238,000 results match your criteria hind limb


Functional data analysis reveals asymmetrical crank torque during cycling performed at different exercise intensities.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 24;122:110478. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pedaling asymmetry is claimed as a factor of influence on injury and performance. However, the evidence is still controversial. Most previous studies determined peak torque asymmetries, which in our understanding does not consider the pattern of movement like torque profiles. Read More

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Sensory innervation of human bone: an immunohistochemical study to further understand bone pain.

J Pain 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; SentryX B.V., Woudenbergseweg 41, Austerlitz, the Netherlands.

Skeletal diseases and their surgical treatment induce severe pain. The innervation density of bone potentially explains the severe pain reported. Animal studies concluded that sensory myelinated A∂-fibers and unmyelinated C-fibers are mainly responsible for conducting bone pain, and that the innervation density of these nerve fibers was highest in periosteum. Read More

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Shear wave elastography assessment and comparison study of the Achilles tendons in optimally conditioned asymptomatic young collegiate athletes.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory School of Medicine, 59 Executive Park South, 4th Floor Suite 4009, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Objective: To assess the functional parameters of the Achilles tendons among asymptomatic college level athletes using shear wave elastography (SWE) and to describe the relationship to athlete demographics and anthropometric lower extremity measurements.

Material And Methods: Sixty-five athletes were included in this IRB-approved study. SWE measurements were made on two tendon positions (neutral state and active maximum dorsiflexion) with two different probe orientations (longitudinal and transverse). Read More

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Chronic hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome are associated with risk of tendon injury.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg and Center for Healthy Aging, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tendon injury is a considerable problem affecting both physically active and sedentary people. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between markers for metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome) and the risk of developing tendon injuries requiring referral to a hospital. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective study of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals from the Danish general population with different physical activity levels. Read More

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Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia: can a more specific definition distinguish between patients with and without an underlying neurological disorder?

Spinal Cord 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neuro-Urology, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Objectives: To evaluate if specific definitions of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) might distinguish between individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and those with no underlying neurological disorder (NO ND).

Setting: Single tertiary university SCI center. Read More

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Plantar mechanical stimulation attenuates protein synthesis decline in disused skeletal muscle via modulation of nitric oxide level.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9806. Epub 2021 May 7.

Myology Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS, Khoroshevskoe shosse 76a, Moscow, Russian Federation, 123007.

Both research conducted under microgravity conditions and ground-based space analog studies have shown that air pump-based plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) of cutaneous mechanoreceptors of the sole of the foot is able to increase neuromuscular activity in the musculature of the lower limbs. This type of stimulation is able to attenuate unloading-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and impaired muscle function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PMS on anabolic signaling pathways in rat soleus muscle following 7-day hindlimb suspension (HS) and to elucidate if the effects of PMS on anabolic processes would be NO-dependent. Read More

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Repeated infusion of mesenchymal stem cells maintain the condition to inhibit deteriorated motor function, leading to an extended lifespan in the SOD1G93A rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Mol Brain 2021 May 7;14(1):76. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neural Regenerative Medicine, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8556, Japan.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disorder in which motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord degenerate. A single infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delays disease progression by protecting motor neurons and restoring the blood-spinal cord barrier in the SOD1G93A transgenic ALS rat model. However, the therapeutic effect of a single infusion of MSCs is transient and does not block disease progression. Read More

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Epiphyseal enchondroma masking as osteoid osteoma: a case report.

Eur J Med Res 2021 May 7;26(1):42. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Rehabilitation, Hebei Provincial Academic of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, 050000, Hebei, China.

Background: Enchondromas originating in the epiphyses of long bones are rare and epiphyseal osteoid osteomas are also uncommon. Diagnosis can become elusive when enchondromas or osteoid osteomas occur in atypical locations and present with nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics.

Case Presentation: We report a case of epiphyseal enchondroma of the left proximal femur in a 15-year-old girl with a 2-month history of left lower extremity pain. Read More

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MiR-133a delivery to osteoblasts ameliorates mechanical unloading-triggered osteopenia progression in vitro and in vivo.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 4;97:107613. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, Changxing People's Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313100, China.

Mechanical unloading-induced bone loss is a clinical challenge, and deep understanding for this disease is necessary for developing novel and effective therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, and involved in bone remodeling. In the study, we attempted to explore the potential of miR-133a in regulating osteoblast activation and its anti-osteopenia function both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Convergent evolution of forelimb-propelled swimming in seals.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Geosciences, Museums Victoria, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia.

Modern pinnipeds (true and eared seals) employ two radically different swimming styles, with true seals (phocids) propelling themselves primarily with their hindlimbs, whereas eared seals (otariids) rely on their wing-like foreflippers. Current explanations of this functional dichotomy invoke either pinniped diphyly or independent colonizations of the ocean by related but still largely terrestrial ancestors. Here, we show that pinniped swimming styles form an anatomical, functional, and behavioral continuum, within which adaptations for forelimb swimming can arise directly from a hindlimb-propelled bauplan. Read More

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Postmarketing Safety Monitoring After Influenza Vaccination Using a Mobile Health App: Prospective Longitudinal Feasibility Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 7;9(5):e26289. Epub 2021 May 7.

PhD Programme Epidemiology, Hannover Biomedical Research School, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: For the safety monitoring of vaccinations postlicensure, reports of adverse events after immunization (AEFIs) are crucial. New technologies such as digital mobile apps can be used as an active approach to capture these events. We therefore conducted a feasibility study among recipients of the influenza vaccination using an app for assessment of the reporting of AEFIs. Read More

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Injuries related to electric scooter and bicycle use in a Washington, DC, emergency department.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Objective: E-scooter use has grown rapidly in the United States. Its rise in popularity has coincided with the promotion of cycling in many cities, but more needs to be known about how these transportation modes compare to determine if cycling should serve as an appropriate benchmark for policy decisions and safety expectations regarding e-scooters.

Methods: We examined characteristics of adults seeking treatment in a Washington, DC, emergency department (ED) for injuries associated with riding e-scooters during 2019 ( = 99) or bicycles during 2015-2017 ( = 337). Read More

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Increased myocellular lipid and IGFBP-3 expression in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer-related skeletal muscle wasting.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting (SMW) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, treatment intolerance and discontinuation, and poor quality of life. This is particularly true for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as over 85% experience SMW, which is responsible for ~30% of patient deaths. While the established paradigm to explain SMW posits that muscle catabolism from systemic inflammation and nutritional deficiencies, the cause of death, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Read More

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Elabela as a novel marker: Well-correlated with WIfI amputation risk score in lower extremity arterial disease patients.

Anatol J Cardiol 2021 May;25(5):330-337

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University; Gaziantep-Turkey.

Objective: Worldwide, over 200 million people are diagnosed with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). LEAD significantly increases the risk of death and amputation of the lower limb. A new classification system (WIfI) has been proposed to initially assess all patients with ischemic rest pain or wounds and also predicts 1-year amputation risk. Read More

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Xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves murine hind limb ischemia through lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis.

Xenotransplantation 2021 May 6:e12693. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Regenerative Medicine & Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: The clinical utility of stem cell therapy for peripheral artery disease has not been fully discussed, and one obstacle is limited donor supplies. In this study, we attempted to rescue mouse ischemic hind limb by xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (npBM-MSCs).

Methods: Neonatal porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted to ischemic hind limbs of male C57BL/6J mice (npBM-MSCs group). Read More

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Arterial Doppler Waveforms Are Independently Associated With Maximal Walking Distance in Suspected Peripheral Artery Disease Patients.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 20;8:608008. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Vascular Medicine Unit, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France.

Arterial Doppler waveform recordings are commonly used to assess lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) severity. However, little is known about the relationship between arterial Doppler waveform profiles and patients' walking capacity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether arterial Doppler waveforms are independently associated with maximal walking distance (MWD) in patients experiencing exertional limb symptoms. Read More

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Primary Cutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the Lower Extremity: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e14282. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pathology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, USA.

Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that appears non-specific clinically and often is misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian male with a grade I leiomyosarcoma tumor on his lower extremity with no previous history of local trauma. The tumor is composed of highly atypical spindle cells with pleomorphic nuclei and mitotic activity on hematoxylin and eosin stains. Read More

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Recombinant fusion protein by lysozyme and antibacterial peptide enhances ischemic wound healing via angiogenesis and reduction of inflammation in diabetic mice.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11256. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

Background & Aims: Lysozyme and antibacterial peptides have been reported to broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and can further improve wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a recombinant fusion protein created by combining lysozyme and an antibacterial peptide in forming new vessels and wound healing in an ischemic hind limb.

Methods: An ischemic hind limb model was established by isolation and ligation of the femoral artery in diabetic mice. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of SSEP Changes during Lumbar Spine Surgery for Predicting Postoperative Neurological Deficit: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Study Design: This study is a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective studies identified in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase with outcomes of patients who received intraoperative SSEP monitoring during lumbar spine surgery.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative lower extremity (LE) SSEP changes for predicting postoperative neurological deficit. As a secondary analysis, we evaluated three subtypes of intraoperative SSEP changes: reversible, irreversible, and total signal loss. Read More

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Effects of Medial Thrust Gait on Lower Extremity Kinetics in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2021 Apr;23(2):115-120

Djavad Mowafaghian Research Center of Intelligent Neuro-rehabilitation Technologies, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Medial thrust (MT) gait is a nonsurgical approach for reducing the knee adduction moment (KAM) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, its usefulness is indeterminate due to scarcity of research about changes in lower extremity kinetics and the ground reaction force (GRF) which have been investigated in this study.

Materials And Methods: Twenty patients (6 males, 14 females, age: 56. Read More

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Lower Extremity Arterial Disease as a Predictor of Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Cardiovascular Events.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May;96(5):1175-1183

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and its clinical and pathophysiologic implications on ischemic stroke and all-cause mortality.

Patients And Methods: We identified all adult patients in the Mayo Clinic Health System without a previous diagnosis of AF undergoing ankle-brachial index (ABI) testing for any indication from January 1, 1996, to June 30, 2018. Retrospective extraction of ABI data and baseline echocardiographic data was performed. Read More

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Comparison of Pre-Amputation Evaluation in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease.

Am J Nephrol 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are more likely to undergo lower extremity amputation than patients with preserved kidney function. We sought to determine whether patients with CKD were less likely to receive pre-amputation care in the 1-year prior to lower extremity amputation compared to patients without CKD.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with PAD-related lower extremity amputation between January 2014 and December 2017 using a large commercial insurance database. Read More

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Patellar mobility and lower limb kinematics during functional activities in individuals with and without patellar tendinopathy.

Knee 2021 May 3;30:241-248. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Orthopaedic Institute, 1500 Owens St., San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Study Design: Case-control.

Objective: To examine whether patients with patellar tendinopathy (PT) display greater patellar mobility and different lower body kinematics than patients without PT.

Background: PT is a common overuse condition of the patellar tendon that can cause pain and impair function. Read More

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Microsurgery for intradural epidermoid cyst at cauda equina level in a 9-year-old child: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 29;82:105932. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery I, Viet Duc University Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Introduction And Importance: Epidermoid cysts are rare benign tumors. Here, we present a case of spontaneous intradural epidermoid cyst at cauda equina level in a 9-year-old patient, which we believed the first case to be reported in Vietnam.

Case Presentation: A 9-year-old boy presented with 4 months of spontaneous left lower extremity muscle weakness and paresthesia. Read More

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Sarcopenia in Cardiac Surgery: Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Study from the McGill Frailty Registry.

Am Heart J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC; Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC; Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC. Electronic address:

Background: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of sarcopenia measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical performance tests in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery or heart valve procedures.

Methods: Adults undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled and completed a questionnaire, physical performance battery, and a DXA scan (GE Lunar) to measure appendicular muscle mass indexed to height (AMMI). Patients were categorized as sarcopenic based on European Working Group 2 guidelines if they had low AMMI defined as <7 kg/m in men or <5. Read More

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Two-Level Minimally Invasive Lumbar Laminectomy and Foraminotomy: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Minimally invasive lumbar laminectomies utilize tubular retractors to minimize tissue disturbance, blood loss, and hospital length of stay compared to open operations. Here, we highlight the operative treatment of a 68-yr-old male entailing a 2-level minimally invasive lumbar laminectomy and foraminotomy at L2-L3 and L3-L4. The patient initially presented with symptoms of treatment-refractory lower extremity numbness and limited ambulation. Read More

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Force-velocity-power profiling of maximal effort sprinting, jumping and hip thrusting: Exploring the importance of force orientation specificity for assessing neuromuscular function.

J Sports Sci 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Comprehensive information regarding neuromuscular function, as assessed through force-velocity-power (FVP) profiling, is of importance for training optimization in athletes. However, neuromuscular function is highly task-specific, potentially governed by dissimilarity of the overall orientation of forceapplication. The hip thrust (HT) exercise is thought to be of relevance for sprinting considering its antero-posterior force orientation and considerable hip-extensor recruitment, however, the association between their respective FVP profiles remains unexplored. Read More

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Remote Ischemic Conditioning and Stroke Recovery.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 May 6:15459683211011224. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a noninvasive procedure whereby several periods of ischemia are induced in a limb. Although there is growing interest in using RIC to improve stroke recovery, preclinical RIC research has focused exclusively on neuroprotection, using male animals and the intraluminal suture stroke model, and delivered RIC at times not relevant to either brain repair or behavioral recovery. In alignment with the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable, we address these shortcomings. Read More

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"When nothing happens, nobody is afraid!" beliefs and perceptions around self-care and health-seeking behaviours: Voices of patients living with diabetic lower extremity amputation in primary care.

Int Wound J 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Family Medicine and Primary Care, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Self-management and self-care are the cornerstone of diabetes care and an essential part of successfully preventing or delaying diabetes complications. Yet, despite being armed with the required information and guidance for self-management, self-care and adherence to foot self-care recommendations and compliance to medication among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and diabetic lower extremity amputations remain low and suboptimal. This study reveals in-depth account of nine such patients' beliefs and perceptions around their illness, their self-care, and their health-seeking behaviours. Read More

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Development of the Proximal-Anterior Skeletal Elements in the Mouse Hindlimb Is Regulated by a Transcriptional and Signaling Network Controlled by Sall4.

Genetics 2020 May;215(1):129-141

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development.

The vertebrate limb serves as an experimental paradigm to study mechanisms that regulate development of the stereotypical skeletal elements. In this study, we simultaneously inactivated Sall4 using Hoxb6Cre and Plzf in mouse embryos, and found that their combined function regulates development of the proximal-anterior skeletal elements in hindlimbs. The Sall4; Plzf double knockout exhibits severe defects in the femur, tibia, and anterior digits, distinct defects compared to other allelic series of Sall4; Plzf. Read More

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