5,077 results match your criteria hippocampal neurodegeneration

Preserved cholinergic forebrain integrity reduces structural connectome vulnerability in mild cognitive impairment.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9;425:117443. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, 53 Bonsall St, Manchester M15 6GX, UK.

Neurodegeneration leads to redistribution of processing, which is reflected in a reorganisation of the structural connectome. This might affect its vulnerability to structural damage. Cortical acetylcholine allows favourable adaptation to pathology within the memory circuit. Read More

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Instructive roles of astrocytes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: neuronal activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

In the adult hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is important for information processing, learning, and memory encoding. Astrocytes, the most common glial cells, play a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While astrocytes were initially described as a homogenous cell population, emerging evidence indicates that in the adult hippocampus, astrocytes are highly heterogeneous and can differentially respond to changes in neuronal activity in a subregion-dependent manner to actively modulate synaptic plasticity. Read More

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STAT3 ameliorates cognitive deficits via regulation of NMDAR expression in an Alzheimer's disease animal model.

Theranostics 2021 13;11(11):5511-5524. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China and Hubei Province for Neurological Disorders, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Abnormal tau accumulation in the brain has a positively correlation with neurodegeneration and memory deterioration, but the mechanism underlying tau-associated synaptic and cognitive impairments remains unclear. Our previous work has found that human full length tau (hTau) accumulation activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) to suppress N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expression, followed by memory deficits. STAT3 also belongs to STAT protein family and is reported to involve in regulation of synaptic plasticity and cognition. Read More

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Dalteparin as a Novel Therapeutic Agent to Prevent Diabetic Encephalopathy by Targeting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2020 Nov-Dec;11(6):795-804. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Hepcidin is the main modulator of systemic iron metabolism, and its role in the brain has been clarified recently. Studies have shown that hepcidin plays an important role in neuronal iron load and inflammation. This issue is of significance because neuronal iron load and inflammation are pathophysiological processes that are highly linked to neurodegeneration. Read More

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November 2020

Amyloid precursor protein elevates fusion of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies in human hippocampal areas with high plaque load.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 04 13;9(1):66. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Molecular Biochemistry, Cell Signalling, Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein with unknown physiological function but potential impact in neurodegeneration. The current study demonstrates that APP signals to the nucleus causing the generation of aggregates consisting of its adapter protein FE65, the histone acetyltransferase TIP60 and the tumour suppressor proteins p53 and PML. APP C-terminal (APP-CT50) complexes co-localize and co-precipitate with p53 and PML. Read More

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Hippocampal neurodegeneration and rhythms mirror each other during acute spinal cord injury in male rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), triggers neurodegenerative changes in the spinal cord, and simultaneously alters oscillatory manifestations of motor cortex. However, these disturbances may not be limited to motor areas and other parts such as hippocampus, which is vital in the neurogenesis and cognitive function, may be affected in the neurogenic and oscillatory manners. Addressing this remarkable complication of SCI, we evaluated the hippocampal neurogenesis and rhythms through acute phase of SCI. Read More

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An autopsy case of corticobasal degeneration with inferior olivary hypertrophy.

Neuropathology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.

We report autopsy results of a female patient who was confirmed pathologically as having corticobasal degeneration (CBD). This patient presented with progressive gait disturbance at the age of 66 years, and subsequently showed parkinsonism with a right-sided predominance and dementia. She was clinically diagnosed as having possible corticobasal syndrome without palatal myoclonus throughout the disease course. Read More

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Ascorbate deficiency confers resistance to hippocampal neurodegeneration after asphyxial cardiac arrest in juvenile rats.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) is a significant cause of death and disability in children. Using juvenile Osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats that, like humans, do not synthesize ascorbate, we tested the effect of ascorbate deficiency on functional and histological outcome after CA.

Methods: Postnatal day 16-18 milk-fed ODS and wild-type Wistar rats underwent 9-min asphyxial CA (n = 8/group) or sham surgery (n = 4/group). Read More

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Stressed mitochondria: a target to intrude alzheimer's disease.

Mitochondrion 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171207, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the inoperable, incapacitating, neuropsychiatric, and degenerative manifestation that drastically affects human life quality. The current medications target extra-neuronal senile plaques, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, cholinergic deficits, and excitotoxicity. Among novel pathways and targets, bioenergetic and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as essential factors that decide the neuronal fate and consequent neurodegeneration in AD. Read More

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Glucocorticoids: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of Hippocampal Neuroinflammation.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Feb;86(2):156-167

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117485, Russia.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are an important component of adaptive response of an organism to stressogenic stimuli, a typical stress response being accompanied by elevation of GC levels in blood. Anti-inflammatory effects of GCs are widely used in clinical practice, while pro-inflammatory effects of GCs are believed to underlie neurodegeneration. This is particularly critical for the hippocampus, brain region controlling both cognitive function and emotions/affective behavior, and selectively vulnerable to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Read More

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February 2021

Application of the ATN classification scheme in a population without dementia: Findings from the EPAD cohort.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC Location VUmc, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: We classified non-demented European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) participants through the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) scheme and assessed their neuropsychological and imaging profiles.

Materials And Methods: From 1500 EPAD participants, 312 were excluded. Cerebrospinal fluid cut-offs of 1000 pg/mL for amyloid beta (Aß)1-42 and 27 pg/mL for p-tau181 were validated using Gaussian mixture models. Read More

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Effects of Dizocilpine, Midazolam and Their Co-Application on the Trimethyltin (TMT)-Induced Rat Model of Cognitive Deficit.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Research of treatment options addressing the cognitive deficit associated with neurodegenerative disorders is of particular importance. Application of trimethyltin (TMT) to rats represents a promising model replicating multiple relevant features of such disorders. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA) receptor potentiators have been reported to alleviate the TMT-induced cognitive deficit. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Gallocatechin Gallate on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

Molecules 2021 Mar 4;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

Oxidative stress leads to protein degeneration or mitochondrial dysfunction, causing neuronal cell death. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that nerve cells use to send signals. However, the excess accumulation of glutamate can cause excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. Read More

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Mitochondrial and Autophagic Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis in the Healthy and Diseased Brain.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 24;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China.

Adult neurogenesis is a highly regulated process during which new neurons are generated from neural stem cells in two discrete regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Defects of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline and dysfunction during natural aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychological stress-induced mood disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that regulate adult neurogenesis is crucial to improving preventative measures and therapies for these conditions. Read More

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Interleukin-13 Propagates Prothrombin Kringle-2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Hippocampi In Vivo via Oxidative Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 27;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The present study investigated expression of endogenous interleukin-13 (IL-13) and its possible function in the hippocampus of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2)-lesioned rats. Here we report that intrahippocampal injection of pKr-2 revealed a significant loss of NeuN-immunopositive (NeuN) and Nissl cells in the hippocampus at 7 days after pKr-2. In parallel, pKr-2 increased IL-13 levels, which reached a peak at 3 days post pKr-2 and sustained up to 7 days post pKr-2. Read More

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The Delayed Neuropathological Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Community-Based Sample.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:624696. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States.

The late neuropathological effects of traumatic brain injury have yet to be fully elucidated, particularly with respect to community-based cohorts. To contribute to this critical gap in knowledge, we designed a multimodal neuropathological study, integrating traditional and quantitative approaches to detect pathologic changes in 532 consecutive brain autopsies from participants in the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. Diagnostic evaluation including assessment for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and quantitative immunoassay-based methods were deployed to examine levels of pathological (hyperphosphorylated) tau (pTau) and amyloid (A) β in brains from ACT participants with ( = 107) and without ( = 425) history of remote TBI with loss of consciousness (w/LOC). Read More

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Elucidating the role of hypoxia/reoxygenation in hippocampus-dependent memory impairment: do SK channels play role?

Exp Brain Res 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurobiology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Defence Research and Developmental Organization (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054, India.

Professionals and mountaineers often face the problem of reperfusion injury due to re-oxygenation, upon their return to sea-level after sojourn at high altitude. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) have a role in regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity. However, the role of SK channels under hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) is unknown. Read More

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More than motor impairment: A spatiotemporal analysis of cognitive impairment and associated neuropathological changes following cortical photothrombotic stroke.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Mar 28:271678X211005877. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy and the Priority Research Centre for Stroke and Brain Injury, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

There is emerging evidence suggesting that a cortical stroke can cause delayed and remote hippocampal dysregulation, leading to cognitive impairment. In this study, we aimed to investigate motor and cognitive outcomes after experimental stroke, and their association with secondary neurodegenerative processes. Specifically, we used a photothrombotic stroke model targeting the motor and somatosensory cortices of mice. Read More

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Acid-ion sensing channel 1a deletion reduces chronic brain damage and neurological deficits after experimental traumatic brain injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Munich University Hospital, Neurosurgery, Munich, Germany.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes long-lasting neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments, however, the underlying mechanisms of these processes are not fully understood. Acid-sensing ion channels 1a (ASIC1a) are voltage-gated Na+-and Ca2+-channels shown to be involved in neuronal cell death, however, their role for chronic post-traumatic brain damage is largely unknown. To address this issue we used ASIC1a-deficient mice and investigated their outcome up to six months after TBI. Read More

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Dehydroeffusol Pprevents Amyloid β-mediated Hippocampal Neurodegeneration via Reducing Intracellular Zn Toxicity.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan.

Dehydroeffusol, a phenanthrene isolated from Juncus effusus, is a Chinese medicine. To explore an efficacy of dehydroeffusol administration for prevention and cure of Alzheimer's disease, here we examined the effect of dehydroeffusol on amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated hippocampal neurodegeneration. Dehydroeffusol (15 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to mice once a day for 6 days and then human Aβ was injected intracerebroventricularly followed by oral administration for 12 days. Read More

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Late-in-Life Neurodegeneration after Chronic Sleep Loss in Young Adult Mice.

Sleep 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Chronic short sleep (CSS) is prevalent in modern societies and has been proposed as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In support, short-term sleep loss acutely increases levels of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau in wild type (WT) mice and humans, and sleep disturbances predict cognitive decline in older adults. We have shown that CSS induces injury to and loss of locus coeruleus neurons (LCn), neurons with heightened susceptibility in AD. Read More

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Plasma neurofilament light and phosphorylated tau 181 as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology and clinical disease progression.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 03 25;13(1):65. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Old age Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: To assess the performance of plasma neurofilament light (NfL) and phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau181) to inform about cerebral Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and predict clinical progression in a memory clinic setting.

Methods: Plasma NfL and p-tau181, along with established cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD pathology, were measured in participants with normal cognition (CN) and memory clinic patients with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment and dementia, CI). Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were performed at inclusion and follow-up visits at 18 and 36 months. Read More

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Neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, and longitudinal verbal learning and memory performance in late middle age.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Feb 4;102:151-160. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI, USA; Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:

This study examined the effect of neurodegeneration, and its interaction with Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, on longitudinal verbal learning and memory performance in cognitively unimpaired (CU) late middle-aged adults. Three hundred and forty-two CU adults (cognitive baseline mean age = 58.4), with cerebrospinal fluid and structural MRI, completed 2-10 (median = 5) cognitive assessments. Read More

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February 2021

Hippocampal subfields atrophy contribute more to cognitive impairment in middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes rather than microvascular lesions.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, No. 321 Zhongshan Rd, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Aims: Neurodegeneration and microvascular lesions are related to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to use the volume of hippocampal subfields and the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) as neurodegeneration and microangiopathy markers, respectively, to investigate their potential associations with cognitive impairment in T2DM patients.

Methods: A total of 76 T2DM patients and 45 neurologically unimpaired normal controls were enrolled between February 2016 to August 2018. Read More

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Neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial translocator protein ligand in a mouse model of tauopathy.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 19;18(1):76. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore, 308232, Singapore.

Background: The translocator protein (TSPO) has been identified as a positron emission tomography (PET)-visible biomarker of inflammation and promising immunotherapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While TSPO ligands have been shown to reduce the accumulation of the toxic Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide, their effect on tau pathology has not yet been investigated. To address this, we analyzed the effects of TSPO ligand, Ro5-4864, on the progression of neuropathology in rTg4510 tau transgenic mice (TauTg). Read More

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Presynaptic activity and protein turnover are correlated at the single-synapse level.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(11):108841

Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Am Faßberg 17, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Physics, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Bernstein-Center for Computational Neuroscience, Heinrich-Düker-Weg 12, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Synaptic transmission relies on the continual exocytosis and recycling of synaptic vesicles. Aged vesicle proteins are prevented from recycling and are eventually degraded. This implies that active synapses would lose vesicles and vesicle-associated proteins over time, unless the supply correlates to activity, to balance the losses. Read More

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GABA Receptors in Neurodegeneration.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Biomolecular Research Centre, College of Health, Wellbeing and Life Sciences at Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and acts via metabotropic GABA receptors. Neurodegenerative diseases are a major burden and affect an ever increasing number of humans. The actual therapeutic drugs available are partially effective to slow down the progression of the diseases, but there is a clear need to improve pharmacological treatment thus find alternative drug targets and develop newer pharmaco-treatments. Read More

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Effect of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Structural brain abnormalities in newborn animals after prolonged exposure to all routinely used general anaesthetics have raised substantial concerns for similar effects occurring in millions of children undergoing surgeries annually. Combining a general anaesthetic with non-injurious sedatives may provide a safer anaesthetic technique. We tested dexmedetomidine as a mitigating therapy in a sevoflurane dose-sparing approach. Read More

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Relevance of a Truncated PRESENILIN 2 Transcript to Alzheimer's Disease and Neurodegeneration.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Collaborative Genomics and Translation Group, Strategic Research Centre for Precision Health, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: The PRESENILIN genes (PSEN1, PSEN2) encoding for their respective proteins have critical roles in many aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The PS2V transcript of PSEN2 encodes a truncated protein and is upregulated in AD brains; however, its relevance to AD and disease progression remains to be determined.

Objective: Assess transcript levels in postmortem AD and non-AD brain tissue and in lymphocytes collected under the Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Read More

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Prenatal exposure of bonny light crude oil induces embryotoxicity, impaired cognitive functions and cortico-hippocampal neurodegeneration on fetal outcomes of pregnant sprague-dawley rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Mar 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

The low Sulfur level, heavy metals and easy production rate of Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO) makes it one of Nigeria's most explored oil. This study investigated the memory impairments, embryotoxicity and cortico-hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by prenatal exposure to BLCO of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Twenty pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups (A-D) of 5 rats each. Read More

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