7,073 results match your criteria hippocampal neurogenesis


Alpha-Synuclein Pathology Coincides With Increased Number of Early Stage Neural Progenitors in the Adult Hippocampus.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:691560. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hanover, Germany.

Alpha-synuclein pathology driven impairment in adult neurogenesis was proposed as a potential cause of, or at least contributor to, memory impairment observed in both patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Mice overexpressing wild-type alpha-synuclein under the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-aSyn, line 61) uniquely replicate early cognitive deficits together with multiple other characteristic motor and non-motor symptoms, alpha-synuclein pathology and dopamine loss. Here we report overt intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in the hippocampus of these transgenic mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Linn. Extract Improves Cognitive Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice via the Enhancement of Central Cholinergic Systems and VEGF Expression.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 30;2021:6627648. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Center for Supporting Pharmaceutical Education, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, Fukuoka 815-8511, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the antidementia effects of ethanolic extract of Linn. (OS) and its underlying mechanisms using olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice. OBX mice were treated daily with OS or a reference drug, donepezil (DNP). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Brain Size on Adult Neurogenesis in Shrews.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 17;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

Shrews are small animals found in many different habitats. Like other mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. We asked whether the number of new generated cells in shrews depends on their brain size. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stress-Related Dysfunction of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis-An Attempt for Understanding Resilience?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 8;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Synaptic Immunopathology Lab, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy.

Newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic cues. It is well accepted that elevated glucocorticoid levels lead to downregulation of adult neurogenesis, which this review discusses as one reason why psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, develop after long-term stress exposure. In reverse, adult neurogenesis has been suggested to protect against stress-induced major depression, and hence, could serve as a resilience mechanism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Memantine improves memory and hippocampal proliferation in adult male rats.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(2):143-151

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Neurogenesis occurs during the embryological development of the brain. However, it is universally accepted that in all adult mammalian brains, there are two sites of high-density cell division: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline agent which results in cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, whereas memantine (MEM) is an NMDA receptor antagonist which is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Fractionated low-dose radiation induces long-lasting inflammatory responses in the hippocampal stem cell niche.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Despite major technical advances in hippocampus-sparing radiotherapy, radiation-induced injury to the neural stem cell compartment may affect neurocognitive functions. In the brain glia cells modulate neuronal functions and are major mediators of neuroinflammation. In a pre-clinical mouse model with fractionated low-dose radiation (LDR) the complex response to radiation-induced injury was analyzed in the hippocampal stem cell compartment over a period of 6 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How development sculpts hippocampal circuits and function.

Physiol Rev 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

grid.7429.8Inserm, INMED, Turing Center for Living Systems, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.

In mammals, the selective transformation of transient experience into stored memory occurs in the hippocampus, which develops representations of specific events in the context in which they occur. In this review, we focus on the development of hippocampal circuits and the self-organized dynamics embedded within them since the latter critically support the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory. We first discuss evidence that adult hippocampal cells and circuits are sculpted by development as early as during embryonic neurogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Whole and refined grains change behavior and reduce brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 in rats.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jul 18:e13867. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

In most of the world, wheat is one of the main staple foods, and is also widely used in livestock feed. In the current study, we investigated the effects of wheat grain consumption on the rat behavior and neurogenesis markers. Thirty male rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 10). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Coupling of GPR30 mediated neurogenesis and protection with astroglial Aromatase-STAT3 signaling in rat hippocampus after global cerebral ischemia.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Jul 15;535:111394. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Public Health of North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 063210, China; Dementia and Dyscognitive Key Lab, Tangshan, Hebei, 063000, China; International Science & Technology Cooperation Base of Geriatric Medicine, Tangshan, Hebei, 063000, China; School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 063210, China. Electronic address:

Our previous study revealed that G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-30 (GPR30) agonist G1 serves as a viable alternative neuroprotectant of 17β-estradiol (E2) to attenuate neuroinflammation and improve cognitive function after global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Aromatase, the key enzyme of E2 biosynthesis, is widely expressed in animal and human brain, and its expression and activity are mediated by selective estrogen receptor modulators. In the present study, we explored the long-term protective and reparative effects of G1 in ovariectomized rats after GCI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reduced neuroinflammation and enhanced neurogenesis following chronic agomelatine treatment in rats undergoing chronic constant light.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 15;197:108706. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

Experimental studies have revealed the involvement of neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia in the pathophysiology of depression, suggesting a novel target for treatment. The atypical antidepressant Agomelatine (Ago) has an advantage compared to the classical antidepressants due to its chronobiotic activity and unique pharmacological profile as a selective agonist at the melatonin receptors and an antagonist at the 5HT receptors. We have recently revealed that Ago can exert a potent antidepressant effect in rats exposed to a chronic constant light (CCL). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hippocampal neurogenesis interferes with extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-associated reward memory in mice.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 15;196:108717. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

Drugs of abuse, including morphine and cocaine, can reduce hippocampal neurogenesis (HN). Whereas promotion of HN is being increasingly recognized as a promising strategy for treating morphine and cocaine addiction. The present study is focused on exploring the changes of HN during methamphetamine (METH) administration and further clarify if HN is involved in METH-associated reward memory. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Neurogenic Niche in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 13:136109. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process of generation and functional incorporation of new neurons, formed by adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly dependent upon the integration of dynamic external stimuli and is instrumental in the formation of new spatial memories. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is therefore uniquely sensitive to the summation of neuronal circuit and neuroimmune environments that comprise the neurogenic niche, and has powerful implications in diseases of aging and neurological disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

miR-103-3p targets Ndel1 to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Feb;17(2):401-408

Department of Human Anatomy, Institute of Neurobiology, Nantong University; Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education; Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.

The regulation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is critical for lifelong neurogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of small, endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and influence signaling networks responsible for several cellular processes. In this study, miR-103-3p was transfected into neural stem cells derived from embryonic hippocampal neural stem cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease: Novel Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and their Role in Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

Int J Mol Cell Med 2021 22;10(1):1-10. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Physiology and Neurophysiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The neurogenesis can occur in two regions of the adult mammalian brain throughout the lifespan: the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. The proliferation and maturation of neural progenitor cells are tightly regulated through intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The integration of maturated cells into the circuitry of the adult hippocampus emphasizes the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Astrogliosis in juvenile non-human primates 2 years after infant anaesthesia exposure.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Infant anaesthesia causes acute brain cell apoptosis, and later in life cognitive deficits and behavioural alterations, in non-human primates (NHPs). Various brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions are characterised by chronic astrocyte activation (astrogliosis). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte-specific protein, increases during astrogliosis and remains elevated after an injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Reverse Agonist AM251 Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Decrements.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 28;15:668286. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Despite advancements in the radiotherapeutic management of brain malignancies, resultant sequelae include persistent cognitive dysfunction in the majority of survivors. Defining the precise causes of normal tissue toxicity has proven challenging, but the use of preclinical rodent models has suggested that reductions in neurogenesis and microvascular integrity, impaired synaptic plasticity, increased inflammation, and alterations in neuronal structure are contributory if not causal. As such, strategies to reverse these persistent radiotherapy-induced neurological disorders represent an unmet medical need. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency enhances isoflurane-induced spatial cognitive impairment in adult mice by affecting neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 25;22(2):908. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050011, P.R. China.

Isoflurane (Iso) is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic and is associated with the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) was previously reported to have a promising neuroprotective function in cases of POCD, but the specific mechanisms have remained to be fully explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CB2R deficiency on spatial cognitive performance in adult mice exposed to Iso. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ethanol modulation of hippocampal neuroinflammation, myelination, and neurodevelopment in a postnatal mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Jul 10;87:107015. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA. Electronic address:

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are alarmingly common and result in significant personal and societal loss. Neuropathology of the hippocampus is common in FASD leading to aberrant cognitive function. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on the expression of a targeted set of molecules involved in neuroinflammation, myelination, neurotransmission, and neuron function in the developing hippocampus in a postnatal model of FASD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Moderate, intermittent voluntary exercise in a model of Gulf War Illness improves cognitive and mood function with alleviation of activated microglia and astrocytes, and enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, College Station, TX, United States; Research Service, Olin E. Teague Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Persistent cognitive and mood impairments in Gulf War Illness (GWI) are associated with chronic neuroinflammation, typified by hypertrophied astrocytes, activated microglia, and increased proinflammatory mediators in the brain. Using a rat model, we investigated whether a simple lifestyle change such as moderate voluntary physical exercise would improve cognitive and mood function in GWI. Because veterans with GWI exhibit fatigue and post-exertional malaise, we employed an intermittent voluntary running exercise (RE) regimen, which prevented exercise-induced stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute pre-operative ibuprofen improves cognition in a rat model for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jul 8;18(1):156. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Neurobiology, GELIFES, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747, AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Inflammation is considered a key factor in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Therefore, we hypothesized that pre-operative anti-inflammatory treatment with ibuprofen would inhibit POCD in our rat-model.

Methods: Male Wistar rats of 3 or 23 months old received a single injection of ibuprofen (15 mg/kg i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Learning, Neurogenesis, and Effects of Flavonoids on Learning.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Selcuk University, Medical School Department of Physiology, 42075, Konya, Turkey.

Learning and memory are two of our mind's most magical abilities. Different brain regions have roles in processing and storing different types of memories. The hippocampus is the part of the brain responsible for receiving information and storing it in the neocortex. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The next step of neurogenesis in the context of Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Neuroscience Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Among different pathological mechanisms, neuronal loss and neurogenesis impairment in the hippocampus play important roles in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative diseases, which is very debilitating. The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into neurogenesis and AD and discuss how pharmacological drugs and herbal active components have impacts on neurogenesis and consequently improve cognitive functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ErbB4 promotes inhibitory synapse formation by cell adhesion, independent of its kinase activity.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 06 29;11(1):361. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The precise control of the nervous system function under the vitality of synapses is extremely critical. Efforts have been taken to explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for synapse formation. Cell adhesion molecules have been found important for synapse assembly in the brain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stress-Associated Molecular and Cellular Hippocampal Mechanisms Common for Epilepsy and Comorbid Depressive Disorders.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jun;86(6):641-656

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117485, Russia.

The review discusses molecular and cellular mechanisms common to the temporal lobe epileptogenesis/epilepsy and depressive disorders. Comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and depression are associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Excessive glucocorticoids disrupt the function and impair the structure of the hippocampus, a brain region key to learning, memory, and emotions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity link obesity with brain inflammation and reduced structural plasticity of the hippocampus.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Background: Increasing evidence shows obesity and poor metabolic health are associated with cognitive deficits, but the mechanistic connections have yet to be resolved. We studied rats selectively bred for low and high intrinsic aerobic capacity in order to test the association between low physical fitness, a genetic predisposition for obesity, and brain health. We hypothesized that low-capacity runner (LCR) rats with concurrently greater levels of adiposity would have increased hippocampal inflammation and reduced plasticity compared to the more physically fit high-capacity runner (HCR) rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Self-Regulation of Cerebral Metabolism and Its Neuroprotective Effect After Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury: Evidence From H-MRS.

Front Neuroanat 2021 17;15:672412. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

H-MRS technology can be used to non-invasively detect the content of cerebral metabolites, to assess the severity of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, and to predict the recovery of compromised neurological function. However, changes to the cerebral self-regulation process after HI are still unclear. This study investigated the changes in cerebral metabolites and the potential relationship with the number of neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC) using H-MRS, and finally clarifies the self-regulation of cerebral metabolism and neuroprotection after HI injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Potential Role of Inflammation in Modulating Endogenous Hippocampal Neurogenesis After Spinal Cord Injury.

Front Neurosci 2021 18;15:682259. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University, Bryan, TX, United States.

Currently there are approximately 291,000 people suffering from a spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. SCI is associated with traumatic changes in mobility and neuralgia, as well as many other long-term chronic health complications, including metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, and elevated inflammatory markers. Due to medical advances, patients with SCI survive much longer than previously. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Affective Disorders: New Neurons for Psychic Well-Being.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:594448. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences, Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Western Pará, Santarém, Brazil.

A paradigm shift in neuroscience was the discovery that new neurons are constantly produced in the adult mammalian brain of several species, including Homo sapiens. These new-born cells are formed in some main neurogenic niches, including the subventricular zone (SVZ) at the margin of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG, neuroblasts derive from SGZ progenitors and migrate to the hippocampal granular layer becoming adult granule cells, which are integrated into functional adult circuits. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Novel Inhibitor Targeting NLRP3 Inflammasome Reduces Neuropathology and Improves Cognitive Function in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and the most common type of dementia. A growing body of evidence has implicated neuroinflammation as an essential player in the etiology of AD. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes and essential components of innate immunity in response to pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Involvement of dopamine D and glutamate NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of amantadine in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 1;413:113443. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, C.P. 19031, Curitiba, Paraná, 81540-990, Brazil. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the pharmacological mechanisms of the antidepressant-like effects of amantadine in mice and their influence on hippocampal neurogenesis. To improve the translational validity of preclinical results, reproducibility across laboratories and replication in other animal models and species are crucial. Single amantadine administration at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg resulted in antidepressant-like effects in mice in the tail suspension test (TST), reflected by an increase in immobility time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF