50,280 results match your criteria hippocampal neurons

MiR-124 protects against cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane anesthesia in vivo and in vitro through targeting calpain small subunit 1 via NF-κB signaling pathway.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an impairment of cognition that affects post-surgery patients. Sevoflurane anesthesia is linked to cognitive dysfunction correlated to the expression of miRNA levels.

Objectives: In the current study, we investigated if miR-124 can offer protection against cognitive deficits induced by sevoflurane in a spatial learning paradigm, and examined the molecular mechanisms through cell cultures. Read More

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Features of hippocampal astrocytic domains and their spatial relation to excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

Glia 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

The mounting evidence for the involvement of astrocytes in neuronal circuits function and behavior stands in stark contrast to the lack of detailed anatomical description of these cells and the neurons in their domains. To fill this void, we imaged >30,000 astrocytes in hippocampi made transparent by CLARITY, and determined the elaborate structure, distribution, and neuronal content of astrocytic domains. First, we characterized the spatial distribution of >19,000 astrocytes across CA1 lamina, and analyzed the morphology of thousands of reconstructed domains. Read More

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Photoactivation of TGFβ/SMAD signaling pathway ameliorates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease model.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 11;12(1):345. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Background: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is restricted under the pathological conditions of neurodegenerative diseases, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drop of AHN reduces neural circuit plasticity, resulting in the decrease of the generation of newborn neurons in dentate gyrus (DG), which makes it difficult to recover from learning/memory dysfunction in AD, therefore, it is imperative to find a therapeutic strategy to promote neurogenesis and clarify its underlying mechanism involved.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice were treated with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for 0. Read More

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Regulation of TWIK-related K channel 1 in the anterior hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with comorbid depression.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jun 8;121(Pt A):108045. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Beijing, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Epilepsy with comorbid depression has recently attracted increasing attention. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may represent an increased risk of developing depression, especially if the seizures do not generalize. The two-pore domain potassium channel-TWIK-related K channel (TREK-1) plays important roles in both epilepsy and depression. Read More

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Treatment with edaravone improves the structure and functional changes in the hippocampus after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rat.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

This study aimed to find out cellular and electrophysiological effects of the edaravone (EDR) administration following induction of vascular dementia (VaD) via bilateral-carotid vessel occlusion (2VO). The rats were randomly divided into control, sham, 2VO + V (vehicle), and 2VO + EDR groups. EDR was administered once a day from day 0-28 after surgery. Read More

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Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 Jun 8:107478. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Neuroscience Institute; Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.

Research involving human participants indicates that memories of recently eaten meals limit how much is eaten during subsequent eating episodes; yet, the brain regions that mediate the inhibitory effects of ingestion-related memory on future intake are largely unknown. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memories of personal experiences, mediate the inhibitory effects of ingestion-related memory on future intake. Our research program aimed at testing this hypothesis has been influenced in large part by our mentor James McGaugh and his research on posttraining manipulations. Read More

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Lrig1 deficiency affects hippocampal dendrite complexity and impairs cognitive function.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias "Prof. E. De Robertis"(IBCN)- CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane proteins have been directly linked to neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. We have previously shown that the LRR transmembrane protein Lrig1 is a physiological regulator of dendrite complexity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and social behavior. In this study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate spatial memory and cognitive capabilities in Lrig1 mutant mice. Read More

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GPR68 Contributes to Persistent Acidosis-Induced Activation of AGC Kinases and Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:692217. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, United States.

Persistent acidosis occurs in ischemia and multiple neurological diseases. In previous studies, acidic stimulation leads to rapid increase in intracellular calcium in neurons. However, it remains largely unclear how a prolonged acidosis alters neuronal signaling. Read More

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Truncating variants in the SHANK1 gene are associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute for Genomic Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical phenotype of a SHANK1-related disorder and define the functional consequences of SHANK1 truncating variants.

Methods: Exome sequencing (ES) was performed for six individuals who presented with neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals were ascertained with the use of GeneMatcher and Database of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans Using Ensembl Resources (DECIPHER). Read More

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The functional role of sequentially neuromodulated synaptic plasticity in behavioural learning.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 10;17(6):e1009017. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, United Kingdom.

To survive, animals have to quickly modify their behaviour when the reward changes. The internal representations responsible for this are updated through synaptic weight changes, mediated by certain neuromodulators conveying feedback from the environment. In previous experiments, we discovered a form of hippocampal Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) that is sequentially modulated by acetylcholine and dopamine. Read More

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Beyond olfaction: Beneficial effects of olfactory training extend to aging-related cognitive decline.

Behav Neurosci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Smell and Taste Clinic.

Studies on olfactory training (OT) outcomes have mostly been limited to olfactory performance, while direct neural connections between olfactory system and amygdala-hippocampal complex allow expecting OT to have psychological effects. To address this hypothesis, we examined olfactory, cognitive and emotional effects of OT in the group of 68 subjects aged between 50 and 88 years ( = 62.8 ± 8. Read More

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Long-Term Plasticity in the Hippocampus: Maintaining Within and 'Tagging' Between Synapses.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Synapses between neurons are malleable biochemical structures, strengthening and diminishing over time dependent on the type of information they receive. This phenomenon known as synaptic plasticity underlies learning and memory, and its different forms, Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) perform varied cognitive roles in reinforcement, relearning and associating memories. Moreover, both LTP and LTD can exist in an early transient form (early-LTP/LTD) or a late persistent form (late-LTP/LTD), which are triggered by different induction protocols, and also differ in their dependence on protein synthesis and the involvement of key molecular players. Read More

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Sublayer- and cell-type-specific neurodegenerative transcriptional trajectories in hippocampal sclerosis.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(10):109229

Instituto Cajal, CSIC, 28002 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Hippocampal sclerosis, the major neuropathological hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy, is characterized by different patterns of neuronal loss. The mechanisms of cell-type-specific vulnerability and their progression and histopathological classification remain controversial. Using single-cell electrophysiology in vivo and immediate-early gene expression, we reveal that superficial CA1 pyramidal neurons are overactive in epileptic rodents. Read More

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Wnt5a modulates dendritic spine dynamics through the regulation of Cofilin via small Rho GTPase activity in hippocampal neurons.

J Neurochem 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE), Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Dendritic spines are small, actin-rich protrusions that act as the receiving sites of most excitatory inputs in the central nervous system. The remodeling of the synapse architecture is mediated by actin cytoskeleton dynamics, a process precisely regulated by the small Rho GTPase family. Wnt ligands exert their pre- and postsynaptic effects during formation and consolidation of the synaptic structure. Read More

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Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor regulates glutamate receptors and immediate early genes to affect synaptic plasticity.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 9;13. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) on the glutamate receptors and immediate early genes (IEGs) in the SH-SY5Y cells.

Methods: The genes regulated by REST were screened by bioinformatics between AD patients and the control group. Then, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with 10 μM Aβ or REST siRNA/cDNA, and the expressions of synaptic genes and IEGs were detected. Read More

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Altered vascular permeability but not angiogenesis may play a role in the epileptogenesis of human hippocampal sclerosis.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology, NIMHANS, Bangalore, India.

Objective: We investigated the role of angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the pathogenesis of human drug-resistant epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis.

Methods: Resected hippocampi from 30 histologically confirmed cases of hippocampal sclerosis and 30 age-matched post-mortem controls were examined by immunohistochemical quantitation of vascular endothelial markers, CD31 and CD105 (markers of newly formed vessels), and data were analysed relative to MR volumetry. The blood-brain barrier was evaluated based on immunohistochemistry for IgG, albumin, VEGF and AQP4. Read More

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Protective Role of PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 Pathway in Chronic Renal Failure Induced Injury of Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Jun 8:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Nephrology, The First People's Hospital of Huzhou, Huzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impairment of hippocampal neurons. This study investigated the effect of PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway in CRF. Rat CRF model was established and rat hippocampal neurons were separated. Read More

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Polygalasaponin F protects hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):178-184

Laboratory of Cognitive Function and Disorder, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province; Institute of Brain Science and Department of Psychology, School of Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Excess extracellular glutamate leads to excitotoxicity, which induces neuronal death through the overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Excitotoxicity is thought to be closely related to various acute and chronic neurological disorders, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Polygalasaponin F (PGSF) is a triterpenoid saponin monomer that can be isolated from Polygala japonica, and has been reported to protect cells against apoptosis. Read More

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January 2022

Neat1 decreases neuronal apoptosis after oxygen and glucose deprivation.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):163-169

Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Studies have shown that downregulation of nuclear-enriched autosomal transcript 1 (Neat1) may adversely affect the recovery of nerve function and the increased loss of hippocampal neurons in mice. Whether Neat1 has protective or inhibitory effects on neuronal cell apoptosis after secondary brain injury remains unclear. Therefore, the effects of Neat1 on neuronal apoptosis were observed. Read More

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January 2022

[Cross-Talk of the Glutamate and Leptin Receptor Pathways].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):510-518

Federal Research Center of Information and Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.

The hormone leptin is produced in adipocytes of white adipose tissue and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Leptin receptors are present in the brain regions that are involved in higher cognitive functions. In particular, leptin directly influences the glutamate receptor trafficking in CA3 → CA1 synapses to increase the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) level, which is controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Read More

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Oral Administration of Silibinin Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits of Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model by Restoring Mitochondrial Disorders in Hippocampus.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, Liaoning, China.

Besides motor disorder, cognitive dysfunction is also common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Essentially no causal therapy for cognitive dysfunction of PD exists at present. In this study, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD was used to analyze the neuroprotective potential of orally administered silibinin, a proverbial hepatoprotective flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Read More

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IGF1-Stimulated Posttraumatic Hippocampal Remodeling Is Not Dependent on mTOR.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:663456. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Physiology, Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is stimulated acutely following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, many hippocampal neurons born after injury develop abnormally and the number that survive long-term is debated. In experimental TBI, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) promotes hippocampal neuronal differentiation, improves immature neuron dendritic arbor morphology, increases long-term survival of neurons born after TBI, and improves cognitive function. Read More

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Prodromal neuroinflammatory, cholinergic and metabolite dysfunction detected by PET and MRS in the TgF344-AD transgenic rat model of AD: a collaborative multi-modal study.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(14):6644-6667. Epub 2021 May 3.

Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are valuable but do not fully recapitulate human AD pathology, such as spontaneous Tau fibril accumulation and neuronal loss, necessitating the development of new AD models. The transgenic (TG) TgF344-AD rat has been reported to develop age-dependent AD features including neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangles, despite only expressing and mutations, suggesting an improved modelling of AD hallmarks. Alterations in neuronal networks as well as learning performance and cognition tasks have been reported in this model, but none have combined a longitudinal, multimodal approach across multiple centres, which mimics the approaches commonly taken in clinical studies. Read More

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Naofucong Ameliorates High Glucose Induced Hippocampal Neuron Injury Through Suppressing P2X7/NLRP1/Caspase-1 Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:647116. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

P2X7/NLRP1/caspase-1 mediated neuronal injury plays an important role in diabetic cognitive impairment and eventually inflammatory cascade reaction. Chinese herbal compound Naofucong has been mainly used to treat cognitive disorders in Traditional Chinese Medicine The present study aimed to investigate whether its neuroprotective effects might be related to the inhibition of P2X7R/NLRP1/caspase-1 mediated neuronal injury or not. In this study, high glucose-induced HT22 hippocampal neurons were used to determine Naofucong-containing serum neuronal protective effects. Read More

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Notch3-Dependent Effects on Adult Neurogenesis and Hippocampus-Dependent Learning in a Modified Transgenic Model of CADASIL.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 21;13:617733. Epub 2021 May 21.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Dresden, Germany.

We and others have reported that Notch3 is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (CADASIL), the most common genetic form of vascular dementia, is caused by mutations in . The present study intended to investigate whether there is a correlation between altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory performance in CADASIL transgenic mice. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effects of VEGF-A Nanofiber Membrane and FAAH Inhibitor URB597 Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Ischemic Neuronal Injury.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 27;16:3661-3678. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tong Ji Hospital, Tong Ji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200065, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Brain ischemia is a common neurological disorder worldwide that activates a cascade of pathophysiological events involving decreases in oxygen and glucose levels. Despite substantial efforts to explore its pathogenesis, the management of ischemic neuronal injury remains an enormous challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that VEGF modified nanofiber (NF) materials and the fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 exert an influence on alleviating ischemic brain damage. Read More

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The Human Hippocampus in Parkinson's Disease: An Integrative Stereological and Proteomic Study.

J Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically described as a six-stage α-synucleinopathy. In stage 4, α-synuclein reaches the hippocampus, inducing cognitive deficits, from which it progresses to the isocortex, leading to dementia. Among hippocampal fields, cornu ammonis 2 is particularly affected by this α-synucleinopathy and critical for cognitive decline. Read More

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Seasonal plasticity in the morphology and cytoarchitecture of the hippocampal complex of the Indian Roller, Coracias benghalensis.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 Apr 29;147:125929. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Neurobiology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, 211002, UP, India. Electronic address:

Coracias benghalensis, commonly known as Indian Roller, a subtropical seasonally breeding bird native to Prayagraj (25° 28' N, 81° 54' E), U.P., India, exhibits a specific rolling behavior (an ornate sexual display) to attract the female for courtship. Read More

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Genetically and pharmacologically limiting RyR2 open time prevents neuronal hyperactivity of hippocampal CA1 neurons in brain slices of 5xFAD mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 4:136011. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Neuronal hyperactivity is an early, common manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is believed to drive AD progression. Neuronal hyperactivity in the form of baseline activity (or spontaneous Ca transients) has consistently been demonstrated in mouse models of AD using two-photon in vivo Ca imaging of cortical or hippocampal neurons in anesthetized animals. Notably, these AD-related spontaneous Ca transients were hardly detected in acute hippocampal slices, probably due to neuronal damage during brain slicing. Read More

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HS protects hippocampal neurons against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury by promoting RhoA phosphorylation at Ser188.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 4;7(1):132. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Inhibition of RhoA-ROCK pathway is involved in the HS-induced cerebral vasodilatation and HS-mediated protection on endothelial cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury. However, the inhibitory mechanism of HS on RhoA-ROCK pathway is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the target and mechanism of HS in inhibition of RhoA/ROCK. Read More

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