Hum Genet 2019 Sep 30;138(8-9):831-846. Epub 2018 Oct 30.
Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco Room RH384C, 1550 4th St, San Francisco, CA, 94143-2711, USA.
As new genes for A/M are identified in the genomic era, the number of syndromes associated with A/M has greatly expanded. In this review, we provide a brief synopsis of the clinical presentation and molecular genetic etiology of previously characterized pathways involved in A/M, including the Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 (OTX2) and Paired box protein-6 (PAX6) genes, and the Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 homolog (STRA6), Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A3 (ALDH1A3), and RA Receptor Beta (RARβ) genes that are involved in retinoic acid synthesis. Less common genetic causes of A/M, including genes involved in BMP signaling [Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) and SPARC-related modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC1)], genes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex [Holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 7B (COX7B), and NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase subunit B11 (NDUFB11)], the BCL-6 corepressor gene (BCOR), Yes-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) and Transcription Factor AP-2 Alpha (TFAP2α), are more briefly discussed. Read More