present a high-resolution cross-disciplinary analysis of kinship structure and social institutions in two Late Copper Age Bell Beaker culture cemeteries of South Germany containing 24 and 18 burials, of which 34 provided genetic information. By combining archaeological, anthropological, genetic and isotopic evidence we are able to document the internal kinship and residency structure of the cemeteries and the socially organizing principles of these local communities. The buried individuals represent four to six generations of two family groups, one nuclear family at the Alburg cemetery, and one seemingly more extended at Irlbach. Read More

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December 2020

The rise of prosociality in fiction preceded democratic revolutions in Early Modern Europe.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 11 30;117(46):28684-28691. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Institut Jean Nicod, Département d'Etudes Cognitives, École Normale Supérieure, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris Sciences & Lettres Research University, 75005 Paris, France.

The English and French Revolutions represent a turning point in history, marking the beginning of the modern rise of democracy. Recent advances in cultural evolution have put forward the idea that the early modern revolutions may be the product of a long-term psychological shift, from hierarchical and dominance-based interactions to democratic and trust-based relationships. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing theater plays during the early modern period in England and France. Read More

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November 2020

[Explore the history of artificial intelligence, to better define and understand it].

Authors:
Jacques Haiech

Med Sci (Paris) 2020 Oct 7;36(10):919-923. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Biotechnologie et signalisation cellulaire, École supérieure de biotechnologie de Strasbourg (ESBS), Pôle API, 300 boulevard Sébastien Brant - CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

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October 2020

"Stat Rosa Pristina Nomine, Nomina Nuda Tenemus": The Many Syndromes, Diseases, and Anatomic Structures Bearing Jean-Martin Charcot's Name.

Eur Neurol 2020 5;83(5):550-553. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Neurology, Red Cross Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil.

The sheer magnitude of Jean-Martin Charcot's contributions to neurology, pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine has allowed for the common usage of eponyms bearing the master's name in recognition of his work. However, these are so numerous that confusion has naturally arisen concerning the exact nature of each eponym, allowing for different specialists to refer to completely different ailments or symptoms, while using the very same expression. Previous compilations of his eponyms were often incomplete. Read More

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How the diversity of human concepts of nature affects conservation of biodiversity.

Conserv Biol 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la Conservation, UMR 7204, 61 rue Buffon MNHN, Paris, 75005, France.

Protecting nature has become a global concern. However, the very idea of nature is problematic. We examined the etymological and semantic diversity of the word used to translate nature in a conservation context in 76 of the primary languages of the world to identify the different relationships between humankind and nature. Read More

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September 2020

Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905): return of the surgeon.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 01 28;80(1):8-10. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Medicine 3, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

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January 2021

Influence of Nomenclature Changes on Trends in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the United States, 2000 to 2017.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 12;105(12)

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Context: US papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence recently declined for the first time in decades, for reasons that remain unclear.

Objective: This work aims to evaluate PTC incidence trends, including by histologic subtype and size, and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

Design: This descriptive study uses US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 cancer registry data (2000-2017). Read More

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December 2020

Neurodevelopmental and cognitive disabilities: Historical overview.

Authors:
Bonnie Evans

Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;173:7-14

School of Languages, Linguistics and Film and School of History, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This chapter explores the history of the developmental sciences and their impact on the study of neurodevelopmental and cognitive disabilities from the start of the 20th century to the present day. It covers the origins of intelligence testing and developmental schedules and the importance of early laboratory testing on identifying the causes of developmental differences. It also explores the importance of major legal and institutional changes after the Second World War in reframing approaches to developmental conditions. Read More

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January 2020

The van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics, awarded in 2020 to Tanja Woyke.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Oct 21;70(10):5594-5595. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens GA 30602-2605, USA.

The Senate of The University of Queensland, on the recommendation of the Executive Board of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, is pleased to present the van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics for the triennium 2017-2020 to Dr Tanja Woyke in recognition of her contributions made to the field of bacterial systematics. The award, established in 1986 by Professor V. B. Read More

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October 2020