102,218 results match your criteria hippocampal

Hippocampal and orbitofrontal theta band coherence diminishes during conflict resolution.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States; USC Neurorestoration Center, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.

Objective: Coherence between the hippocampus and other brain structures has been shown with the theta frequency (3-8 Hz). Cortical decreases in theta coherence are thought to reflect response accuracy efficiency. However, the role of theta coherence during conflict resolution is poorly understood in non-cortical areas. Read More

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Qigong exercise enhances cognitive functions in the elderly via an interleukin-6-hippocampus pathway: a randomized active-controlled trial.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Laboratory of Neuropsychology and Human Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence has suggested that exercise protects against cognitive decline in aging, but the recent lockdown measures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have limited the opportunity for outdoor exercise. Herein we tested the effects of an indoor exercise, Qigong, on neurocognitive functioning as well as its potential neuro-immune pathway.

Methods: We conducted a 12-week randomized active-controlled trial with two study arms in cognitively healthy older people. Read More

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Synergistic Enhancing-Memory Effect of D-serine and RU360, a Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Blocker in Rat Model of Alzheimer's disease.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 16:113307. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cellular &Molecular Research Center, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Although Amyloid beta (Aβ) and N - methyl D- aspartate receptors (NMDARs are involved in Ca neurotoxicity, the function of mitochondrial calcium uniporter in cognition deficit remain uncertain. Here, we examined the effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) blocker, together with NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) on memory impairment in a rat model of AD.

Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats underwent stereotaxic cannulation for inducing AD by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ (5 μg /8 μl/rat). Read More

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Pairing of neonatal phencyclidine exposure and acute adolescent stress in male rats as a novel developmental model of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 16:113308. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, United States. Electronic address:

Improved understanding of the neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying schizophrenia is essential for the identification of biological markers and developing new therapeutic targets. The development of behaviorally faithful, predictive animal models is crucial to this endeavor. We have developed a novel two-hit paradigm designed to recapitulate in rodents the developmental process leading to appearance of human schizophrenia symptomatology. Read More

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A single administration of ascorbic acid rapidly reverses depressive-like behavior and hippocampal synaptic dysfunction induced by corticosterone in mice.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 16:109476. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ketamine is the prototype for glutamate-based fast-acting antidepressants. The establishment of ketamine-like drugs is still a challenge and ascorbic acid has emerged as a candidate. This study investigated the ascorbic acid's ability to induce a fast antidepressant-like response and to improve hippocampal synaptic markers in mice subjected to chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration. Read More

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miR-671-5p Attenuates Neuroinflammation via Suppressing NF-κB Expression in an Acute Ischemic Stroke Model.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Pharmacology, The Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

This study was designed to investigate the role of miR-671-5p in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke (IS). Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) in C57BL/6 mice as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a mouse hippocampal HT22 neuron line were used as in vivo and in vitro models of IS injury, respectively. miR-671-5p agomir, miR-671-5p antagomir, pcDNA3. Read More

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Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: One Lactate to Rule Them All.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Leslie and Susan Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a dynamic process involved in cognitive functions, like learning and memory. Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate and affect hippocampal neurogenesis. An exceptionally beneficial external factor is physical exercise due to the impact of the lactate accumulated during physical effort on neural plasticity. Read More

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DCC regulates astroglial development essential for telencephalic morphogenesis and corpus callosum formation.

Elife 2021 Apr 19;10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Queensland Brain Institute, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The forebrain hemispheres are predominantly separated during embryogenesis by the interhemispheric fissure (IHF). Radial astroglia remodel the IHF to form a continuous substrate between the hemispheres for midline crossing of the corpus callosum (CC) and hippocampal commissure (HC). DCC and NTN1 are molecules that have an evolutionarily conserved function in commissural axon guidance. Read More

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Combination of tea polyphenols and proanthocyanidins prevents menopause-related memory decline in rats via increased hippocampal synaptic plasticity by inhibiting p38 MAPK and TNF-α pathway.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 19:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Many studies have examined the beneficial effects of tea polyphenols (TP) and proanthocyanidins (PC) on the memory impairment in different animal models. However, the combined effects of them on synaptic, memory dysfunction and molecular mechanisms have been poorly studied, especially in the menopause-related memory decline in rats.

Methods: In this rat study, TP and PC were used to investigate their protective effects on memory decline caused by inflammation. Read More

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Elevated anxiety, hypoactivity, memory deficits, decreases of brain serotonin and 5-HT-1A receptors expression in rats treated with omeprazole.

Toxicol Res 2021 Apr 17;37(2):237-248. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Present Address: Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270 Pakistan.

Omeprazole (OM) is one of the most prescribed drugs worldwide for the treatment of hyperacidity and gastric reflux. However, concerns regarding its safety have emerged recently, and the drug is reported to enhance the risk for anxiety and cognitive deficits, particularly in elderly patients. The present study investigated these adverse effects, if any, in adult male rats. Read More

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Long-Term, High-Spatiotemporal Resolution Recording From Cultured Organotypic Slices with High-Density Microelectrode Arrays.

Int Solid State Sens Actuators Microsyst Conf 2015 Jun 6;18:1037-1040. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

A novel system to cultivate and record brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA) was developed. This system allows to continuously record electrical activity of selected individual neurons at high spatial resolution, while monitoring neuronal network activity at the same time. For the first time, properties of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied over four consecutive weeks at daily intervals. Read More

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An Integrative Pharmacology-Based Strategy to Uncover the Mechanism of Xiong-Pi-Fang in Treating Coronary Heart Disease with Depression.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:590602. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Xiong-Pi-Fang (XPF) in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) with depression by an integrative strategy combining serum pharmacochemistry, network pharmacology analysis, and experimental validation. An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was constructed to identify compounds in rat serum after oral administration of XPF, and a component-target network was established using Cytoscape, between the targets of XPF ingredients and CHD with depression. Furthermore, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed to deduce the mechanism of XPF in treating CHD with depression. Read More

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Effects of Several Classes of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Conductances on Gamma and Theta Oscillations in a Hippocampal Microcircuit Model.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 1;15:630271. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Gamma and theta oscillations have been functionally associated with cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. Synaptic conductances play an important role in the generation of intrinsic network rhythmicity, but few studies have examined the effects of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) on these rhythms. In this report, we have used a pyramidal-interneuron-gamma (PING) network consisting of excitatory pyramidal cells and two types of inhibitory interneurons. Read More

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Effects of Remote Immune Activation on Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:659679. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Head Injury Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

In adult pre-clinical models, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to prime microglia, exaggerating the central inflammatory response to an acute immune challenge, worsening depressive-like behavior, and enhancing cognitive deficits. Whether this phenomenon exists following mTBI during adolescence has yet to be explored, with age at injury potentially altering the inflammatory response. Furthermore, to date, studies have predominantly examined hippocampal-dependent learning domains, although pre-frontal cortex-driven functions, including attention, motivation, and impulsivity, are significantly affected by both adolescent TBI and acute inflammatory stimuli. Read More

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Involvement of the and Relaxin-3/RXFP3 Signaling System in Explicit and Implicit Memory.

Front Neuroanat 2021 18;15:637922. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Unitat Predepartamental de Medicina, Facultat de Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Jaume I, Castelló de la Plana, Spain.

Telencephalic cognitive and emotional circuits/functions are strongly modulated by subcortical inputs. The main focus of past research on the nature of this modulation has been on the widespread monoamine projections to the telencephalon. However, the (NI) of the pontine tegmentum provides a strong GABAergic and peptidergic innervation of the hippocampus, basal forebrain, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and related regions; and represents a parallel source of ascending modulation of cognitive and emotional domains. Read More

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Sustained Hippocampal Synaptic Pathophysiology Following Single and Repeated Closed-Head Concussive Impacts.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 31;15:652721. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center for Neurodegenerative Disease and Therapeutics, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), and related diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer's (AD), are of increasing concern in part due to enhanced awareness of their long-term neurological effects on memory and behavior. Repeated concussions, vs. single concussions, have been shown to result in worsened and sustained symptoms including impaired cognition and histopathology. Read More

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Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein-Alpha Enhances LTP Through the Synthesis and Trafficking of Ca-Permeable AMPA Receptors.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 1;14:660208. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anatomy, Brain Health Research Centre, Brain Research New Zealand - Rangahau Roro Aotearoa, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Regulation of AMPA receptor expression by neuronal activity and neuromodulators is critical to the expression of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. In particular, Ca-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPAR) play a unique role in these processes due to their transient, activity-regulated expression at synapses. Secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), a metabolite of the parent amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been previously shown to enhance hippocampal LTP as well as memory formation in both normal animals and in Alzheimer's disease models. Read More

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Hemodynamic and structural brain measures in high and low sedentary older adults.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Apr 17:271678X211009382. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Due to its cardiovascular effects sedentary behaviour might impact cerebrovascular function in the long term, affecting cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms and perfusion levels. Consequently this could underly potential structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitive decline. We therefore assessed the association between sedentary behaviour and brain measures of cerebrovascular perfusion and structural abnormalities in community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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Exposure to constant light impairs cognition with FTO inhibition and mA-dependent TrκB repression in mouse hippocampus.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 30;283:117037. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health & Food Safety, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

N6-methyladenosine (mA) mRNA methylation plays a role in various brain functions. Exposure to chronic constant light (CCL) has been reported to impair cognition, yet whether the underlying mechanism involves mA remains unknown. In this study, mice exposed to CCL for 3 weeks show impaired cognitive behavior, which was associated with increased mA level in hippocampus. Read More

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A randomized, double-blind, phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical trial in early Alzheimer's disease with lecanemab, an anti-Aβ protofibril antibody.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 04 17;13(1):80. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Chambers-Grundy Center for Transformative Neuroscience, Department of Brain Health, School of Integrated Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Background: Lecanemab (BAN2401), an IgG1 monoclonal antibody, preferentially targets soluble aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ), with activity across oligomers, protofibrils, and insoluble fibrils. BAN2401-G000-201, a randomized double-blind clinical trial, utilized a Bayesian design with response-adaptive randomization to assess 3 doses across 2 regimens of lecanemab versus placebo in early Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild AD dementia.

Methods: BAN2401-G000-201 aimed to establish the effective dose 90% (ED90), defined as the simplest dose that achieves ≥90% of the maximum treatment effect. Read More

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Subfield-specific Effects of Chronic Mild Unpredictable Stress on Hippocampal Astrocytes.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, 560012.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric illness affecting over 20% of the population worldwide. Despite its prevalence, our understanding of its pathophysiology is severely limited, thus hampering the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Recent advances have clearly established astrocytes as major players in the pathophysiology, and plausibly pathogenesis, of major depression. Read More

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"Unusual Pattern of Cerebral Microbleeds and Petechial Hemorrhages after Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support. A Report of 2 Cases".

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 15;30(7):105792. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Bichat Hospital, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75018 -Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris. Electronic address:

Objective: to report an unusual pattern of brain petechial hemorrhages in 2 patients after veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (VA-ECMO) CASE 1: a 28-year-old man (Marfan disease) presented in the early post-operative period a multi-organ failure associated with a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He was placed on continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and VA-ECMO. He was weaned from ECMO 4 days later. Read More

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New insights on nitric oxide: focus on animal models of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 15:113304. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lab. Neuropsiquiatría, Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, San Manuel, 72570, Puebla, Mexico. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is a devastating complex disorder charcaterised by a constellation of behavioral deficits with the underlying mechanisms not fully known. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule implicated in schizophrenia. Three nitric oxide sinthases (NOS), endothelial neuronal and inducible, release NO within the cell. Read More

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Preserved cholinergic forebrain integrity reduces structural connectome vulnerability in mild cognitive impairment.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9;425:117443. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, 53 Bonsall St, Manchester M15 6GX, UK.

Neurodegeneration leads to redistribution of processing, which is reflected in a reorganisation of the structural connectome. This might affect its vulnerability to structural damage. Cortical acetylcholine allows favourable adaptation to pathology within the memory circuit. Read More

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Assessment of the genetic contribution to brain MRI lesion load and atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Unit of Neurology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) susceptibility is influenced by genetics, however little is known about genetic determinants of disease expression. We aimed at assessing genetic factors influencing quantitative neuroimaging measures in two cohorts of Progressive (PMS) and Relapsing-Remitting (RRMS) patients.

Methods: Ninety-nine PMS and 214 RRMS patients underwent a 3T brain MRI scan, with the measurement of five MRI metrics including T2 lesion volumes and measures of white matter, grey matter, deep grey matter and hippocampal volumes. Read More

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Instructive roles of astrocytes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: neuronal activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

In the adult hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is important for information processing, learning, and memory encoding. Astrocytes, the most common glial cells, play a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While astrocytes were initially described as a homogenous cell population, emerging evidence indicates that in the adult hippocampus, astrocytes are highly heterogeneous and can differentially respond to changes in neuronal activity in a subregion-dependent manner to actively modulate synaptic plasticity. Read More

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Neural Correlates of Alcohol Use Disorder Severity among Non-Treatment Seeking Heavy Drinkers: An Examination of the Incentive Salience and Negative Emotionality Domains of the Alcohol and Addiction Research Domain Criteria.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: The Alcohol and Addiction Research Domain Criteria (AARDoC) proposes that alcohol use disorder is associated with neural dysfunction in three primary domains: incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function. Prior studies in heavy drinking samples have examined brain activation changes associated with alcohol and negative affect cues, representing the incentive salience and negative emotionality domains, respectively; yet studies examining such cue-induced changes in functional connectivity are relatively sparse.

Methods: Non-treatment seeking heavy drinking adults (N=149, 56. Read More

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Developmental role of adenosine kinase in the cerebellum.

eNeuro 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA

Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator and metabolic regulator of the brain through receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. In the brain, adenosine is tightly controlled through its metabolic enzyme adenosine kinase, which exists in a cytoplasmic (ADK-S) and nuclear (ADK-L) isoform. We recently discovered that ADK-L contributes to adult hippocampal neurogenesis regulation. Read More

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Loss of KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 leads to multifocal time-varying activity in the neonatal forebrain .

eNeuro 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Dept. of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA

Early neonatal epileptic encephalopathy represents a group of epilepsies often characterized by refractory seizures, regression in cognitive development, and typically poor prognosis. Dysfunction of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels has emerged as a major cause of neonatal epilepsy. However, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that may both explain the origins of epilepsy and inform treatment strategies for KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 dysfunction is still lacking. Read More

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